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ing; children trained up in principles laments. An education of which of propriety; parents awakened or re- religion is not the basis, will only claimed, by the lessons and example of


the ground for the very their offspring ; the general habits, worst seed ; and it is well if it sentiments, and manners, of the poor do not speedily produce a rank improved, refined, and civilized ; industry excited ; economy, cleanliness, crop of whatever is baleful to man and domestic comforts of every kind, and offensive to God. But a truly

Christian education, such as is promoted; the labours of parochial ministers facilitated and lightened, and generally the substratum and the their flocks prepared to receive their summit of Sunday-school instrucexhortations; laws respected and obey- tion, is the best possible guarantee ed; a people taught the only sure foun- for the principles, the morals, and dation of all duty, the only steadfast the good conduci of the rising geprinciple on which the authority of the

neration, amidst the many dangers magistrate, and the rights, the lives,

to which they are likely to be exaud properties of individuals, can with any securitydepend;-these are amongst posed in an age of free opinion and the obvions consequences of an univer. under the influence of a licentious sal establishment of Sunday-schools. Nor press. is this all; even teachers themselves,

The fourth cause assigned by many moral and benevolent young per- Mr. Ramsay for the increase of insons who have undertaken this office, fidelity is our intercourse with the have first learned to feel the genuine continental nations of Europe. The influence of religious truth, while thus author, we think, lays a little more labouring to impress upon their pupils stress on this particular point than the Scriptures which contain it. A it will well bear. There can inbond of mutual affection too, has thus been formed; and an influence

which deed be no doubt that too many of may last perhaps through life, acquired our European neighbours have been over the minds of the children, by per. inoculated with a spirit of sceptisons, both disposed to exert it with ad. cism in religion, and with what is truvantage, and also more or less commit- ly or falsely called a spirit of “libeted and engaged to do so, in justice to rality" in politics; and that consetheir own past labours, and in consiste quently a considerable portion of inency with the maxims which they have jury may and must have resulted taught. A general spirit of improve from close intercourse with them; ment has also been excited among all but it so happens, in the present inranks. Tbe rich have been brought ac. quainted with the wants and actual stance, that the late inundation of circumstances of their poorer neigh

mischievous publications, civil and bours, and induced to establish various theological, has not in general other institutions for their relief. arisen or spread among those classes

“ Nor are we to reckon this last of persons who possess facilities for among the least of the advantages re- foreign travel and intercourse. We sulting from the Sunday-school system question whether one in a hundred --this friendly approach of all orders of tbe persons among whom the towards each other; not levelling the publications of Hone, Carlile, and distinction of ranks, but uniting the similar writers, are chiefiy read, ever interests of all; removing the prejudices of the one ; encouraging the et quitted their own shores, or had forts, softening the asperities, and en

ihe opportunity of conversing with gaging the affections of the other." foreigners sufficiently to be exposed Hints, pp. 7-10.

to any contagion from their prin

ciples. Whereas the families of the We have not space for further higher and richer classes of society, quotations from ibis work; but who have almost universally traour readers will not think the above velled on the continent since the extract misplaced ; since it points peace, have, with few or no excepout one of the principal remedies tions, opposed themselves to the for the evil which Mr. Ramsay late ebulition of infidelity and anarchy. It is possible, and indeed which create a dislike to spiritual obwe think almost inevitable, that jects; and this again introduces backtheir own principles may have suf- sliding, apostacy, and all manner of

evil. In the history of all nations, it fered by mingling familiarly with

has been found, that corruption has in pations whose notions on religion, some measure kept pace with the proand the duties of the Sabbath, and

gress of wealth.” Inquiry, p. 25. many other important points, are

The effects of Manufacturing in general much more lax than our

Habits in a country are next.menown; but we doubt whether the

tioned as follow :evil, great as we acknowledge it to be, has been quite equal to the esti

“ By the improvement of machinery,

our manufactures have attained a high mate of those who bave formed

degree of perfection. What in former their judgment on the subject, times was slowly and imperfectly perwithout sufficiently taking into their formed by individual labour, is now account the many qualifications better and more speedily executed by which the case admits of and re- the operation of machines. These maquires. This remark applies pecu- chines, however, require vast multitudes liarly to those modes and babits of persons to carry on the work conwhich, in the public opinion of a

nected with them; in consequence of particular country, are identified which, both young and old, all who can with certain stages of vice or vir- be of any use, are collected together in tue, of religion or irreligion ; but shops and work-houses. The good and

the bad are there mixed, and remain which, in another country, may


shut up together; the intercourse of the very differently regarded. We con

bad contaminates the manners of the ceive that in these points our French good; the desire of luxuries, both in neighbours above all nations, and diet and in dress, increases with the especially the female part of them, means of obtaining them : children are have some little cause to complain taken early from school, when perhaps of our national estimate of their they were too late in being sent there, character.

for the purpose of making gain, and Mr. Ramsay's fifth cause of the freeing their parents from the burden of

their support; their parents, wholly ocinfidelity of the present times, is

cupied with the care of procuring those the progress of wealth, manufac- gratifications which custom has rendered tures, and commerce. We shall in some degree necessary to them, nego extract a portion of the argument lect the education of their children, on each of these points.

and allow them to grow up in ignorance, Of the effects of Wealth he re- sensuality, and vice. Profaning the marks :

Sabbath themselves, by doing that which

is in itself sinful, they are at no pains “ Althougb riches, when properly em.

to teach their children to sanctify it. ployed, are the means of extensive

Their children, destitute of religious good, yet, in the present imperfect culture, dislike and neglect the ordistate of our nature, they are extremely

nances of Divine appointment, and of apt to be abused. They are apt to

course can entertain no respect or ege withdraw our affections from God, and

teem for those who dispense aud supto produce an overweening attachment to the gratifications of the present life. port

them. The enemy takes advantage

of these circumstances, and sows tares Hence our Lord speaks of it as a very in a field peculiarly adapted for bringdifficult thing for a rich man to be truly ing forth a crop of the rankest vegetareligious. It is easier for a camel to go tion. From neglect, and a dislike to through the eye of a needle, than for a

Divine institutions, they insensibly rich man to enter into the kingdom of heaven. When riches increase, they them; till at last they joiu the opponents

come to speak against and reproach generally produce a desire for more, and this desire is strengthened by gratis champions of infidelity.” Inquiry, pp. important of which, in his view, is people. The sources of information are the connexion of Great Britain with scattered abroad in such profusion, as the East Indies : he might have to be accessible to the poor as well as added, with much more truth, with to the rich. And the two subjects to the West Indies. The author thus which their attention is almost excin

of religion, and stand forth the open fication, till the love of money becomes the root of all evil. They introduce laxuries and pleasures, and all those The head of Commerce branches things which estrange us from God, and into several particulars; the more

26, 27.

sively directed, are 'religion and polistates his conviction :

tics. Every public measure, negocia“ With regard to our Eastern pos. tion, or appointment, is discussed in sessions, it is certain that many who parliament, and circulated in the ordihave resided a number of years in India, nary vehicles of communication. The and afterwards returned to this coun- people join together in proçuring newstry, have brought with them a decided papers and periodical publications ; hostility to the progress of the Gospel they meet and discuss all public meaamong heathen nations, and to many of sures, whether civil or ecclesiastical; those observances which, being enjoin- they feel their own weight in the politied by the word of God, are peculiarly cal scale, and, in their own little spheres, adapted to check the growth of infide. become so accustomed to speak, to cria lity, and to promote the increase of ticise, and to judge, that they acquire piety and god liness. Besides, when so an overweeping confidence in their own many of our countrymen are scattered talents and consequence. It is a remark over the face of the earth in quest of of one of our most celebrated poets, riches, residing in places where there that a little learning is a dangerous are no Sabbaths, no religious ordinances, thing; and certainly, when not accomno means of improvement, but every panied with judgment and modesty, no where idolatry, superstition, and wick. talent is more liable to be abused. The edoess; or shut up in ships amidst a labouring classes cannot enter fully into profane and ungodly crew, eager in the the investigation of any difficult or dispursuit of gain, and negligent of salva. puted subject : they have neither time tion, religious impressions are oblite. nor opportunities for doing so. On rated, and they diffuse around them, which account they are the more dis. wherever they go, the contagion of a posed to entertain bigb potious of their bad example. And in this way they own acquirements. Puffed up with contribute their part to the decline of self-conceit, they think themselves com. religion, and to the progress of immo. petent to decide upon the most abstruse rality and vice.” Inquiry, pp. 28, 29. and intricate subjects, and deliver their

We agree, in the main, in all these opinions with as much coufidence, as if three with our author, though not

they had devoted their life to such spe

cnlations. without some necessary reserva

“ This spirit, when applied to politions. Our decreasing limits, how-' tics, produces discontent and opposi.. ever, forbid our entering upon in- tion to those who are intrusted with the dividual points : we shall there- management of public affairs. It leads fore pass ou to the sixth cause ; to insurrection, tumult, and disorder, namely, Vanity and Self-conceit. and all the eyils that accompany them. At the first mention of this prolific When applied to religion, it rejects head, we were somewhat surprised with scorn and neglect whatever seems

what it cannot comprehend, and treats that the author should bave viewed inconsistent and improper. And as the vanity and self-conceit as being so

Bible may by sophistry be made to appeculiarly characteristic of any pare' pear full of inconsistencies and absurdiiicular age as 'to merit a distincţ ties to those wbo have only a superficial enumeration in the present sum- acquaintance with it, and who, from a mary, but upon perusing his argu- pride of understanding, presume to ment, we think he has successfully measure the doctrines of inspiration by shewn that the circumstances of the their own potions and sentiments, it is

set aside by a great proportion of the present day are such as give'more

reformers ihan ordinary scope for the opera- at the root of those exalted notions

the present day. It strikes tion of these principles. He re

which they entertain of themselves. It marks:

casts down every lofty imagination, “ Knowledge is now placed within every sentiment that rises in opposition the reach of the lowest orders of the to Divine truth.” Inquiry, pp. 31, 32.

* The last cause specified by Mr. ments and pleasures that are within Ramsay, is the little respect that their reach; if, instead of labouring to is at present paid to the authority pull down the strongholds of sin and and discipline of the church. He satan, and win 'souls to Christ, by all dwells with much earnestness upon

those powerful means with which he the light esteem in which ecclesi- has supplied them, their chief ohject be astical censures are held, and the able, with a view to their own private

to please and make themselves agreefrequent unwillingness even of the advantage, or pleasure, or ease, how magistracy to take cognizance of

can they urge their hearers to deny offences of a profane, immoral, themselves take up their cross, and or impious character, even when follow Christ? While their minds are brought regularly before them. If engrossed with these earthly things, how this is a just source of complaint can they stir up and cherish in their

hearers a desire of those that are heavenin Scotland, we are grieved to add, that, with some honourable excep- the worship of God in their own fami

ly? When they are negligent abont tions, it is still more so in England. lies, how can they exhort their hearers We would trust, however, that the to the performance of this important temper of the times is beginning to duty? And if by their misconduct or amend in this respect; as a proof neglect religion langaishes and decays, of which we might state, that the they may be flattered and caressed by operations of the Society for the worldly men, but they will sink in the Suppression of Vice, at one period estimation of the wise and the good, and so unpopular, because so greatly those who have no pretensions to a reli

in time come to be despised, even by misrepresented, have of late met gious character.” Inquiry, pp. 36, 37. with the concurrence and respect of many who once opposed them.

We have thus gone cursorily Persons of influence throughout through Mr. Ramsay's specificathe kingdom ought seriously to tion of the causes of modern inficonsider how powerfully they might delity. Many other causes might counteract the

progress of infideli- be mentioned, some of which we ty, by cordially upholding the sa- are surprised did not find a place in lutary laws of their country in re- his enumeration. We have already ference to profaneness, Sabbath. stated that we do not profess, in breaking, and other offences against the present article, to follow up the our Christian 'statutes and institu- subject to its source; otherwise we tions. Still this is but the least should be inclined to ask our author part of their duty. They must be- if our legislative and executive yin to live as Christians themselves; bodies have been altogether free to edify their neighbours by their from blame? Has all been done own pious example; and must evince that might have been done in these the truth of the Gospel in the way quarters to check the progress of most impressive on the public ap- infidel and immoral principles ? prehension, by a heartfelt submis. Have new churches been built equal sion to its doctrines, and a course

to the increased wants of the poof humble, zealous, and cheerful pulatiou ; or at least, have sufficient obedience to its commands. In the facilities and inducements been af: case of the clergy, the exhibition forded for building them ? Have of this personal argument is doubly the public patrons of lay, and still incumbent ; and truly does our more of ecclesiastical, preferment author exclaim,

been sufficiently attentive to mak“ If ministers of the Gospel, indeed, check to the mischief in question,

ing their appointments an active act inconsistently with their office; if, instead of being examples to their focks, and particularly by nominating to of piety, conversation, faith, godliness, the cure of souls such men only as they go along with the prevailing fa. appear to have the eternal interests shions, and partake of all the amuse. of mankind deeply at heart? Has' due , care been taken to rescind of our national evils is to be found every public law or regulation that in a virtuous training of the people, has a tendency, direct or indirect, to and in removing the sources of demoralize the people? Have, for temptation; but we differ widely instance, the numerical items of from him as to the method of carour customs and excise been consi. rying these measures into effect. dered an affair of triling moment With Mr. Owen the inculcation of compared with the sobriety and the principles of revealed religion, virtuous habils of the community ? if we understand him rightly, is one Is the increase of the revenue by great cause of the injuries which lotteries, dram-shops, and other have afflicted society; whereas to polluted sources universally felt our minds it appears the only adeby our public men to be, as it is, quate cure for them. His whole a curse and not a blessing to the system seems to us.unphilosophical, pation ? Has the sleepless vigilance unsound in principle, and unsupof parliament contrived and enforc- ported by facts. Does the benevoed adequate measures for giving lent projector imagine that there the whole mass of the people a plain will be no vice, no selfishness, no Christian education? or are many of evil passions in his parallelograms; them still left, as far as preventive that he can effectually exclude the legislative remedies are concerned, seeds of envy, jealousy, covetousto the unmitigated influence of in- ness, ambition, and every other infidel and other mischievous publi- jurious principle ? And if not, the cations? Have our poor-laws, and issue turns out to be nothing more our laws respecting various moral than this,-ibat good discipline, a offences, been duly investigated, virtuous education, and the excluwith reference to their bearing upon sion of temptation to what is wrong, the principles and character of the will be found of service to the mopeople ?-But we forbear to pro- rals and comfort of the people. ceed with our queries. We have But this will be the case in a counsaid, we think, quite sufficient to af- try village, or any where else, as ford our author an additional head well as in Mr. Owen's proposed alor two to his enumeration; and, lotments. We would therefore say, what is of more importance, have in fine, -Let all external matters endeavoured incidentally to hint at remain where they are ; but let the some appropriate checks and reme. ameliorating agency that is to opedies to the evils of which he com- rate upon the people, be more acplains.—Mr.Owen, too, has his plan; ively and beneficially employed. pot indeed for the extirpation of Let it be extended through every infidelity, of which he is not very gradation of society, from the prince intolerant, but for the cure of those to the beggar, from the most elemoral evils, and the attainment of vated intellectual professions to the those national benefits, which old- humble individual who passes his fashioned persons like ourselves life in manufacturing the twentieth are apt to think depend upon the part of a pin. Human nature, in proportion in which the religion of all these stations and employments, The Bible prevails among all classes is radically the same; and the only of our population. We indeed adequate remedy for its corrupagree with him in many of his po- tions, whether innale or acquired, sitions : we fear with him, that the is that which is unfolded in the Recomforts and education of the poor velation of Him who “ knew what have been lamentably overlooked was in man,” and who lias merciby inany whose business it was to fully devised a system of pardon, think and act and legislate for and grace, and sanctification, adaptthem : we concur with him in opi- ed to his temporal, spiritual, and nion, that the great remedy for most eternal well-being.

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