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shepherd boy from the hills and forests of and the sleep which is in the grave is long; let Judea--rose suddenly out of the quiet, out of me use that life, so transitory, for the glory of the safety, out of the religious inspiration, those heavenly dreams destined to comfort the rooted in deep pastoral solitudes, to a station sleep which is so long! This pure creaturein the van of armies, and to the more perilous pure from every suspicion of even a visionary station at the right hand of kings? The Hebrew self-interest, even as she was pure in senses more boy inaugurated his patriotic mission by an act, obvious-never once did this holy child, as reby a victorious act, such as no man could deny.1 garded herself, relax from belief in the But so did the girl of Lorraine, if we read her darkness that was travelling to meet her. She story as it was read by those who saw her might not prefigure the very manner of her nearest. Adverse armies bore witness to the death; she saw not in vision, perhaps, the aërial boy as no pretender; but so they did to the altitude of the fiery scaffold, the spectators gentle girl. Judged by the voices of all who without end, on every road, pouring into Rouens saw them from a station of good will, both were as to a coronation, the surging smoke, the volley. found true and loyal to any promises involved ing flames, the hostile faces all around, the pity. in their first acts. Enemies it was that made ing eye that lurked but here and there, until the difference between their subsequent fortunes. nature and imperishable truth broke loose from The boy rose to a splendour and a noonday pros- artificial restraints—these might not be apparent perity, both personal and public, that rang through the mists of the hurrying future. But through the records of his people, and became a the voice that called her to death, that she heard byword among his posterity for a thousand forever. years, until the sceptre was departing from Great was the throne of France, even in those Judah.2 The poor forsaken girl, on the con- days, and great was he that sat upon it; but trary, drank not herself from that cup of rest well Joanna knew that not the throne, nor he which she had secured for France. She never that sat upon it, was for her; but, on the consang together with the songs that rose in her trary, that she was for them; not she by them, native Domrémy as echoes to the departing but they by her, should rise from the dust. steps of invaders. She mingled not in the Gorgeous were the lilies of France, and for festal dances at Vaucouleurs3 which celebrated centuries had the privilege to spread their in rapture the redemption of France. No! for beauty over land and sea, until, in another cen. her voice was then silent; no! for her feet were tury, the wrath of God and man combined to dust. Pure, innocent, noble-hearted girl! whom, wither them; but well Joanna knew, early at from earliest youth, ever I believed in as full | Domrémy she had read that bitter truth, that of truth and self-sacrifice, this was among the the lilies of France would decorate no garland strongest pleilges for thy truth, that never once for her. Flower nor bud, bell nor blossom, —no, not for a moment of weakness—didst thou would ever bloom for her! revel in the vision of coronets and honour from
Coronets for thee! Oh, no! Honours, if Bishop of Beauvais!8 thy victim died in fire they come when all is over, are for those that upon a scaffold-thou upon a down bed. But, share thy blood. Daughter of Domrémy, when for the departing minutes of life, both are the gratitude of thy king shall awaken, thou oftentimes alike. At the farewell crisis, when wilt be sleeping the sleep of the dead. Call her, the gates of death are opening, and flesh is king of France, but she will not hear thee. Cite resting from its struggles, oftentimes the torher by the apparitors to come and receive a tured and the torturer have the same truce from robe of honour, but she will be found en con carnal torment; both sink together into sleep; tumace.5 When the thunders of universal together both sometimes kindle into dreams. France, as even yet may happen,t shall proclaim When the mortal mists were gathering fast upon the grandeur of the poor shepherd girl that gave you two, bishop and shepherd girl-when the up all for her country, thy ear, young shepherd pavilions of life were closing up their shadowy girl, will have been deaf for five centuries. To curtains about you—let us try, through the suffer and to do, that was thy portion in this life, gigantic glooms, to decipher the flying features that was thy destiny; and not for a moment was of your separate visions. it hidden from thyself. Life, thou saidst, is short; The shepherd girl that had delivered France
--she, from her dungeon, she, from her baiting i The killing of Goliath ;
1. Samuel, xvii. 5 A legal term signify. 6 The place of Joan's martyrdom. 2 Genesis, xlix, 10.
ing failure to ap- i The royal device of the fleur-de-lis. 3 A village near Dom
pear in court.
8 The presiding judge at Joan's trial. He had rémy
played traitor to the French and aberted the † Joan has lately been canonized by the church.
English in this execution.
4 court summoners
at the stake, she, from her duel with fire, as she | Oh, mercy! what a groan was that which the entered her last dream-saw Domrémy, saw the servants, waiting outside the bishop's dream at fountain of Domrémy, saw the pomp of forests his bedside, heard from his labouring heart, as in which her childhood had wandered. That at this moment he turned away from the founEaster festival which man had denied to her tain and the woman, seeking rest in the forests languishing heart—that resurrection of spring afar off. Yet not so to escape the woman, time, which the darkness of dungeons had inter- whom once again he must behold before he dies. cepted from her, hungering after the glorious In the forests to which he prays for pity, will liberty of forests-were by God given back into he find a respite! What a tumult, what a her hands as jewels that had been stolen from gathering of feet is there! In glades where her by robbers. With those, perhaps (for the only wild deer should run, armies and nations minutes of dreams can stretch into ages), was are assembling; towering in the fluctuating given back to her by God the bliss of childhood. crowd are phantoms that belong to departed By special privilege for her might be created, hours. There is the great English Prince, in this farewell dream, a second childhood, inno Regent of France. There is my Lord of Winrent as the first; but not, like that, sad with the chester, the princely cardinal, that died and gloom of a fearful mission in the rear. This made no sign.. There is the Bishop of Beauvais, mission had now been fulfilled. The storm was clinging to the shelter of thickets. What build. weathered; the skirts even of that mighty ing is that which hands so rapidly are raising ? storm were drawing off. The blood that she Is it a martyr's scaffold? Will they burn the was to reckon for had been exacted; the tears child of Domrémy a second time? No; it is a that she was to shed in secret had been paid to tribunal that rises to the clouds; and two nathe last. The hatred to herself in all eyes had tions stand around it, waiting for a trial. Shall heen faced steadily, had been suffered, had been my Lord of Beauvais sit again upon the survived. And in her last fight upon the scaf. judgment-seat, and again number the hours for fold she had triumphed gloriously; victoriously the innocent? Ah, no! he is the prisoner at she had tasted the stings of death. For all, the bar. Already all is waiting: the mighty except this comfort from her farewell dream, audience is gathered, the Court is hurrying to she had died-died amid the tears of ten thou- their seats, the witnesses are arraved, the trumsand enemies—died amid the drums and trum- j pets are sounding, the judge is taking his place. pets of armies--lied amid peals redoubling upon Oh, but this is sudden! My Lord, have you no peals, volleys upon volleys, from the saluting counsel!“Counsel I have none; in heaven clarions of martyrs.
above, or on earth beneath, counsellor there is Bishop of Beauvais! because the guilt-bur. none now that would take a brief from me: dened man is in dreams haunted and waylaid by all are silent.” Is it, indeed, come to this? the most frightful of his crimes, and because Alas! the time is short, the tumult is wondrous, upon that fluctuating mirror-rising (like the the crowd stretches away into infinity; but yet mocking mirrors of mirage in Arabian deserts) I will search in it for somebody to take your from the fens of death—most of all are re brief; I know of somebody that will be your flected the sweet countenances which the
Who is this that cometh from Domhas laid in ruins; therefore I know, bishop. rémy? Who is she in bloody coronation robes that you also, entering your final dream, saw from Rheims ?10 Who is she that cometh with Domrémy. That fountain, of which the wit backened flesh from walking the furnaces of nesses spoke so much, showed itself to your eyes Rouen? This is she, the shepherd girl, counsellor in pure morning dews; but neither dews, nor that had none for herself, whom I choose, bishop, the holy dawn, could cleanse away the bright for yours. She it is, I engage, that shall take spots of innocent blood upon its surface. By my lord's brief. She it is, bishop, that would the fountain, bishop, you saw a woman seated, plead for you; yes, bishop, she--when heaven that hid her face. But, as you draw near, the and earth are silent. woman raises her wasted features. Would Dom
. Ser Shakespeare's II Henry VI., III. iii. rémy know them again for the features of her 10 Joan was present at the coronation of Charles chilel? Ah, but you know them, bishop, well!
VII. at Rheims-a coronation made possible hy her own martial exploits.
THE VICTORIAN AGE
THOMAS CARLYLE (1795-1881)
should be carried of the spirit into grim Soli.
tudes, and there fronting the Tempter do FROM SARTOR RESARTU'S
grimmest battle with him; defiantly setting him
at naught, till he yield and fly. Vame it as we THE EVERLASTING Yea. FROM Book II, «hoose: with or without visible Devil, whether
in the natural Desert of rocks and sands, or CHAPTER IX*
in the populous moral Desert of selfishness and “ Temptations in the Wilderness!''1 exclaims baseness,—to such Temptation are we all called. Teufelsdröckh: “Have we not all to be tried Unhappy if we are not! Unhappy if we are with such? Not so easily can the old Adam, but Half-men, in whom that divine handwriting lodged in us by birth, be dispossessed. Our has never blazed forth, all-subuluing, in true Lite is compassed round with Necessity; yet
sun-splendour; but quivers dubiously amid is the meaning of Life itself no other than
meaner lights: or smoulders, in dull pain, in Freedom, than Voluntary Force; thus have larkness, under earthily vapours!-Our Wildera warfare; in the beginning, especially,
ness is the wide World in an Atheistic (ena hard-fought battle. For the God-given man- tury; our Forty Days are long years of sufdate, I'ork thou in Welldoing, lies mysteriously fering and fasting: nevertheless, to these also written, in Promethean” Prophetic Characters, comes an end. Yes, to me also was given. if in our hearts; and leaves us no rest, night or
not Victory, yet the consciousness of Battle, and «lay, till it be deciphered and obeyed; till it the resolve to persevere therein while life or burn forth, in our conduet, a visible, acted faculty is left. To me also, entangled in the Gospel of Freedom. And as the clay-given
enchanted forests, demon-peopled, doleful of mandate, Eat thou and be filled, at the same
sight and of sound, it was given, after weariest time persuasively proclaims itself through every wanderings, to work out my way into the higher nerve,-must there not be a confusion, a con- sunlit slopes of that Mountain which has no test, before the better influence can become the summit, or whose summit is in Heaven only!” upper?
He says elsewhere, under a less ambitious “To me nothing seems more natural than that figure; as figures are, once for all, natural to the Son of Man, when such God-given man
him: “Has not thy Life been that of most date first prophetically stirs within him, and sufficient men (tüchligen Männer) thou hast the Clay must now be vanquished or vanquish,
known in this generation? An outflush of fool
ish young Enthusiasm, like the first fallow-erop, i See Luke, iv, 1, 2.
wherein are as many weeds as valuable herbs: 2 The name of Prometheus, the fabled defender of this all parched away, under the Droughts of
man against Jupiter's tyranny, means “fore- | practical and spiritual Unbelief, as Disappoint
thought." • Sartor Resartus, or "The Tailor Re-Tailored." is ment, in thought and act, often-repeated gave
nominally a work on clothes : in reality, it is, rise to Doubt, and Doubt gradually settled into a philosophy, or rather gospel, of life lyle poses as the editor merely. professing to
Denial! If I have had a second-crop, and now have received the work in manuscript from a certain German Professor Truelsdrückhof umbrageous cedars, which defy all Drought
see the perennial greensward, and sit unler the University of "Weissnichtwo" Lit., pp. 343-310). In the Second Book he' (and Doubt); herein too, be the Heavens
to give the physical and spiritual biography author as culled from imas praised, I am not without examples, and even inary "L'aper-bags"—bundles of loose docu- exemplars." ments- derived from the same source. Professor, alllicted with personal sorrows, and
So that, for Teufelsdröckh also, there has beset by religious and speculative doubts, has been a “glorious revolution :" these mad shadtal struggle he passes from the "Everlasting ow-hunting and shadow-hunted Pilgrimings of No," a period of doubt and denial. through his were but some purifying “ Temptation in the "l'entre of Indifference" to the "Everlast. ing Yea."
the Wilderness," before his apostolie work
(such as it was) could begin; which Tempta: , ing passage refers to his Locality, during this tion is now happily over, and the Devil ouce same “healing sleep;' that his Pilgrim-staff more worsted! Was “that high moment in lies cast aside here on the high table-land;" the Rue de l'Enfer,''3 then, properly, the turn. and indeed that the repose is alreadly taking ing point of the battle; when the fiend said, wholesome effect on him? If it were not that Il'orship me, or be torn in shreds, and was the tone, in some parts, has more of rianey, answered valiantly with an A page Satana? even of levity, than we coull have expected! Singular Teufelsdröckh, would thou hadst told However, in Teufelsdröckh, there is always the thy singular story in plain words! But it is strangest Dualism: light dancing, with guitarfruitless to look there, in those Paper-bags, for music, will be going on in the fore-court, while such. Nothing but innuendoes, figurative by fits from within comes the faint whimpering crotchets: a typical Shadow, fitfully wavering, of woe and wail. We transcribe the piece prophetico-satiric; no clear logical Picture. entire: “ How paint to the sensual eye,” asks he once, “Beautiful it was to sit there, as in my “ what passes in the Holy-of-Holies of Man's skyey Tent, musing and meditating;
on the Soul; in what words, known to these profane high table-land, in front of the Mountains; times, speak even afar off of the unspeakable?'' over me, as roof, the azure Dome, and around We ask in turn: Why perplex these times, me, for walls, pur azure flowing curtains,profane as they are, with needless obscurity, namely, of the Four azure Winds, on whose by omission and by commission ? Not mystical bottom-fringes also I have seen gilding. And only is our Professor, but whimsical; and in then to fancy the fair Castles, that stood shelvolves himself, now more than ever, in eye-tered in these Mountain hollows; with their bewildering chiaroscuro. Successive glimpses, green flower lawns, and white dames and amohere faithfully imparted, our more gifted read.sels, lovely enough: or better still, the strawers must endeavour to combine for their own roofed Cottages, wherein stood many a Mother behoof.
baking bread, with her children round her:“The hot Harmattan-windo had all hidelen and protectingly foldedl-up in the raged itself out: its howl went silent within valley-folds; yet there and alive, as sure as if me; and the long-deafened soul could now hear. | I beheld them. Or to see, as well as fancy, the I paused in my wild wanderings; and sat me nine Towns and Villages, that lay round my down to wait, and consider; for it was as if mountain-seat, which, in still weather, were the hour of change drew nigh. I seemed to wont to speak to me (by their steeple-bells) surrender, to renounce utterly, and say: Fly, with metal tongue; and, in almost all weather, then, false shadows of Hope; I will chase you proclaimed their vitality by repeated Smokeno more, I will believe you no more. And ye clouds; whereon, as on a culinary horologe, I too, haggard spectres of Fear, I care not for might read the hour of the day. For it was you; ye too are all shadows and a lie. Let me rest the smoke of cookery, as kind housewives at here: for I am way-weary and life-weary; I morning, midday, eventide, were boiling their will rest here, were it but to die: to die or to husban is' kettles; and ever a blue pillar rose live is alike to me; alike insignificant.”—And up into the air, successively or simultaneously, again: “Here, then, as I lay in that CENTRE from each of the nine, saying, as plainly as of INDIFFERENCE; cast, doubtless by benignant smoke could say: Such and such a meal is upper Influence, into a healing sleep, the heavy getting ready here. Not uninteresting! For dreams rolled gradually away, and I awoke to you have the whole Borough, with all its love. a new Heaven and a new Earth. The first pre-makings and scandal-mongeries, contentions and liminary moral Act, Annihilation of Self contentments, as in miniature, and could cover (Selbst-tödtung), had been happily accom- it all with your hat.-If, in my wide Wayfarplished; and my mind's eyes were now unings, I had learned to look into the business sealed, and its hands ungyved.”
of the World in its details, here perhaps was Might we not also conjecture that the follow the place for combining it into general propo3 Described in a previous chapter as a "dirty
sitions, and deducing inferences therefrom. little" street in the French Capital where
** Often also could I see the black Tempest fresh courage had suddenly come to him. This marching in anger through the Distance: passage Carlyle admitted to be autobiographical, and the street was Leith Walk. Edin: round some Schreckhorn.s as yet grim-blue, tumultuously eddy, and flow down like a mad “A vain interminable controversy," writes he. witch's hair; till, after a space, it vanished, touching what is at present called Origin of and, in the clear sunbeam, your Schreckhorn | Evil, or some such thing, arises in every soul, stood smiling grim-white, for the vapour had since the beginning of the world; and in every held snow.
burgh. Get thee hence, Satan." Nattheir, iv, 10.
would the eddying vapour gather, and there J light and shade 6.1 withering wind of West Africa ; here figurative i laughing gayety
$"Peak of Terror."
How thou fermentest and elabo- soul, that would pass from idle Suffering into ratest in thy great fermenting-vat and labora actual Endeavouring, must first be put an end tory of an Atmosphere, of a World, O Nature! to. The most, in our time, have to go content Or what is Nature? Ha! why do I not name with a simple, incomplete enough Suppression of thee God? Art thou not the “Living Garment this controversy; to a few, some Solution of of God?" O Heavens, is it, in very deed, He it is indispensable. In every new era, too, such then that ever speaks through thee; that lives | Solution comes out in different terms; and and loves in thee, that lives and loves in me? I ever the Solution of the last era has become
“Fore-shadows, call them rather fore-splen- obsolete, and is found unserviceable. For it dours, of that Truth, and Beginning of Truths, is man's nature to change his Dialect from fell mysteriously over my soul. Sweeter than century to century; he cannot help it though Dayspring to the Shipwrecked in Nova Zem- he would. The authentic Church-Catechism of bla; * ah, like the mother's voice to her little our present century has not yet fallen into my child that strays bewildered, weeping, in un bands: meanwhile, for my own private behoof, known tumults; like soft streamings of celes. I attempt to elucidate the matter so. Jan's tial music to my too-exasperated heart, came Unhappiness, as I construe, comes of his Greatthat Evangel. The Universe is not dead and ness; it is because there is an Infinite in him, demoniacal, a charnel-house with spectres: but which with all his cunning he cannot quite bury godlike, and my Father's !
under the Finite. Will the whole Finance Min“With other eyes, too, could I now look isters and Upholsterers and Confectioners of upon my fellow man; with an infinite Love, an modern Europe undertake, in joint-stock cominfinite Pity. Poor, wandering, wayward man! pany, to make one Shoeblack HAPPY? They Art thou not tried, and beaten with stripes, cannot accomplish it, above an hour or two; even as I am ? Ever, whether thou bear the for the Shoeblack also has a Soul quite other royal mantle or the beggar's gabardine, art than his Stomach: and would require, if you thou not so weary, so heavy-laden; and thy I consider it, for his permanent satisfaction and Bed of Rest is but a Grave. O my Brother, saturation, simply this allotment, no more, and my Brother, why cannot I shelter thee in my l no less: God's infinite Universe altog, ther to bosom, and wipe away all tears from thy eyes! himself, therein to enjoy infinitely, and fill - Truly, the din of many voiced Life, which in every wish as fast as it rose. Oceans of Hochthis solitude, with the mind's organ, I could heimer, 1 a Throat like that of Ophiuchus:hear, was no longer a maddening discord, but speak not of them; to the infinite Shoeblack a melting one: like inarticulate cries, and sob- they are as nothing. No sooner is your ocean bings of a dumb creature, which in the ear of filled, than he grumbles that it might have Heaven are prayers. The poor Earth, with her been of better vintage. Try him with half of poor joys, was now my needy Mother, not my a Universe, of an Omnipotence, he sets to cruel Stepılame; Man, with his so mad Wants quarrelling with the proprietor of the other and so mean Endeavours, had become the dearer half, and declares himself the most maltreated to me; and even for his sufferings and his sins, of men.-Always there is a black spot in our I now first named bim brother. Thus was I sunshine: it is eren, as I said, the Shadow of standing in the porch of that “Sanctuary of | Ourselves. Sorrow' ;' by strange, steep ways, had I too “But the whim we have of Happiness is been guide thither; and ere long its sacred somewhat thus. By certain valuations, and gates would open, and the 'Divine Depth of averages, of our own striking, we come upon Sorrow' lie disclosed to me."
some sort of average terrestrial lot; this we The Professor says, be here first got eye fancy belongs to us by nature, and of inde. on the Knot that had been strangling him, and feasible right. It is simple payment of our straight way could unfasten it, and was free. wages, of our deserts; requires neither thanks
nor complaint: only such overplus as there * Carlyle got the suggestion for his comparison may be do we account Happiness; any deficit
from the journal of William Barentz, a Dutch navigator who was shipwrecked in the winter again is Misery. Now consider that we have of 15.90 on these Arctic islands, where the sun the valuation of our own deserts ourselves, and returns only after weeks of darkness. pare the third note on Addison's paper on *Frozen Words," p. 298.
Ser Par. Loxt, II, 708.