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preached to every creature, that gross idolatry is abolished in many parts of the world, that wicked impiety is much restrained by the discipline of the word of God, that they obtain at times many and excellent, though not saving gifts of the holy Spirit, that “they have escaped the pollutions of the

“ world, through the knowledge of the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ," 2 Pet. ï. 20. And who can in short enumerate all those things which they enjoy, not through accident only, and beside the intention of God, and of Christ, but by the appointment of God ? Not indeed with a design and purpose of saving them according to the Testament; but from a view to make known his long-suffering towards the vessels of wrath, that is, those who are to perish, who dwell among those who are to be saved. For nothing falls out by accident with respect to the intention of God; every thing being according to his determinate counsel.

V. 4thly. That the obedience and sufferings of Christ are of such worth, that all, without exception, who come to him, may find perfect salvation in him: and it was the will of God, that this truth should, without distinction, be proposed both to them that are to be saved, and to them that are to perish; with a charge not to neglect so great salvation, but to repair to Christ with true contrition of soul; and with a most sincere declaration, that all who come to him shall find salvation in him, John vi. 40.

VI. 5thly. That, bowever, Christ, according to the will of God the Father, and his own purpose, did neither engage nor satisfy, and consequently in no manner die, but only for all those whom the Father gave him, and who are actually saved. This is that truth which is controverted, and which we are now to confirm, in a concise but solid manner, from the sacred writings.

VII. The scripture declares, that Christ satisfied for the whole body of the elect, when it declares, that he died for all, and by him reconciled all things, as 2 Cor. v. 15. Heb. i. 9. ! Col. 1. 20. And as this is not to be understood of all and every man in particular, it must be meant of all and every one of the elect. That it cannot be understood of all and every individual, I prove from the passages quoted in the following

1 manner. Those all for whom Christ is said to have died, 2 Cor. v. 15. are those who are also dead, namely, as to the old man, whom in virtue of the crucifixion of Christ, they have crucified, Rom. vi. 6. and who “ live not to themselves, but to Christ," and to Christ indeed, who me again for them. But these things can be applicable only to the elect. None



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but they are dead to themselves, the world, and to sin :
none else live to Christ. In a word, according to the very
hypothesis of the Remonstrants, the efficacy of Christ's resur-
rection is restrained to believers alone. In like manner, those
all, for whom Christ is said by the grace of God to have
tasted death, Heb. ii. 9. are sons brought, or to be brought,
unto glory, who have Christ for the captain of their salvation;
who are sanctified, whom he calls his brethren, which God
gave him, ver. 10, 11, 13. These things can be applied not
to the reprobate, but only to the elect. In like manner, those
all things which are said to be “reconciled to God by the
peace made through the

blood of Christ,” Col. i. 20. can only
extend to the elect. The thing is self-evident. For recon-
ciliation and peace-making with God are peculiar to elect be-
lievers, Rom. v. ). On the contrary, the reprobate are per-
petual enemies to God, “ the wrath of God abideth on them,"
John iii. 36. By those things which are on earth, are under-
stuod believers, who are still in the world; as by those things
which are in heaven, are meant, not angels, but men in the
state of bliss, who enjoy, in the fullest manner, the fruits of
Christ's atonement and reconciliation.

VIII. Let us add that remarkable passage, 1 Tim. ii. 4, 6. • God will bave all men to be saved, and to come unto the (acknowledgment] knowledge of the truth: Christ gave himself a ransom for all.” Where by all, we are not to understand all and every one in particular, but the elect of whatever nation and condition; which I make evidently to appear in this manner: Ist. They for whom Christ


himself ransom, are actually rescued from the dominion of Satan, are brought to perfect liberty, and can never be thrust into an eternal prison, in order to satisfy again for those debts which Christ paid to the utmost farthing. This we must certainly maintain, unless we would have Christ's payment go for nothing. But all, and every one in particular, are not set free from the dominion of Satan. Many are, and do still remain, “ children of disobedience, in whom that impure spirit worketh," Eph. ii. 2. and who are for ever held captive at his will, in the share of the devil, and these shall be forced to satisfy for their own guilt. Christ therefore did not give himself a ransom for them. 2dly. Paul speaks of all those who have Christ for their Mediator. But he is Mediator, both by the offering of his body and blood, and by his powerful intercession. This latter part of his mediation can on no account be excluded here, when the apostle is treating concerning our prayers, of which we have a most perfect pattern in the

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prayers of Christ. Besides the Remonstrants acknowledge, that Christ's intercession is not for all and every man in particular : therefore, he is not the perfect Mediator of all and every individual. 3dly. What is' bere spoken is concerning

. all those whom God will have to be saved, and come to the [acknowledgment] knowledge of the truth.” But this is not his will concerning every man in particular, because he will have unbelievers condemned, John iï. 36. And the acknow

ii. ledgment of the truth, or faith, is not the privilege of all, 2 Thess. Üï. 2. but of the elect, Tit. i. 1. Nor is it the will

iii of God it should. He hardeneth whom he will, Rom. ix. 18. Besides, it is unworthy of the divine majesty, to imagine that there is an incomplete, unresolved, and ineffectual volition in God, Psal. cxv. 3. And it is mere trifling and mean, to understand a bare will of precept, enjoining all to work out their own' salvation with fear and trembling, and with all diligence to seek the knowledge of the truth; or, a will of his good pleasure, approving what is according to the precept'; they with whom we now argue do not take it in that light. 4thly. The persons here meant are all those for whom we are to pray: 'but we are not to pray for all and every one in particular : not certainly for those who are already damned: not for the salvation of all who are now alive, collectively taken; because we cannot do it in faith ; and we are sure that many of them will be damned: nor in fine, for those who have sinned the sin unto death, 1 John v. 16. 5thly. and lastly, It is acknow.

, ledged that these words are made use of by the apostle, as a motive for the prayers which he requires, and which shall not be in vain. But the words of the apostle would inferno such thing, if they only meant that Christ has, by his satisfaction, obtained no more than a possibility for God to be reconciled to all and every one in particular, though by the nature of that impetration, it is possible none may be actually saved; because if that death has only procured a possibility of salvation, and if our desires after that salvation might be inef. fectual, we could neither be sure of their being heard, nor have that hope of audience, which maketh not ashamed. We must then conclude, that Christ gave himself a ransom of redemption for all the elect, whatever nation and condition, and that it is the will of God they all should be saved; consequently, that it is our duty to be subservient, by our prayers, to this counsel of God; and as we know not how to dis tinguish the elect from the reprobate, to pray indiscriminate ly for all, referring it to God to distinguish those who are his; especially, because we are certain, we shall not pray in

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vain for those whom God wills to be saved, and for whom Christ gave himself.

IX. The scripture inculcates the same truth, when it says, that “Christ gave his flesh for the life of the world," John vi. 51. that he is “ the propitiation for our sins, and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world," 1 John ïi. 2. That “ God was in Christ reconciling the world to himself," 2 Cor. v. 19. That Christ is “ the Lamb of God that taketh away the sins of the world,” John i. 29. And other passages

" to the like purpose. Where by the term world cannot, nay, ought not be understood the whole of mankind, but the elect. Which we prove by the following arguments :

X. It is clear that in scripture things are sometimes said of the world, as agree only to the elect and to believers. Thus Christ prays, John xvii. 21. “ that the world may believe that ,

“ thou hast sent me," and ver. 23. “ that the world


know that thou hast sent me." But these things belong to that she oerdotal intercession of Christ, concerning which we may with the greatest certainty conclude, that it will never be rejected, says Arminius, in Oratione de sacerdotio Christi, and which, it is certain, is not made for the world of reprobates, Christ hay-* ing expressly declared that, v. 9. and they with whom we argue do not refuse it. It is therefore necessary, that by the world, we here understand the world of the elect, who believe on Christ, and know him by faith, by virtue of the intercession of Christ, and by means of the ministry, together with the holy and glorious example of believers.

XI. Moreover, many texts which speak of salvation, not only as impetrated, but as applied, ascribe it to the world. Thus Christ declares, John iï. 17. “ for God sent not bis Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through him might be saved." But the intention of God, in sending his Son, is not to save all, but “ that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life," as Christ explains himself in the foregoing verses. In like manner, John vi. 33. " the bread of God is he which cometh down from heaven, and giveth 'life unto the world.”. But Christ gives life only to the elect, to the sheep, and not to the goats, John X. 27, 28. Thus Christ in prosecuting his discourse above quoted, John vi. restrains the term zorld, to those “ whom the Father gave him, who see the Son, and believe on him," v. 39, 40.

XII. These expressions likewise, the father of those that believe, and the heir of the world, denote the same thing in the promise made to Abraham, Rom. iv. 11, 12, 13. Abraham is the father of those that believe. 1st. As a pattern of

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faith. 2dly. As a pattern of the blessing, or of justification by faith. Sdly. On account of Christ who descended from him, and by whose Spirit the elect are born again: hence Christ, along with his mystical body, is called the seed of Abraham, Gal. iii

. 16. He is the heir of the roorld, that is, of all the families of the earth, who are blessed in him as in the pattern of faith and of the blessing by it, and in his seed Christ, as the fountain of every blessing. For this is that world which Christ receives for an inheritance; as also Abraham, and consequently every believer who is his seed in Christ; or who becomes Christ's own possession, and with whom Abra ham and every believer have communion, exulting in the good things which are bestowed upon them, 1 Cor. iii. 21, 22. For that strict union and sincere love which subsist between them, are the reason that every one rejoices in, and glorifies God, on account of the benefits bestowed on his neighbour, as if bestow. ed on himself. And thus we have made it appear that the term world, sometimes in scripture, denotes the collective body of believers, or of the elect.

XIII. We add, that the Holy Ghost speaks in this manner with great propriety for several substantial reasons. For 1st. The term world, generally in the common way of speaking, denotes any large body or multitude of men whatever. Thus the Pharisees said among themselves, “perceive ye how ye prevail nothing? Behold! the world is gone after him," John xü. 19. We have a like phraseology in Horajot, c. 3. ' In Gemara, “ when Rahbi Simeon the son of Gamaliel entered (namely into the synagogue) the whole world rose up before him;" that is, all who were present in the synagogue. Why then should not a very large and almost infinite multitude of the chosen people from among all nations; “ that great multitude which no man cap number," Rev. vii. 9. be elegantly designed by the appellation world! Adly. Elect believers, considered in themselves, and before effectual call ing, are a part of “ the world lying in wickedness," 1 John v. 19. “In time past they walked in trespasses and sins, according to the course of this world," Eph. ii. 1, 2.; and 5 far they belong to that world " which is become guilty be. fore God," Rom. iii. 19. But this tends to illustrate the glory of the love of God and Christ, and to the humiliation of believers; that while they were a part of the wicked world, Christ was given to be their Redeemer. 8dly. Elect believers are, after effectual calling, considered as beautified with divine grace, though the less, yet the best part of the world. “ The saints and the excellent that are in the earth,"

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