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ed that rest, that it might be ever afterwards holy among men: or, he set apart each seventh day for rest, that his own example might be a standing rule." Martyr. speaks to the same pur. pose: "Hence men are put in mind that, if the church enjoins them to set apart a certain day in the week for the worship of God, this is not altogether a human device, nor belongs only to the law of Moses, but likewise had its rise from hence, and is an imitation of God.”. All this is also approved of by Coco ceius, whose excellent words we will subjoin from the place just quoted, §. 1R. “ The consequence of these things in the sinner is--that if encompassed with the infirmities of the fleshy and exposed to the troubles of life, he may at least each seventh day recollect, and give himself up to far preferable thoughts, and then cheerfully, on account of that part of the worship of God which cannot be performed without disengaging from business, abstain from the work of his hands, and from seeking, preparing, and gathering the fruits of the earth.” And as this celebrated expositor approves of this, I know not why he should disapprove the elegant observation of Chrysostom, Not. at Heb. 8 13. That “ hence, as by certain preludes, God hath enigmatically taught us to consecrate and set apart for spiritual employment each seventh day in the week.” If we all agree, as I hope we may, in these positions, which seem not unbappily to explain the nature of the first Sabbath ; I truly reckon, that a way is paved, and a great deal done, to compose those unhappy disputes about the Sabbath of the decalogue, which for some years past bave made such noise in the Dutch universities and churches.
XIII. Having thus explained the nature of the first Sabbath, we proceed to enquire into its spiritual and mystical signification; from whence it will be easy to conclude, that we have not improperly called it a sacrament; or, which is the same, a sacred sign or seal (for, why should we wrangle about a word, pot scriptural, when we agree about the thing ?) of the pro mises of salvation made by God to Adam. We have Paul's authority to assert, that the Sabbath had some mystical mean, ing, and respected an eternal and happy rest, Heb. iv. 4, 10. And this is justly supposed by the apostle, as a thing well known to the Hebrews, and which is a corner stone or fundamental point with their doctors. It was a common proverb, quoted by Buxtorf, in Florilegio Hebræo, 299. “ The Sabbath is not given but to be a type of the life to come.” To the same purpose
is that which we have in Zohar, on Gen, fol. 5. chap. xv. " What is the Sabbath day? A type of the land of the living, which is the world to come, the world of souls, the
world of consolations." These things indeed, are not improper to be said in general; but as you will not readily fod any. where, (or in other authors) the analogy between the Sabbath and eternal rest specially assigned; can it be thought improper, if by distinguishing between the rest of God, the rest of man, and the seventh day, on which both rested, we should distinctly propose the mystical meaning of each.
XIV. The rest of God from the work of the creation, was a type of a far more, glorious rest of God from the work of the
a glorification of the whole universe. When God had created the first world, so as to be a commodious habitation for man during his probation, and an illustrious theatre of the perfections of the Creator; he took pleasure in this bis work, and rested with delight. For he bestowed upon it all the perfection which was requisite to complete that state. But he had resolved, one day, to produce a far more perfect universe, and by dissolving the elements by fire, to raise a new heaven and a new earth, as it were out of the ashes of the old; which pew world, being blessed with his immutable happiness, was to be a far more august habitation for his glorified creatures; in which, as in the last display of his perfections, he was for ever to rest with the greatest complacency. And besides, as God according to his infinite wisdom, so very wisely connects all his actions, that the preceding have a certain respect to the following; in like manner, since that rest of God after the creation was less complete than that other, when God shall have concluded the whole, and which is to be followed by no other law bour or toil; it is proper to consider that first rest of God as a type, and a kind of prelude of that other, which is more perfect. In fioe, because it tends to man's greatest happiness, that the whole universe be thus glorified, and himself in the universe, that God may altogether rest in him, as having pow obtained his last degree of perfection, he is said “to enter into the rest of God," Heb. iv. 10.
XV. This rest of God was after the creation, immediately succeeded by the rest of man. For, when he had formed man
, on the sixth day, (as possibly may be gathered from the simplicity of Moses' narrative,) he had brought him into Paradise on the seventh, and prut him, or, as others think the words may be translated, “ he made him rest in the garden of Eden, Gen. ii. 15. Was not this a most delightful symbol or sign to. Adam, that after having finished his course of labour on this earth, he should be translated from thence into a place far more pleasant, and to a rest far more delightful than that which he enjoyed in Paradise ? And whep at certain times he ceased from
tilling the ground in Paradise, and gave himself wholly up to the religious worship of God, with a soul delighting in God: was not this a certain earnest and a prelibation to him of that time, in which, exempted from all care about this animal life, he should immediately delight himself in the intimate communion of God, in being joined with the choirs of angels, and in doing the works of angels.
XVI. May not this rest both of God and man, falling upon the seventh day, after the six of creation, properly denote, that the rest of the glory of God is then to be expected, after the week of this world is elapsed ? And that man is not to enter into rest, till he has finished his course of probation, and God upon strictly examining it by the rule of his law, finds it complete and in every respect perfect? And are we to reject the learned observation of Peter Martyr; that “this seventh day is said to have neither morning nor evening, because this is a perpetual rest to those who are truly the sons of God ?"
XVII. It is indeed true, that upon Adam's sin, and violation of the covenant of works, the whole face of things was changed : but all these things (we have been speaking of] were such, as
] might have been signified and sealed by this Sabbath to Adam, even in the state of innocence, and why night it not really have been so ? For the apostle expressly declares, that “God's resting from his works, from the foundation of the world,” Heb. iv. 8. had a mystical signification. It is therefore our business to find out the agreement between the sign and the thing sig. nified; for the greater analogy we observe between them, we shall the more clearly and with joy discover the infinite wisdom and goodness of God, various ways manifesting themselves. It cannot but tend to the praise of the divine architect, if we can observe many excellent resemblances between the picture given us by himself, and the copy. Indeed I deny not, that Paul, when discoursing of the Sabbath, leads us to that rest purchased for believers by the sufferings of Christ. But it cannot thence be inferred, that after the entrance of sin, God's Sabbath borrowed all its mystical signification from the covenant of grace. For, as to the substance of the thing, the glorious rest promised by the covenant of works, and now to be obtained by the covenant of grace, is one and the same, consisting in a blessed acquiescence or rest of the soul in God. As this was sealed to man in innocence by the Sabbath, under the covenant of works; so likewise it is sealed by the Sabbath under the covenant of grace, though under another relation, and under other circumstances. For God having perfect knowledge, that man would not continue in the first covenant, had from all
eternity decreed to set on foot a quite different order of things, and bring his elect by a new covenant of grace to the most peaceful rest. Accordingly be settled in his upsearchable wisdom, whatever preceded the fall, in such a manner, that man viewing them after the fall with the enlightened
of faith, might discover still greater mysteries in them, which regarded Christ and the glory to be obtained by him. But we are not to speak of this here. Whoever desires a learned explanation of those mysteries, may consult Mestresat's sermons on the fourth chapter of the Hebrews.
XVIII. This Sabbath also put man in mind of various duties to be performed by him, which having pointed out above, § X, XI. I think needless to repeat now. And thus we have $ executed what we promised concerning the sacraments of the covenant of works.
XIX. And here I might conclude, did not a very learned man come in my way, whose thoughts on the first Sabbath being widely different from the commonly received notions, I intend, with his permission, calmly to examine. He therefore maintains, that Adam, on the very day of his creation, being seduced by the devil, had involved himself and the whole world in the most wretched bondage of corruption :, but that God on the seventh day restored all things thus corrupted by the devil and by man, by his gracious, promise of the Mes. siah: upon this restoration he rested on that very day; and that rest, upon the reparation of the world, being peculiar to the seventh dạy, may be the foạndation of the Sabbath. Doubtless, “on the sixth day, the heavens and the earth
, were finished, and all the host of them," Gen. Ü, 1. . And God beholding the works of his creation so perfect, pleasantly rested in them. This was the rest of the sixth day. But, on the same day, Satan corrupted all; for, upon losing hesven, of whose bost he was one, and which he greatly diminished by associating many other angels to bimself, and so far rendered that habitation a desert; and on earth, by means of a calumnious lie, he rendered man, the prince of the terres trial host, a subject to himself, a rebel to God, and destitute of life. This was the corruption of the earth. And thus heaven and earth so beautifully finished by God on the sixth day, were on the same basely defiled by Satan and by man. This occasioned God to be engaged in a new work on the seventh, even to restore what had been thus defiled and corrupted, and to complete them apew. Which he did on the seventh day, when the Mediator, God-man, was revealed by the Gospel, whom, in the promise, he appointed to triumph
over Satan the corruptor of all, and so to restore all things; both of the earth, where he began the restoration, by delivering the elect of mankind from the bondage of corruption; and of heaven, by bringing thë same chosen people into the heavenly habitation, in order to its being again re-peopled with that colony of new inhabitants: in this manner he will complete the restoration. Which completion. Moses intimates, verse 2. “ and on the seventh day God ended his work, which he had made." This finishing of the restoration, signified, verse 3. by the word made, is very distinct from the finishing of the creation, mentioned verse 1. When God bad done all this, upon giving his Son to men for a Mediator and Redeemer, he himself rested in this his last work, as this is “ the man of his delight,” Isa. xli. 1. And this rest was the only foundation for instituting the Sabbath. This institution consists of a twofold act: the first is of blessing, by which God blessed that very day, by a most distinguishing privilege, to be the day devoted to the Messiah, who was revealed in it by the Gospel. For this is the honour of the Sabbath, that it is “ the delight, on account of the holy of the Lord being glorified," Isa. Iviii. 13. The other act is that of sanctification, by which he set it apart for a sign and memorial of that benefit, because through and for the holy of the Lord, he chooses to sanctify the elect
. This is the sum
of that opinion. Let us now consider whether it be solid, and can be proved by scripture.
xx. The whole foundation of this opinion is, that Adam fell on the very day in which he was created: which the scripture no where says. I know that some Jewish doctors, with boldness, as is their way, assert this; and, as if they were perfectly acquainted with what God was about every hour, declare, that man was created the third hour of the day, fell the eleventh, and was expelled Paradise the twelfth. But this rashness is to be treated with indignation. The learned person deems it bis glory to be wise from the scriptures alone, and justly, for thus it becomes a divine. But what portion of scripture determines any thing about the first sin? We have here scarce any more than bare conjectures, which at best are too sandy a foundation, on which any wise architect will ever presume to build so grand an edifice.
XXI. Nay, there are many things fom which we rather incline to think that man's sin happened not on the sixth day. For it was after God had on that day created the beasts; after he had formed Adam of the dust of the earth; after he had prescribed him the law concerning the tree of knowledge of