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tellectual or moral civilisation, nor British society be civilized in the best sense of that word. When God calls our nobles and merchant princes, and willing-hearted people, to his foot to do this great thing, they "shall help every one his neighbour, and every one shall say to his brother, Be of good courage. The carpenter will encourage the goldsmith, and he that smootheth with the hammer, him that smote the anvil, saying, It is ready for soldering, and he that fastened it with the nails that it should not be moved."

Numerous and tempting are the topics that still remain. We can do no more than enumerate them. The missions of Rome have been prosecuted over the world, with an ardour and self-devotion that might well awaken the dullest Protestants to what the Duke of Wellington is reported to have lately so happily called, their marching orders, "to go and preach the gospel to every living creature." The civilizing effect of these Romish missions is another matter, and would require an article of itself. The literary policy of Rome, since she was alarmed by the Reformation, is another large subject. Father Balmez has inadvertently characterized it, in characterizing the literary policy of Mahometanism, only substituting the word Church for the Alcoran.

"Their whole system, with respect to letters and intellectual cultivation, is founded on that stupid maxim, uttered by one of their chiefs, when he condemned an immense library to the flames, If their books are contrary to the Alcoran, they should be burnt as pernicious; if they are not contrary to it, they should be burnt as useless.'"-P. 192.*

But we must draw our article to a close. It is impossible to read the work of Balmez without melancholy feelings. It is the production of a superior mind, intellectual, moral, of high and generous feelings, that loves to dwell on all that is elevating and inspiring in the Christian Church and her doings, believing sincerely that Romanism and Christianity are identical, and that through Rome alone, Spain can be saved from being gallicized. Yet this thoughtful man, with an intelligence far beyond the majority of Romish ecclesiastics, can descend to the following


"Protestantism has certainly never revealed to the world a single dogma which exalts the dignity of man, nor created fresh motives of consideration and respect, or closer bonds of fraternity. The Refor

* In Mendhom's literary policy of Rome, our readers will find ample details of Rome's rage against books, amounting to more destructiveness far, than Sultan Omer ever sanctioned, even if the Alexandrian Library were as large as it is fabled to have been.

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mation cannot, therefore, boast of having given the least impetus to the progress of modern nations; it cannot consequently lay the least claim to the gratitude of the people in this respect."--P. 288.

" Has God any need of thy lie ?” he exclaims as he closes his work. God has not—but Rome has and finds many, and these not always her least minds, equally ready to lie for her or to die for her. Protestantism never proposed to have revealed new truths, but only to have restored old ones, that lay buried or corrupted with associated errors, and by the work of restoration, brought the human heart and conscience once more into direct contact with the lessons of God.

It is more melancholy still to find this reviver of Spanish Philosophy and the Spanish Church, who acknowledges in the opening of his book, that the weakest and most unworthy method of influencing men is force," and that “this wholesome truth Christianity has proclaimed,” defending the Inquisition on the plea of necessity. In the 16th century the introduction of Protestantism was imminent and inevitable without the system pursued by Philip II.” His book gives no hope that the Spanish conquest of souls by the conquest of bodies may not be renewed in time convenient, or that Protestantism and Romanism, books or men, shall yet have a fair field to try conclusions in Spain. While we pen these words, the revived ascendency of the Spanish Church, and her stern intolerance of every Protestant movement, is proclaimed in the recent correspondence between Her Majesty's late government and the present Spanish ministry, on the subject of a cemetery for the Protestants in Madrid. It is at length conceded, but with conditions which forbid the slightest religious act within its walls.

But we have done. Guizot has reproached Protestantism with not accepting more cordially the consequences of its own principles. The reproach is just. Each Protestant party thought division should stop with itself, and persecuted the new separatists. That blunder is now, however, at an end, we trust for ever. Some Protestants now shew in a different way, their aversion to accept the consequences of the principles of the Reformation, by lamenting overmuch our divisions, and forgetting the blessings that so far outweigh them all, even were they greater than they are. As well might we fall out with our summers for their growth of weeds. These divisions are more than signs of our intellectual pride, and religious conceit, and contentious spirit. They are also signs of the reality of our freedom of the intellectual activity it has awakened, and of our profound interest in religious truth. Our divisions, with all their excesses and follies, are every way a more noble thing than that fraudulent thing Rome calls unity, or that lenity of apathy which characterized the Protestantism VOL. XVII. NO, XXXIII.


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of last century. It may seem as it three centuries had been time enough for the Reformation to have exhausted its divisions, and to have healed them. But what are three hundred years to Him to whom a thousand years are but as one day. In the thousand years in which Rome, in her boasted unity, ruled the European world, we have seen how much slower was European progress. “ Providence,” Guizot finely observes, “does not trouble itself to follow out to-day the consequences of the principles which it laid down yesterday, yet its logic is not the less certain, and true, and sound." Let us beware of losing faith in the great result, because it comes not in our day. It will come, and will not tarry, therefore wait for it. Society will not always, under its right of private judgment, be like the drunken horseman to which Luther compared it-falling now on one side, now on the other, Its falls and oscillations will become fewer and more limited in their range as time advances, and as society enlarges that circle of intelligent minds that constitutes her common sense and selfregulating power. Society, like other children, will learn to balance itself

, and by much the same kind of training as the infant man, when, on the acquisition of the new faculty, all the previous stumbles and accidents are soon forgotten. Have we not seen some approach to this in the diminished range of the oscillations, both civil and religious, of British society in our own day, and shall we despair of seeing nearer approximations in future generations to the condition of a more united people in religion and in politics—when our progress shall not be by antagonism only-but by “the provoking of one another in love."

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