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to fix a limit to his own inquiries. This however is not often done with sufficient precision, and hence we have many theories of the mind differing from each other, in consequence of the different points at which the writers have entered the field, and the number and ex. tent of the materials embraced in their discussions. Thus the true nature of the subject is not fully reached, or it is encumbered and obscured by additions of science falsely so called.
To avoid these incumbrances and produce a philosophy of the mind worthy of all acceptation, the inquirer should plant himself on those fixed principles of intellectual science, on which all reflecting men agree. These together with those mental phenomena which are supported by the testimony of universal experience, should constitute the foundation of his structure, and nothing should be “ builded thereupon," which will not stand firmly upon this foundation, or which shall in any measure disturb or disarrange the materials of it. Having attained this agreement as to fundamental principles and facts, the next object to be aimed at should be agreement in the use and definition of the proper terms to express these principles and facts. If every new writer invents new terms, or gives new definitions to old ones, the result will soon be a confusion of tongnes on this whole subject. This is one error into which we think Mr. Sawyer has fallen in the work before us. He has extended, for instance, the signification of the word mind, so as to embrace the principle of life in animals and vegetables, as well as in man, and speaks of “animal minds” and “ vegetable minds.” This, in our view, at once introduces confusion into the science, and leads the author to some absurd conclusions. Following out the theory indicated by this definition, and subjecting all“ minds, human, animal and vegetable," to one general law, he infers the actual extension of mind and its “ capacity of indefinite extension," " as the same vegetable mind which is now limited to the narrow dimensions of an acorn, is capa. ble of being expanded to those of the largest oak, and the same hu. man mind which is now restricted to the narrow dimensions of an infant body, is capable of being expanded to those of the largest man.' He infers also the “ indefinite divisibility of mind," and hence, the probability that minds are propagated by division, the mind of the offspring, (vegetable, animal, or human,) being a disconnected part of that of the parent, and a successor to it. The reader will judge whether this language does not confound mind with matter, and far overstep the proper boundaries of mental science.
There are some other fanciful positions assumed in this book, from which we must beg leave to dissent, but which the limits of our notice will not allow us to discuss. On the whole, though this publication indicates considerable study of the subject, and contaias some sound principles and valuable remarks, we are sorry to add
that in our judgment the author has failed to adapt it with any probable prospect of success or profit, either to “ Academic” or “popu. lar use."
14.-A Review of Edwards's “ Inquiry into the Freedom of the
Will.” Containing I. Statement of Edwards's System.
New York : John S. Taylor, 1839. pp. 300. This is a work the appearance of which is ominous of good. It indicates an existing and a growing spirit of free inquiry and of lib. eral thought. It may be considered as representing the views of a portion of the religious community upon a subject the most interesting and difficult in the whole range of metaphysics, and of deep practical importance. It is the most elaborate and extended professed review of · Edwards on the Will,' that has appeared in this country, with the exception of the • Examination by the late Dr. Dana of New Haven, the successive parts of which were published in 1770 and 1773. We are glad to see a work embodying the results of more recent investigations in this department, as it will bring the subject more fairly into the field for discussion, and the great mass of our theologians and metaphysicians, who stand substantially on the ground of Edwards, will know with whom and with what they are to contend.
Prof. Tappan seems to enter upon his task in a spirit of manly impartiality. He thinks that the progress of independent inquiry upon the subject has been greatly retarded by its connection with theological controversies, and is determined that his own shall be a purely psychological investigation. He proposes to submit the theory of Edwards to the test of consciousness, and so far from weakening the supports of evangelical religion, he hopes by this independent process to place it on a surer basis.
In the first part of the work is presented an analysis of the five sections which comprise the first part of the Inquiry into the Freedom of the Will. On the basis of this analysis, the author presents a Compend of what he understands to be the Psychological System of President Edwards. This is followed by a brief comparison of the systems of Edwards and Locke.
The Second part presents “ The legitimate Consequences of Edwards's system,” both those which are derived from it by its advocates, so far as they are logically deducible, and those which are inferred by its enemies, who wish by a reductio ad absurdum to overthrow it. The legitimateness of some of these consequences is at least a fair subject for dispute. SECOND SERIES, VOL. II. No. III.
The Third part is designed to refute the arguments of Edwards against the self determining power of the will, and against a contingent determination. With reference to the reduction of a self de. terming act of will to the absurdity of an act before the first, the author states that such reasoning would be fatal to all causality, even that of motives, that it is contrary to the testimony of consciousness, and to the virtual admissions of President Edwards himself. The real point in dispute he considers the necessary or contingent determination of the will—and to that part of the subject he devotes the remainder of his work. To give an abstract of this defence of a contingent will would be impossible in the limits of this notice. We hope to be able in a subsequent and more extended article to give our own views of the positions here so ably maintained, to several of which, we do not yield our assent.
The becoming respect and veneration exhibited by the author towards the distinguished theologian whose theory he assails, may be seen from the following passage. The great man with whose work I have been engaged, I honor and admire for his intellectual might, and love and venerate for a purity and elevation of spirit, which places him among the most sainted names of the christian church. But have I done wrong not to be seduced by his genius, nor won and commanded by his piety to the belief of his philosophy? I have not done wrong if that be a false philosophy. 'When he leads me to the cross, and speaks to me of salvation, I hear in mute attentionand one of the old preachers of the martyr age seems to have reappeared. But when we take a walk in the Academic grove, I view him in a different character, and here his voice does not sound to me so sweet as Plato's.'
This work, we learn from the author, is to be followed by another, now in the course of preparation, which will present" the true doc trine of the will as deiermined by an appeal to consciousness," and as connected with moral agency, and the precepts of the Bible.
Additional Notices of New Publications. We have prepared notices of the following books, which we are obliged to defer.
Fuhrmann's Manual of Recent Theological Literature. German. 1836.
Memoir of Mrs. Sarah L. Smith, late of the Mission in Syria, under the direction of the A. B. C. F. M. By Edward W. Hooker, Pastor of the First Cong. Church, Bennington, Vt. Boston: Perkins & Marvin, 1839. pp. 407. One of the very best memoirs we have read.
Mc Donner; or Truth through Fiction. By Jacob Abbott. Boston: Crocker & Brewster, 1839. pp. 283.–An intensely interesting book.
Narrative of a Journey to Guatemala in Central America in 1838. By G. W. Montgomery, New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1839. pp. 195.
Impressions of Travel in Egypt and Arabia Petraea. By Alexander Du
Translated from the French, by a Lady of New York. New York : John S. Taylor, 1839. pp. 318.
Memoir of Mrs. Elizabeth Mc Farland; or Full Assurance of Hope the Reward of Diligence in the Christian Life. By Nathaniel Bouton. Concord, N. H.: Marsh, Capen & Lyon, 1839. pp. 319.
The World's Religion, as contrasted with Genuine Christianity. By Lady Colquhoun, daughter of the Hon. Sir John Sinclair. New York : John S. Taylor, 1839. pp. 207,
School History of the United States, containing Maps, a Chronological Chart, and an Outline of Topics for a more extensive Course of Study. By S. R. Hall and A. R. Baker. Andover: William Pierce, 1839. pp. 368.
The Three Last Things; the Resurrection of the Body, Day of Judg. ment, and Final Retribution. By Joseph Tracy. Boston: Crocker & Brewster, 1839. pp. 104.
Spiritual Improvement; or Aid to Growth in Grace. A Companion for the Christian's Closet. By Ray Palmer, Pastor of the Third Cong. Church, Bath, Me. Boston : Perkins & Marvin, 1839. pp. 239.
LITERARY AND MISCELLANEOUS INTELLIGENCE.
United States. The Presbyterian Controversy,- In the last Number of the Repository we inserted a brief Notice of the Decision of Judge Rogers on the cause pending before the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania in relation to the two bodies claiming to be the General Assembly of the Presbyterian church. Since that date the cause has been argued before the Court, in Bank, the Decision of Judge Rogers reversed, and a new trial ordered. A. McElroy, Philadelphia, has in press and nearly ready for publication, an “ Accurate and Impartial Report,” of about 400 pages, embracing all the pleadings, testimony, arguments and documents of the case. Our readers may expect a Review of this volume, and of the conflicting decisions of the Court of Pennsylvania in regard to it, in the next Number of the Repository, prepared by a gentleman of the Bar.
Europe. The following are some of the most important theological and philological works that have appeared in Europe within the past year :
Der Brief an die Hebraer, theoretisch-praktisch erklart. Von Dr. K. W. Stein. 8vo. Leipzig. 1838.
Allgemeine Geschichte der Katholischen Kirche von dem Ende des Tridentinischen Konciliums bis auf unsere Tage. Von Dr. E. Munch. 8vo. Carlsruhe, 1839.
Kommentar uber die Genesis. Von Dr. Fr. Tuch. 8vo. Halle 1838.
Neue Kritische Untersuchungen über das Buch Daniel. Von Dr. H. Havernick. Bro. Hamburg, 1838.
Die Christliche Kirche auf Erden nach der Lehre der heiligen Schrift und der Geschichte. Von Dr. N. C. Kist, trans, from the Dutch by Dr. L. Tross. 8vo. Leipzig. 1838.
Mohammed's Religion nach ihner inneren Entwickelung, und ihrem Einflusse auf das Leben der Völker. Eine historische Betrachtung. Von Prof. J. J. J. Döllinger. 4to. Regensburg, 1838.
F. Wallner, aber die Verwandtschaft des Indo-germanischen, Semitische und Tibetanischen, nebst einer Einleitung über den Ursprung der Sprache. 8vo. Munster, 1838. A. Pietet, de l'Affinité des langues Celtiques avec le Sancrit. 8vo. Paris, 1839.
Hebrew.- Die Thränen oder Klagelieder Jeremiae, mit Benutzung alterer und neuerer Manuscripte, edirt, erklart, und metrisch Obersetzt, von L. H. Löwenstein. 8vo. Frankfort, 1838.
Salomo's Proverbien, mit Benutzung alterer und neuerer Manuscripte, edirt, erklärt, und metr. übersetzt. By the same.
Jesurim sive Prolegomenon in Concordantias Veteris Testamenti a Julio Fürstio editas, Libris tres, 8vo. Grimmae, 1838.
Schulehan Aruch, oder die vier Jadischen Gesetzböcher. Des 2ten Buchs (Privat-Recht; 2te Hälfte, im Deutsche übertragen. Mit einem Anhange von H. G. F. Löwe sen. 8vo. Hamburg, 1838.
Philonis Judaei de Vita Mosis. Hoc est de Theologia et Prophetia idiomate Graeco olim descripta et in tres libros divisa, nunc autem in linguam hebraicum translata auctaque una notis in usum lectorum, etc. 8vo. Prague, 1839.
Arabic and Persian.-Le Diwan d'Amroʻlkais, précédé de la vie de ce poète par l'auteur der Kitale El-Aghani. Text with French translation and Notes. 4to. Paris, 1838. Also by the same editor.
Kitale Wafayat Al-Ainyan. Viers des Homines illustres de l'Islamisme en Arabe, par Ibn Khallikan. Vol. I. Part. I. 4to.
Arabum Proverbia vocalibus instruxit, latine vertit, commentario illustravit, et sumptibus suis edidit G. W. Freytag. Vol. I, Part. I. containing the collection of Meidani. 8vo. Bonn. 1839.
Scriptorum Arabum de Rebus Indicis loci et opuscula, ad codi um fidem recensuit et illustravit Joh. Gildemeister. Fasc. I. 8vo. Bonn, 1839.
Suirchondi Historia Seleucidarum, persice; a codd. MSS. nunc primum edidit et annotationibus illustravit Prof. J. A. Vullers. 8vo. Gissae, 1839. Also a German translation and notes, by the same author.
Mahmud Schebisteijs Rosenflor des Geheimnisses. Persian and Cerman translation, and edited by Hammer Pingstall. 4to. Perth, 1839.
Sanscrit.- Ramayana, id est Carmen epicum de Ramae rebus gestis Poetae antiquissimi Valmicis opus. Textum codd. MSS. collatis recensuit, interp. lat. et annott. crit. adjecit Dr. A. G. Schlegel. 2 vols. 8vo. 1839.
Anthologia Sanscritica, glossario instructa, in usum scholarum edidit Dr. Chr. Lassen. 8vo. Bonn, 1839.
Gita Govinda Jayadevae Poeta Indici, Drama lyricum. Textum ad fidem libr. MSS. recogn. scholia selecta, annot, criticam interp. lat. adjecit Prof. Cbr. Lassen. 4to. Bonn, 1839.
Institutiones linguae Practicae. By the same. 8vo. Bonn.
Chinese.--Théâtre Chinois, or Choix de pièces de théâtre composées so empéreurs mongols, traduites pour la première fois sur le texte original, précédées d'une introduction et accompagnies, etc. Notes. 8vo. Paris, 1839.