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the gates. During his absence, the tificial mcans, are enumerated Metruchamber in which Scopas and his guests durus, Hippias, and Theodectes. were carousinn, fell in, and in its fall The Romans bestowed no less attenthey were crushed to death. The rela- tion on this art, the subject of Cicero's tions of these unfortunate revellers, anxi- panegyric and discussion throughout a ous to honour thein with funercal ob- ubole chapter of his masterly treatise on sequies, were unable to recognize their Oratory.* Yet Cicero's conviction of persons in the mangled and distigured its utility did not prevent Quinctilian's corpses, which lay strewed around, oil assertion of its ineficiency, a short time Siniunides overcame this dilemına, by afteru ard); for we find the latter sumreinembering the distinct places each ming up his thoughts upon it, in these had occupied at table; and hus pointing valement terms:-“Wherefore, both out each individual to those who sought Camcades, and the Scopsius Metrodorus, his remains, * This event sug:icoied (of whom I have just spoken,) who, as to his opind the pracicability of making Cicero says, had used this exercise, may external impressions subservient to the keep ihis method to theinselves: we will strengthening of memory, by sclec ing pass over to a more simple subject.”+ pinces and images, as so many reposito. Fabius, the bistorian, also ridicules this 019 and symbols of ideas. Hence, he art in his IIth book. Anemonics, was led to propound a method of asso however, still continued in great repule; ciating the ideas of things to be retained and Cicero, strengthening precept by in the ineingry, with ihe ideas of objects example, boasted that they were the conseyed to the mind by that acutest basis of bis excellent mémory. It is said, of our senses-the sight; and already their practice was cultivated with sucimpressed upon it in a regular series. cess, by others of'no less repute ; amongst The invention of this method stamped whom, Crassus, Julius Cesar, and him as the Father of the Mnemonic Artif Seneca, are particularly noticed. Cicero tills us, that when Simonides. This art appears to have lain dormant offered to insiruet Themistocles in his in alier-ages, till that luminary of method, his other was rejected in these science, Raiinond Lulle, I thought fit to memorable words: “Ah! (replied the bring it once inore into notice among thie bero,) rather teach me the art of torget learned; and woocd it with such diliting; for I otien remember what I would gence, that it has ever since been called nut, and cannot forget what I would." Lule's Art.' I shall not detain your
Froun this time, Mnemonics became a readers, by entering into an analysis of favourite pursuit with ihe Greeks; and Luile's method, which is amply detailed being brought to perfection by Scepsius by Mochof, and in Gray's Memoria Metrodorus, I was in great vogue among Technica. their orators. They are saili to have Mnemonics had not yet attained the made use of the statues, paintings, or- meridian of their greatness: this epoch Danienis,' and other external circum- was reserved for the sixteenth century; stances, of the places where they ha- and I question much, whether any are Janglied, for reviving, in progressive ore der, the topics and matter of their ora
. * De Oratore, lib. i. sect. 86, 87. tions, which they had already appro
t. Quare et Carneades et Scepsius (de priaied to each circuir:stance. In the
quo modo dixi) Metrodorus, quos Cicero dicit,
usos hac exercitatione, sibi habeant sua : nos list of those who prided themselves on
simpiiciora tradamus '---- Inst. Orat, ut supra. having perfected their memory by ar
Dr. Benicie also says, in conclusion of his
remaks on Artificial Memory, “ I cannot by Cicero and Phaedrus, in his fables.
bus think with Quinctilian, that the Art was + This system of Simonides, is founded on
100 complex, and that Memory may be imthat theory of emblems, wbica Bacon so
prova oy casier methods.". Diss. Mor, and
Crit, chap.ji. sect. 3. Lord Bacon held a justly characterizes : « E»llima verò decenat
similar opinion, as well as Morhof, in whose intellectualt at sensibile : sensibile autem femper
" Polyhistor Literar." (lib. ii. Cap. v. de fortis por cistit memorium, atque in ea facilis
Arte Lulliana, and cap. vi. De Memoriae Amerjuríur, .171 intellrtialle.” Emblem re
Subsidiis,) is preserved an elaborate account dicet conceits intellec ual to images sensible, which always stribe the merg mure
of the writers on this subject. forcibly, and are therefore the more easily
I Gispar Scioppius, speaking of this
Doctor Illuminatus,' terms him, with jusimprinted, than intelle. tual conceits.-BA
tico, "lutulentum et ineptum FUN'Alma, Scientian. Liis. vi. cap. 2.
sed portentosi acuminis,”-Comncat. de Styla 1 Plinii His. Nat. lib. viii. c. 91.
has ever been the subject of a more self as commissioned by Schenkel, ļo tedious and obstinate controversy; or instructihe whole world. has been brought forward under more “ A lawver, (says he,) who has a bone illustrious auspices, with greater solem- dred causes and more to conduct, by the nity, or a unore bare-faceri impudence. assistance of my Mnemonies, may stamp These will be sufficiently manifest in the them so strongly on his memory, that he account I shall now render of the Mne- will know in what wise to answer each monistic Duamvirate of Lambert client, in any order, and at any hour, Schenkel, and his baud indignus ple- with as much precision as if he had but njpotentiary, Martin Sommer,
just perused his brief. And in ploading, Lanbert or Lamprecht Schenkel, he will not only have the evidence and born at Bois-le-Due, 'in 1547, was the reasonings of his own party, at his fingers' son of an apothecary and philologist. ends, but mirabile dictu !) all the He went through his academical course grounds and refutations of his antagonist at Lyons and Cologne, and afterwards also! Let a man go into a library, and became a teacher of rhetoric, prosody, read one book atieravother, yet shall be and gymnastics, at Paris, Antwerp, Ma. be able to write down every sentence Jmes, and Rouen ; not forgetting, as the of what he has read, many days after at custom of the age required, to claim his home. The proficient in this science ute to scholarship, by writing Latin can dictate matters of the most opposite verses. From these, however, he ac- nature, to ten, or thirty writers, altera quired no celebrity proportionate to that mately. After four weeks' exercise, he which was reared on bis discoveries in will be able to class twenty-five thousand the Mnemonic Art. The more eliec- disarranged portraits within the saying tually to propagate these discoveries, he of a paternoster:-aye, and he will do travelled through the Netherlands, Ger- this ten times a day, without extraordia many, and France; where his method nary exertion and with more precision was inspected by the great, and transmit. than another, wbo is ignorant of the art, red from one university to another can do it in a whole yea;! Ile will no Applause followed every where at his longer stand in need of a library for re. heels. Princes and nobles, ecclesiastics ferring to. This course of study may be and laymen, alike took soundings of his completed in nine days"--perhaps in the depth; and Schenhel brought himself same way that foreign languages are through every ordeal, to the astonishment now-a-days taught in twelve lessons !)-and admiration of his judges. The r. c. “and an bour's practice daily, will be suf. tor of the Sorbonne, at Paris, having ficient : but, when the rules are once previously made trial of his merits, per- acquired, they require but half an hour's mitted him to teach his science at that exercise daily. Every pupil, who has university; and Marillon, Maitre des afterwards well-grounded complamts 10 Requêts, having done the same gave allege, shall not only have the premium him an exclusive privilege for practising paid in the first instance, returned to Mnemonics throughout the French do. him, but an addition will be made to it, Ininions. His auditors were, however, The professor of this art, makes huit a prohibited from communicating this art short stay in every place. Wben called to others, under a severe penalty. As upon, he will submit proofs, adduce his time now became too precious to testimonials from the most eminent admit of his maling circuits, he dele- characters, and surprise the ignorant, gated this branch of his patent to the after four or six lessons, (observe!) with licentiate Martin Sommer, and invested the most incredible displays." Here him with a regular diploma, as his ple- follow testimonials from ihe most celenipotentiary for circulating his art, under brated universities. Nine alone are procertain stipulations, through Germany, duced from learned men at Leipzig, and France, Italy, Spain, and the neighbour- precede others from Marburg, and ing countries. Sommer now first pub- Frankfort on the Oder.” lished a Lalin treatise on this subject, At the same time was. published, which he dispersed in every place he “ Gazypholium Artis Memoriæ, illustravisited, under the title of “Brevis Delio tuin per Lambertum Schenkelium de neatio de utilitatibus et effectibus adınin Strasb. 1619 :" but this is for outdone by rabilibus Artis Memo ize.” (Venet. 1619, the preceding treatise of Sommer. The 12, 24 pp.) In this hic celebrates ibe rare student, destitute of oral instruction, feats of his master, and announces bine will gather about as much of Minemonics
by by wading through this treatise, as by requires that its powers should be at once secking them in the hieroglyphics of an ingenious and perceptive. Its acquire. Egyptian obelisk. It is pretty evidentment is founded on the association of that this Gazypholium,' was designedly ideas: nor does it fail to call wit and intended as a labyrinthal series: the imagination in aid of natural memory. author indeed closes his labours by con. Sominer's Compendium,consisting of eight fessing, thai the work was to be intrusted sections, was printed for the use of his only to his scholars, and referring for auditors. After his departure, permisfurther elucidation to oral precepts. sion is given to bis scholars to coinmuThe very basis of his art is concealed nicate their mnemonistic doubts, obserbeneath a jumble of signs and abbrevi- vations, and discoveries, to each other; ations: thus, sect. 9. d. a sect. 99; but no one can be present without le“ vidilicet, locus, imago ordo locorum, galizing himself previously, as one of the memoria loci, imagines.” And further, initiated, by prescribed signs: and he in setting forth the most important who fails in this, is excluded as a propoints, he amuses himself by evincing a faner. multitude of jingling, and unintelligible In thus tracing the origin of Mnemowords. As this work, besides being a nics, and their progress, down to the literary curiosity, had of late years be, sixteenth century, if the reader's curiosity come extremely rare; Doctor Klueber should be awakened by these memoranda not long since published a German of mine, he will find it gratified by a translation of it, and by his happy dex. reference to Cicero and Morhof, than terity in decyphering, has unravelled the whom no writer has so amply treated ambiguous passages in the original, and of Memory, and its assistants. Gray's illustrated them with a profusion of per- "Meinoria Technica' will supply him tinent annotations. *
with much information on this subAt all events, this work is a singular ject, to which the student's attention is production. Agreeably to the character also directed, in a plan of artificial me. of Schenkel's system, his development mory, lately laid down in Robinson's of the art does not confine itself to me- • Grammar of History.' chanical ideas alone. It sets the tech
Your's, &c. LIPSIENSIS. nical, syinbolical, and logical faculties of the memory, in equal activity; and To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine,
SIR, • Compendium der Mnemonik, &c.
IN conformity with the usual plan of Compendium of Nneronics, or the Art of
your Magazine, I send you a sum. Memory at the beginning of the seventeenth mary of meteorological observations for century, by L. Schenkel, and M. Sommer. the year which has just expired. I Translated from the Latin, with a Preface and shall begin with setting down the average Remarks, by D. Klüber. Erlangen. Palm. heat of cach month, for the years 1808 1804 8 ; pp. 104.
and 1809, which is as follows:
Mean Temperature . 500.619 490.239 From the foregoing Table it will be the highest temperature was in 1808; seen, that the first four months in the and on the whole year, the average last year, and likewise October and De height of the thermometer was nearly a cember, were hotter than the same degree and a half lower in 1809, than in months in 1808; but in the other months, the preceding year,
In page 32, of rol, xxvii, of this Ma- small, we conceive, to account for the gazine, we gave the average temperature quantity of rain fallen during the last for the seven years preceding, as it was twelve months; which is equal to 47.875 taken at Camden-town, a village two inches in depth; and is eighteen inches miles from the metropolis, which was more than the average depth for the 300-48; the average of the last year is above-named period, which will be found therefore rather more than a degree in the page and voluine already referred sbort of this. At the saine place, and to, to be 29.613 inches. This last for the same period, the average height quantity, is nearly the average depth also of the barometer was 29.786: for the for six years, ac Bristol, as will be seen by yresent year, at Highgate, the mean the following Table: height is 29.522: this difference is too. Account of the Quantity of Rain fallen in each Month, since the Year 1802, as ascese tuined by a correct Rain-gauge. By Dr. Pole, Bristol.
1803.) 1804, 1805. 1800. 1807. 1808.
Total 27 39 99 77 126 1 34 38 31 31 32 8 !
Average Quantity for euch Year, is equal : 29:40. During the year 1809, the number of We shall pass on to the prevailing rainy days bas exceeded those that may winds during the year. From ihe obserbe reckoned brilliant in the proportion vations made by order of the Royal 119 to 128; the remainder are divided into Society of London, it should seem that fair, cloudy, and those on which snow or the south-west winds are by much the bail fell, so that the whole will stand thus: most predominant in London: from our Brilliant days - 128
own notes we find the westerly, and Fair - - 46
north-west, have had the advantage Cloudy - - 31
during the last year. The following Rainy - - 142
Table will enable the reader to draw a Snow or hail - 18
565 Average Observations by the Royal Society. , Observations at Highgate, for 1809. Winds. No, of days.
No. of days. South-west 112
60 North-east 56
40 North-west 51
64 West 53
64 South-east 33
47 South Aorth 16
It is stated, from the register kept at this passage as follows: " Gemit civitas the Royal Society, that the south-west a terra tunquam circunclusit;" as if wind blows more upon an average in they had found the word gôi Sey. It aptach mouth of the year than any other, pears, indeed, that the scholiast read particularly in July and Angust: that the the word so ; TELETZ., (says he,) á úpe tépot north-east prevails during January, 2i. The word on hoy does not seem 10 Marcii, April, May, and Jone; and in have any meaning: mõey, on the conmost unfriquent in February, July, Sep- trary, expresses very well that dead tember, and December: the north-west sound occasioned by the trampling of a occurring more frequently from Novem- multitude of men on the earth, and which ber to March; and less so in Scptome is prolonged to a greater or lesser disber and October than in any other tance; but instead of translating it, montis. Our observations for the last " Tunquam circumclusa ;” it should ra. year, do not correspond with this state- ther be, " utpote sub pedibus circuma ment; and the difference inay perhaps sese-fundentuim; for the poet did not account for the quantity of rain fallen; mean to describe the grief of an afflicted for the few hot days, and in short, for people, but the actual noise which alle that small share of sumuiner weather, nounces the approach of eneniies towards which was open to every person's notice. the ramparts. Highgate,
Your's, &c. Verse 437 offers an interesting varia. . Jan. 3, 1810.
J.J. tion. In our editions,we read,
Υπευχομαι δη ταδε μεν ευτυχείν * For the Monthly Magazine.
i Toppaax' ej 'y oou.ar. MANUscret of ÆSCUYLUS'S TRAGICIES. " Opto gundem huic suceedere defensor
entitled, the " SEVEN at THEBES," and mearun domorum."-This dative Twós, “PROMETIIEUS."
which is of the third person, cannot acTHE learned French critic, Mons. cord with the vocative, you are. The
Vauviliers, bas discovered in the manuscript before us reads távę, whicis library at Paris, formerly called the forms a very perfect sense" Opto Bibliotheqûe du Roi, a MS. copy of the quide:n in hoc certamine ;"--and it subSeren at Thebes, and Prometheus, by Es- joins, at the end of the verse, os, which chylus (No. 2785) on which he has ofered renders the phrase complete, the following remarks:
Eπευχομαι δη τάδε μεν ευτυχείν σε. In verse 13, of the “ Seron at Thebes," As to the measure of the verse, it de the particle Te is suppressed
pends on too many combinations to besz par t'xove' ixasov, üç To GUM TETES, come the object of these concise remarks, and in the manuscript cöper EX-v' fxe5cV;. It must, however, be observell, that but the omission of this letter gives some verse 619, Eteocles speaks of Amorder to a phrase, which before had phiararis, who, notwithstanding his piety, none; and M. Brunk bas found the same was, for having associated with the wicka reading in other MSS. and adopted it. ed, to perishilong with them : At verse 250, a fault occurs, it must
'A70519151 gume by Eb; be owned, yet it points out a good reading: Spacusoualsiv eripari operar side Teta gec:p "Aprs Bószstus poéveo Bporär.
Τεινεσι πομπην την μικρών παλίν μολείο
Διος θελοντος συγκαθελκα σβητεται. Our editions bave vám; it is not,
So it is found in our «dicions. What however, with fright, but with carnage, that Mars is glutung himself; and this
can ranoy Modely signify? Those words consideration induces us to prefer the
are translated by reverti, and that is cer
tainly the sense of tanıy. But the ray reading fóre, which another MS. presents. This reading may be easily
of Argos did not make any criminal era
forts for returning :--the crime with recognized in the word pdávy, as found in the NS. before us, and the faults
which Eteocies reproaches them is, that
of having come to attack unjustly the of different copies ofien yield this
city of Thebes.
M. advantage to attentive readers.
In fact, the inanuscript
reads morir. M. Brunk very properly Brunk also bas found cover in some MSS.
condemns, as ridiculous, the interpretaand has printed it accordingly. But the reading of 776er, in rerse 953,
tion of the scholiast, who explains these
words by the great journey towards the does not here appear. One edition has
internal regions; but, in applying them I tévet T625ha önbar, áş xax).spevár. to the city of Thebes itself, nothing can The Latin translators have rendered be more clear than the meaning.--" Con