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occidentalis (W. M. Wheeler). N. Dak., ? Wis.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 490-493, map. parvulus (M. R. Smith). Ill., N. Dak.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 202-203, map. pogonogynus (Buren). Idaho.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 493-494, map.
subglaber (Emery). Wis., Tenn.

Biology: G. Č. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 203-204, map.
Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 493. 495-496, map.

Genus MYRMECOCYSTUS Wesmael, pp. 854–857
comatus W. M. Wheeler. Colo.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 643-645, map.
lugubris W. M. Wheeler. Nev., Ariz.
mendax W. M. Wheeler.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 645-648, map.
mexicanus hortideorum McCook.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 648-651, map. navajo W. M. Wheeler. Colo.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 651-653, map. pyramicus M. R. Smith. Calif., Idaho.

Taxonomy: Cole, 1958 (1957). N. Y. Ent. Soc. Jour. 65: 129-130 (9, ).
semirufus Emery.
Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 653-655, map.

FORMICA subgenus PROFORMICA Ruzsky, p. 857
Taxonomy: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 206-214, figs.,

maps 50-53.
bradleyi W. M. Wheeler.
Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 206-209, fig.,

map. Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 602-606, map. lasioides Emery. Coast to coast in south. Canada and north. U. S. with ex

tensions in Rocky Mts. to N. Mex. and Appalachians.
Biology: Kincaid, 1963. Amer. Micros. Soc. Trans. 82: 101-105, figs. 1-5,
(as pollinators of plants).-G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit.

. .
Ecology: "Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 498-500, 502, map.
limata W. M. Wheeler. Utah.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 211-212, map.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 502, 504 map. manni W. M. Wheeler. Formica (Formica) manni W. M. Wheeler. Transf. by Wilson and Brown,

1955. Psyche 62: 126. Taxonomy: Wilson and Brown, 1955, loc. cit. supra, pp. 127-128. neogagates Emery. Coast to coast in south. Canada and north. U. S. with

extensions in the Appalachians to N. C. and in the Rocky Mts.

to N. Mex. Slave of Formica wheeleri Creighton. Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 212-214, fig., map.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 503-505, map.
obtusopilosa Emery.
Formica (Formica) obtusopilosa Emery. Transf. by Wilson and Brown,

1955. Psyche 62: 128.
Taxonomy: Wilson and Brown, 1955, loc. cit. supra, p. 128.
Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 217-219, fig., map.
Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 608-611 map.

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perpilosa W. M. Wheeler. Wyo.
Formica (Formica) perpilosa W. M. Wheeler. Transf. by Wilson and

Brown, 1955. Psyche 62: 128.
Taxonomy: Wilson and Brown, 1955, loc. cit. supra, p. 128.
Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 611-613, map.

FORMICA subgenus NEOFORMICA W. M. Wheeler, pp. 858–860 Biology: Kannowski, 1959. Insectes Sociaux 6: 147 (Alight comparisons). pallidefulva pallidefulva Latreille.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 625-628, map. pallidefulva nitidiventris Emery.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 628-630, map. schaufussi dolosa W. M. Wheeler. Va. to Fla. west to Iowa, Mo., Tex., and

Colo.
Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 630-632.

FORMICA subgenus FORMICA Linnaeus, pp. 860—873 Taxonomy: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 214-228, figs.,

maps 54-60 (sanguinea group); pp. 229-252, figs., maps 61-71 (rufa group); pp. 252-253, map 72 (microgyna group); pp. 254258, figs., map. 73 (exsecta group); pp. 258-274, figs., maps 74

79 (fusca group). Biology: Gosswald, 1957. Insectes Sociaux 4: 335-348, tables 1-9 (caste

determination in the genus Formica).-Kannowski, 1959. Insectes

Sociaux 6: 147. Morphology: Eisner, 1957, loc. cit. supra, pp. 473-474, pl. 25, figs. 100-103

(proventriculus). Physiology: Osman and Kloft, 1961. Insectes Sociaux 8: 383-395

(venom). altipetens W. M. Wheeler. N. Dak., Mont., and B. C. to Mex.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 260-261, map.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 507-509, map. aterrima Cresson.

Taxonomy: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 544, 546. ciliata Mayr. N. Dak. Temporary parasite of Formica cinerea lepida W. M.

Wheeler.
Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 233-234, map.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 545-547, map. cinerea var. canadensis Santschi. Syn. of cinerea lepida W. M. Wheeler. cinerea lepida W.M. Wheeler. Sask., Utah, Tex. Host of temporary parasites,

Formica ciliata Mayr, f. dakotensis Emery and F. criniventris

W. M. Wheeler. Formica (Formica) cinerea var. canadensis Santschi (syn. by M. R.

Smith, 1960. Ent. Soc. Wash. Proc. 62: 251-252). Biology: G. C. and J. Wheleer, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 261-263, map.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 509-512, 514, map. cinerea montana Emery. Ohio to Dakotas, Nebr., Colo., and N. Mex.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc cit. supra, pp. 263-264, map.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 513-514, map. comata W. M. Wheeler. N. Dak.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 547-548, 550, map. criniventris W. M. Wheeler. Probably a temporary parasite of F. cinerea

lepida W. M. Wheeler. Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 234-236, fig., map.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 549-551, map. curiosa Creighton.

Taxonomy: Wilson and Brown, 1955. Psyche 62: 123-125, fig. 2.

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dakotensis Emery. Alaska, Nev., N. Dak., Ohio.
Formica (Formica) dakotensis var. montigena W. M. Wheeler (syn. by

Brown, 1957. Ent. News 68: 167).
Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 236-238, map.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 551-554, map.
dakotensis var. montigena W. M. Wheeler. Syn of dakotensis Emery,
densiventris Viereck. Utah.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 589-593, map.
exsectoides Forel. Miss. (Holly Springs).

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 597-599, map.
Physiology: Eisner and Happ, 1964. Sci. 134: 329-331, figs. 1-4 (haemor-

rhage of a coccinellid beetle and its repellent effect on ants).
fossaceps Buren. N. Dak.
Biology: King, 1949. Iowa Acad. Sci. Proc. 56: 367-370 (mixed colony

with F. obscuriventris clivia Creighton).-King, 1951. Op. cit., pp. 487-489.-King, 1952. Op. cit. pp. 469-474, figs. 1, 2 (macropseudogynes, or ? pterergates).-King and Sallee, 1957. Op. cit. 64: 667-669, table 1 (mixed colony with F. obscuriventris clivia). -King and Sallee, 1959. Op. cit. 66: 472-473 (slave of F. rubicunda Emery).—King and Sallee, 1962. Op. cit. 69: 531-539, figs. 1-12, table 1 (mixed colony with F. obscuriventris clivia).-G. C.

and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 238-239, map. fusca Linnaeus. Holarctic. Labrador and Alaska south through Canada.

Occurs in every state in U. S., but absent from certain unfavorable

habitats, such as deserts. Biology: King, 1949. Iowa Acad. Sci. Proc. 56: 367-370 (in mixed colony

with Formica reflexa Buren).-King, 1951. Op. cit. pp. 487-489
(ibidem).-Kannowski, 1959. Insectes Sociaux 6: 141-142.-
Wallis, 1960. Op. cit. 7: 187-190._figs. 1-8, tables 1-2 (spinning
movements of larvae).-G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra,

pp. 264-267, map.
Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 514-525, map.
hewitti W. M. Wheeler.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 526-527, map.
integra haemorrhoidalis Emery.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 854-857, map. integroides coloradensis W. M. Wheeler.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 557-560, map. integroides planipilis Creighton. Utah, Colo., Wyo., N. Dak., Wash.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 560-561, map. integroides propinqua W. M. Wheeler. Colo., Utah.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 562-564, map. laeviceps Creighton. N. Dak., Colo.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 239-240, map.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 564-565, map. manni W. M. Wheeler. Transf. to Formica subg. Proformica Ruzsky, p. 857. marcida W. M. Wheeler. N. Dak., S. Dak.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 267-268, map. mucescens W. M. Wheeler.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 566-567, map. microgyna W. M. Wheeler. Wyo., Utah, N. Mex.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 584-587, map.
neoclara Emery.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 268-271, fig., map.
Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 526, 528-530, map.

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neorufibarbis gelida W. M. Wheeler. Calif. to Alaska to Sask. and south

through Rocky Mts. to N. Mex. Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 533-536, map. neorufibarbis neorufibarbis Emery. Nebr. Biology: Kannowski, 1959. Insectes Sociaux 6: 142.-G. C. and J.

Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 271-273, map. Ecology: Brown, 1955. Ent. News 66: 47-50.-Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra,

pp. 530-533, map. obscuripes obscuripes Forel. South. Canada and north. U. S. from Ind. and

Mich. to Calif. and B. C., also the Rocky Mt. states. Biology: King and Sallee, 1957. Iowa Acad. Sci. Proc. 63: 721-723, tables

1-3.—Talbot, 1959. Amer. Midland Nat. 61: 124-128 (flight ac tivities).-G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 240-244

fig., map. Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 566, 568-572, map. obscuripes ravida W. M. Wheeler. Colo.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 579-581, map. obscuriventris clivia Creighton. Colo., N. Mex. Biology: King, 1949. Iowa Acad. Sci. Proc. 56: 367-370 (mixed colony

with Formica fossaceps Buren).–King and Sallee, 1951. Op. cit. 58: 487-489 (ibidem):-King, 1955. Op. cit. 62: 509-513, figs. 1, 2 (winged workers).-King and Sallee, 1959. Op. cit. 66: 472-473 (slave of Formica rubicunda Emery).–King and Sallee, 1962. Op. cit. 69: 531-539, figs. 1-12, table 1 (mixed colonies with

Formica fossaceps Buren). Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 574-577, map. obscuriventris obscuriventris Mayr.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 244-246, map.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, 572-574, map. obtusopilosa Emery. Transf. to Formica subg. Proformica Ruzsky, p. 858. opaciventris Emery. N. Dak. Biology: Scherba, 1961. N. Y. Ent. Soc. Jour. 69: 71-87, tables 1-6 (re

production, nest structure).-Scherba, 1963. Op. cit. 71: 219-231, tables 1-6, figs. 1-3.-G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra,

pp. 254-256, map. oreas comptula W. M. Wheeler.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 246-248, map. oreas oreas W. M. Wheeler.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 577-579, map. oregonensis Cole. Biology: Kincaid, 1963. Amer. Micros. Soc. Trans. 82: 101-105, figs.

1-5 (pollinates a plant). Taxonomy: Cole, 1956. Tenn. Acad. Sci. Jour. 31: 212-214. parcipappa Cole.

Taxonomy: Wilson and Brown, 1955. Psyche 62: 125. perpilosa W. M. Wheeler. Transf. to Formica subg. Proformica Ruzsky, p. 858. postoculata Kennedy and Dennis. Pa. (Mt. Morris). pruinosa W. M. Wheeler.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 537-539, map. puberula Emery.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 220-221, map.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 613-616 map. rasilis W. M. Wheeler.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 587-589, map. reflexa Buren. N. Dak.

Biology: King, 1949. Iowa Acad. Sci. Proc. 56: 367-379 (mixed colony

with_fusca L.).—King, 1951. Op. cit. 487-489 (ibidem).-G. C.

and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 249-250, map. rubicunda Emery. Biology: King and Sallee, 1959. Iowa Acad. Sci. Proc. 66: 472-473

(slaves—Formica fossaceps Buren and F. obscuriventris clivia Creighton).-G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 221

223, map. Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 616-618, map. rufibarbis gnava Buckley.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 539-541, map. spatulata Buren.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, p. 253, map. subintegra Emery. Biology: Brown, 1959 (1958). Psyche 65: 39-40.-G. C. and J. Wheeler,

1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 225-227, map. sublucida W. M. Wheeler. New England states to S. Dak., Colo.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 622-623, map. subnitens Creighton. N. Dak., Oreg., Colo.

Taxonomy: Miller, 1957. Insectes Sociaux 4: 253-257, figs. 1-4 (8, 9, ).
Biology: Ayre, 1957. Insectes Sociaux 4: 173-176 (ecological notes).

Ayre, 1958. Op. cit. 5: 1-7.-Ayre, 1958, Op. cit. 5: 147-157, fig.
1 (meterological factors affecting foraging).-Ayre, 1959. Op.

cit. 6: 105-114, figs. 1-3 (food habits). Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 581-584, map.-G. C. and J.

Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 250-252, map. subnuda Emery.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 223-225, map.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 618-621, map. subpolita ficticia W. M. Wheeler.

Ecology: Gregg 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 541-542, map. ulkei Emery. Iowa, Ind., Wyo. Biology: Scherba, 1958. Insectes Sociaux 5: 201-213, figs. 1-5 (reproduc

tion, mounds),-Kannowski, 1959. Op. cit. 6: 142-143.- Talbot, 1959. Amer. Midland Nat. 61: 128-132 (flight activities).Scherba, 1959, Op. cit. 61: 499-508, figs. 1-2 (moisture regulations in mounds).—Talbot, 1961. Ecology 42: 202-205 (mounds),Scherba, 1962. Amer. Midland Nat. 67: 373-385, figs. 1-4 (mound temperatures).-G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp.

256-258, fig., map. wheeleri Creighton. N. Dak. Slave: Formica neogagates Emery.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 227-228, map.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 623-625, map. whymperi alpina W. M. Wheeler.

Taxonomy and Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 593-596 (!).

Genus POLYERGUS Latreille, pp. 873—875
Taxonomy: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 274-277, figs.,

maps 80, 81.
Biology: Dobrzanska and Dobrzanska, 1960. Insectes Sociaux 7: 1-8 (new

observations on Polyergus rufescens Latr.). Morphology: Forbes and Brassel, 1962. N. Y. Ent. Soc. Jour. 70: 79-87,

pl. 1, figs. 1-5; pl. 2, figs. 8-19 (male genitalia and terminal segments of Polyergus rufescens bicolor Wasmann, P. r. breviceps

Emery, P. r. umbratus W. M. Wheeler, and P. lucidus Mayr). lucidus longicornis M. R. Smith. Ga., N. C. lucidus lucidus Mayr. N. Dak., Ark., Colo.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 274-275, map.
Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 633-635, map.

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