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Subfamily MYRMICINAE Taxonomy: (. C. and J. Wheeler, 1960. Ent. Soc. Amer. Ann. 53: 98

110, pl. 1; figs. 1-3 (ant larvae).--G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1960. Ent. Suc. Wash. Proc. 62: 1-32, pl. 1-2 (ant larvae).

MYRMICA subgenus MYRMICA Latreille, pp. 789-791 Taxonomy: Collingwood, 1958. Roy. Ent. Soc., London Proc., Ser. A.33:

65-75, figs. 1-2 (Myrmica of Britian).-G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1960, loc. cit. supra, pp. 98-110, figs. 1-3 (larvae).-G. C. and J. Wheeler,

1963. The Ants of North Dakota, pp. 94-108, figs. Biology: Brian, 1957. Insectes Sociaux 4: 177-190, fig. 1, table 1 (growth

and development of colonies).-Weir, 1958. Insectes Sociaux 5:
315-339, figs. 1-7, tables 1-9 (polyethism in workers).-Weir,
1958. Jour. Ins. Physiol. 1: 352-360, figs. 1-5 (effect of tempera-
ture variation on queen ovisposition and colony formation).-
Kannowski, 1959. Insectes Sociaux 6: 143-144 (flight compari-
son).-Weir, 1959. Insectes Sociaux 6: 271-290, figs. 1-5 (in-
fluence of worker age on trophogenic larval dormancy):-Ibidem,
pp. 167-201, fig. 1-tables 1-9 (egg masses and early larval growth).
-- Brian and Hibble, 1963. Insectes Sociaux 10: 71-82, figs. 1-2,
tables 1-5.–Weir, 1959. Physiol. Zool. 32: 63-77, figs. 1-8 (in-
terrelation of queen and worker oviposition):-Carr, 1962. In-
sectes Sociaux `9: 177-211.-Brian and Hibble, 1963. Insectes

Sociaux 10: 71-82.
Physiology: Weir, 1958 (1957). Quart. Jour. Micros. Sci. 98: 499-506,

figs. 1-2 (functional anatomy of mid-gut). brevinodis brevinodis Emery. Biology: Kannowski, 1959, loc. cit. supra, p. 121 (p. 155, pleometrosis).

G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 99-101, map. Ecology: Gregg, 1963. The Ants of Colorado, pp. 291-292, 294, map. brevinodis brevispinosa W. M. Wheeler. Alta., Wash. Taxonomy: Kannowski, 1956. Amer. Midland Nat. 56: 176, ô (also

brevinodis discontinua 8).-Gregg, 1961. N. Y. Ent. Soc. Jour.

69: 211, $. Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 296-297, 299, map. brevinodis discontinua Weber.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 298-300, map. brevinodis sulcinodoides Emery.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 293-295, 297, map. laevinodis Nylander. Syn. of rubra (Linnaeus). lobicornis fracticornis Emery. Biology: Kannowski, 1957. Psyche 64: 1-5 (host of Leptothorax

provancheri Emery).—Kannowski, 1959, loc. cit. supra, pp. 121124, 155-156.-G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 104

106, map. Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra pp. 300, 302-303, map. punctiventris punctiventris Roger. Ark., Mass.

Taxonomy: Gregg, 1961. N. Y. Ent. Soc. Jour. 69: 211. §.

Biology: Kannowski, 1959, loc. cit. supra, p. 124.
punctiventris pinetorum W. M. Wheeler. N. Y.
*rubra (Linnaeus).

Formica rubra Linnaeus, 1758. Syst. Nat., Ed. 10, v. 1, p. 580.
Myrmica (Myrmica) laevinodis Nylander (syn. by Yarrow, 1955. Roy.

Ent. Soc., London, Proc., Ser. B, 24: 113-115).
Taxonomy: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1960, loc. cit. supra, pp. 4-5 (larva).
Biology: Brian, 1951. Experientia 7: 182 (caste determination). -Brian,

1951. Physiol. Compar. and Oecol. 2: 248-262, figs. 1-2, tables
1-7.- Brian, 1953. Ibidem 3: 25-36, tables 1-2 (oviposition by
workers).-Brian, 1954. Insectes Sociaux 1: 101-122. fig. 1-3,

.

tables 1-6 (caste differentiation, larval dormancy, winter size, vernalization).-Brian, 1955. Ibidem 2: 1-34, figs. 1-5, tables 1-12 (caste differentiation, growth of workers and intercastes).-Brian, 1955. Ibidem 2: 85-114, figs. 1-5, tables 1-8 (caste differentiation, larval dormancy, winter size, and vernalization).—Brian M. V. and A. D., 1955. Evolution 9: 280-290, figs. 1-2, tables 1-3 (macrogynes and microgynes).-Brian, 1956. Insectes Sociaux 3: 369-394, figs. 1-3, tables 1-8_(caste differentiation, controlled larval nutrition). -Brian, 1956. Jour. Anim. Ecol. 25: 319-337, fig. 1, tables 1-2 (segregation of Myrmica spp.).-Brian, 1957. Insectes Sociaux 4: 191-210, fig. 1, tables 1-7 (serial organization of brood). -Brian, 1957. Physiol. Compar. and Oecolog. 4: 329-345, figs. 1-3, tables 1-8 (food distribution and larval size in cultures), Weir, 1958. Insectes Sociaux 5: 315-339, figs. 1-6, tables 1-9 (polyethism in workers).—Brian 1962. Ibidem 9: 295-310, illus. (social conditions affecting early larval differentiation).-Brian,

1963. Ibidem 10: 91-102 (caste differentiation). Morphology: Allen, 1957. Ent. Monthly Mag. 93: 136-139 (intercastes). Physiology: Weir, 1959. Insectes Sociaux 6: 375-386, figs. 1-6, table

1 (retro-cerebral endocrine glands and their relation to larval

growth and development). sabuleti americana Weber. N. C., Ark.

Taxonomy: Kannowski, 1956. Amer. Midland Nat. 56: 175. .
Biology: P. B. and P. M. Kannowski, 1957. Ohio Jour. Sci. 57: 371-374

(mating activities).-G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra,

pp. 96-99, map. Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 308-310, 312, map. sabuleti hamulata Weber.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 300-301, map. scabrinodis mexicana W. M. Wheeler.

Taxonomy: Gregg, 1961. N. Y. Ent. Soc. Jour. 69: 211. $. schencki emeryana Forel. Biology: Kannowski, 1959. Insectes Sociaux 6: 121.–Medler, 1958. Ent.

Soc. Wash. Proc. 60: 258 (swarming).-G. C. and J. Wheeler,

1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 103-104, map. Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 311-312, 314, map. schencki spatulata M. R. Smith. ? N. Y. striolagaster Cole. Colo. Taxonomy: Cole 1957. Tenn. Acad. Sci. Jour. 32: 208-209 (8).-Gregg,

1961, loc. cit. supra, p. 211. .
Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 313-314, map.

*Genus PARAMYRMICA Cole

Paramyrmica Cole, 1957. Tenn. Acad. Sci. Jour. 32: 37-42.

Type: Paramyrmica colax Cole. By monotypy.
Taxonomy: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1959. Tenn. Acad. Sci. Jour. 34: 219,

fig. 1, A-G (larva).-Gregg, 1961, loc. cit. supra, pp. 209-220,

fig. 1. Place after Myrmica subg. Myrmica, p. 791. *colax Cole. Tex. (Limpia Canyon in Davis Mts., Jeff Davis Co.). Inquiline

in nest of Myrmica (Myrmica) striolagaster Cole. Paramyrmica colax Cole, 1957. Tenn. Acad. Sci. Jour. 32: 37-41, fig. 1,

a, b, c. $. Taxonomy: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1959, loc. cit. supra, pp. 219-220, fig.

1, A-G (larva).—Gregg, 1961, loc. cit. supra, pp. 213-215. $ $. rugiventris (M. R. Smith). Ariz., Colo. Transf. from Tetramorium, p. 824

(teste Gregg, 1961, loc. cit. supra, p. 215). Taxonomy: Gregg, 1961, loc. cit. supra, pp. 210, 215-220 fig. 1. $ $ 8. Historical: Brown, 1957. Breviora No. 72, pp. 5-7.

Genus MANICA Jurine, p. 791
Taxonomy: Cole, 1957. Tenn. Acad. Sci. Jour. 32: 213 (key to males).

G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1960. Ent. Soc. Wash. Proc. 62: 5 (larva).

G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 108-110, figs. bradleyi (W. M. Wheeler). Taxonomy: Cole, 1957, loc. cit. supra, pp. 210-212, fig. la ($ ).-G. C.

and J. Wheeler, 1960, loc. cit. supra, p. 6 (larva). hunteri (W. M. Wheeler).

Taxonomy: Cole, 1957, loc. cit. supra, pp. 212-213, fig. 1, b (). mutica (Emery). Taxonomy: Cole, 1957, loc. cit. supra, p. 213, fig. 1, c (8).-G. C. and J.

Wheeler, 1960, loc. cit. supra, pp. 5-6 (larva).
Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 314-317, map.
Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 109-110, map.

POGONOMYRMEX subgenus POGONOMYRMEX Mayr, pp. 791-794
Taxonomy: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1960, loc. cit, supra, p. 2 (larva).
Morphology: Eisner, 1957. Harvard Univ., Mus. Compar. Zool. Bul. 116:

477-478, pl. 23, figs. 95-96 (proventriculus). apache W. M. Wheeler. Colo.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 318-319, map. badius (Latreille). La.

Taxonomy: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1960, loc. cit. supra, p. 2 (larva).
Physiology: Wilson, Durlach, and Roth, 1959 (1958). Psyche 65: 108-

114 (chemical releasers of necrophoric behavior) - Wilson, 1959
(1958). Psyche 65: 41-51, fig. 1, table 1 (chemical releasers of

alarm and digging). barbatus barbatus (F. Smith). Ark.

Taxonomy: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1960, loc. cit. supra, p. 2 (larva).
Biology: Young and Howell, 1954. Okla. Acad. Sci. Proc. 35: 60-62 (mat-

ing swarms).
Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 319-321, 323, map.
Economics: Gordon, 1943. Jour. Econ. Ent. 36: 354 (damage to air-

plane runways).—Young and González, 1957. Mexico. Secretaria

de agricultura y ganaderia, fol. tec. 23: 1-20, figs. 1-6, tables 1-5. barbatus fuscatus Emery.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 322-324, map. barbatus rugosus Emery. Colo., Tex.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 325, 327, map. maricopa barnesi M. R. Smith. Utah. maricopa maricopa W. M. Wheeler. Colo.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 326-328, map. occidentalis comanche W. M. Wheeler. La.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 332-334, map. occidentalis occidentalis (Cresson). Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 118-120, figs.,

map.
Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 328-333, map.

Physiology: Weber, 1959. Ent. News 70: 85-90 (stings, also population). subdentatus Mayr. Nev., Oreg.

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POGONOMYRMEX subgenus EPHEBOMYRMEX W. M. Wheeler, p. 794 Biology: Creighton, 1956. Psyche 63: 54-66, fig. 1. imberbiculus W. M. Wheeler. Colo.

Taxonomy: Creighton, 1956. Psyche 63: 63-64, fig. 1 (9).
Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 334-336, map.

Genus STENAMMA Westwood, pp. 794-795
Taxonomy: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 120-122, maps

10-11.
brevicorne (Mayr). ? Colo.

Biology: Kannowski, 1958. Ent. News 69: 231-233 (swarming of males).

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 346-348, 350, map. diecki Emery. Colo.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 121-122, map.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 349-350, map. huachucanum M. R. Smith. Colo.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 350-351, 353, map. impar Forel.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, p. 122, map. meridionale M. R. Smith. N. C., Okla. occidentale M. R. Smith. Colo.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 352-354, map.

APHAENOGASTER subgenus ATTOMYRMA Emery, pp. 795-798 ashmeadi (Emery). N. C. flemingi M. R. Smith. Ala., Ky., La., N. C. Aphaenogaster (Altomyrma) macrospina M. R. Smith (syn. by M. R.

Smith, 1957. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. Bul. 52: 113). floridana M. R. Smith. N. C., S. C.

Taxonomy: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1960, loc. cit. supra, p. 7 (larva). fulva Roger. Colo., Fla.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 336-337, 339, map. huachucana huachucana Creighton. Colo.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 338-340, map. macrospina M. R. Smith. Syn. of flemingi M. R. Smith. mariae Forel. Ky. *megommatus M. R. Smith. Nev., Ariz., Calif., Oreg. Aphaenogaster (Attomyrma) megommatus M. R. Šmith, 1963. N. Y. Ent.

Soc. Jour. 71: 244-246, fig. 1, A. B. $. rudis picea Emery. Biology: Haskins, 1960. N. Y. Ent. Soc. Jour. 68: 66-67 (longevity of

fertile females). rudis rudis Emery. Colo., Wyo. Biology: Brown 1959 (1958). Psyche 65: 39-40 (nest raided by Formica

subintegra Emery.) Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 340-342, map. subterranea valida W. M. Wheeler. Rocky Mt. Region from Colo. to B. C.

and west to Utah. Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 342-344, map. uinta W. M. Wheeler. Colo.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 344-345, 347, map.

:

Genus NOVOMESSOR Emery, pp. 798–799 Taxonomy: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1960, loc. cit. supra, p. 8 (larva). albisetosus (Mayr). Taxonomy: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1960, loc. cit. supra, pp. 8, 10, pl. 2,

fig. 1 (larva). cockerelli (André).

Taxonomy: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1960, loc. cit. supra, p. 10 (larva).

Genus VEROMESSOR Forel, p. 799 Taxonomy: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1956. Psyche 63: 142-143 (larva). andrei (Mayr). Biology: McCluskey, 1958. Science 128: 536-537, fig. 1 (daily rhythm

of male). lariversi M. R. Smith. Taxonomy: Cole, 1963._Ent. Soc. Amer. Ann. 56: 680, 682, figs. 1, B;

fig. 3, B; fig. 4, B ($ f ). lobognathus (Andrews). N. Dak. Taxonomy: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1956. Psyche 63: 143-145, fig. 2, A-J

(larva).-Cole, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 680-682, fig. 1, C; fig. 2,

C; fig. 3, C; fig. 4, Ċ ().
Biology: G. c. and J. Wheeler 1956. Psyche 63: 140-142.-Ibidem, 1959.

Ent. Soc. Amer. Ann. 52: 176-179, figs. 1-5 (behavior, nest

structure).-Ibidem, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 123-125, figs., map. Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 354-356 map. pergandei (Mayr).

Taxonomy: Cole, 1963, loc. cit. supra, p. 681 (R). *smithi Cole. Nev. (Mercury in Nye County). Veromessor smithi Cole, 1963. Ent. Soc. Amer. Ann. 56: 678-680, fig. 1,

A; fig. 2, A; fig. 3, A; fig. 4, A. $ $ .

.

PHEIDOLE subgenus PHEIDOLE Westwood, pp. 799–806
Taxonomy: Creighton, 1957. N. Y. Ent. Soc. Jour. 65: 203-212 (vasliti

complex).-Gregg, 1958. N. Y. Ent. Soc. Jour. 66: 7-48 (key
to species of the U. S.).-G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit.

supra, pp. 125-131, maps 13, 14. Biology: Weber, 1948. Ent. News 59: 31-35 (food of larvae and adults). bahai (Forel). Taxonomy: M. R. Smith, 1955. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. Bul. 50: 99 (opinions

of authors concerning correct taxonomic placement). bicarinata bicarinata Mayr. Pheidole (Pheidole) vinelandica buccalis W. M. Wheeler (syn. by Cole,

1956. Tenn. Acad. Sci. Jour. 31: 114). Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 126-127, map.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 408-409, map. bicarinata longula Emery. N. Dak.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, p. 127, map.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 408, 410, map. * bicarinata paiute Gregg. (In subarmata group.) Nev. (Goldfield). Pheidole bicarinata paiute Gregg, 1958. N. Y. Ent. Soc. Jour. 66: 17-18.

$ 21.
bicarinata vinelandica Forel.

Biology: G. C. and J. Wheeler, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 127-128, map.
Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 410, 412-413, map.
Economics: Reid and Nugara, 1961. Jour. Parasitol. 47: 885-889, pl.

1, figs. 1-16. californica micula W. M. Wheeler. Raised to sp. rank. californica oregonica Emery. Pheidole (Pheidole) californica shoshoni Cole. (syn. by Gregg, 1958,

loc. cit. supra, p. 33). californica shoshoni Cole. Syn. of californica oregonica Emery. ceres W. M. Wheeler.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 413-415, map. cockerelli W. M. Wheeler. Colo.

Ecology: Gregg, 1963, loc. cit. supra, pp. 415-417, map.

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