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TABLE 31.- Quantity and value of Mica including splittings exported from India during the years 1936 and 1937.

To-

1936.

1937.

Quantity. Value (£1 Rs. 13-3). Quantity.

Cwts.
Rs.
£
65,784 64,93,335 488,221
18,854 10,79,055 81,132

Cwts.
Rs.
£
43,049 43,60,558 327,861
19,053 7,87,952 59,244
7,743 3,74,845 28,184
9,125 5,75,736 43,289 11,815 12,55,366 94,388
93,080 27,90,668 209,825 185,143 43,67,799 328,406
5,614 2,86,752 21,560 13,049 9,57,926 72,025
177,664 91,76,511 689,963 297,343 1,43,60,036 1,079,702

Value (£1 Rs. 13.3).

United Kingdom

Germany

France

Japan

United States of America
Other countries

TOTAL

2,698

2,06,555

15,530

Monazite.

In its early years the monazite industry of Travancore State was of some importance and the output during the quinquennium 1914-1918 averaged annually 1,528 tons valued at £45,334. This prosperity continued only to 1921 and by 1925 the industry was moribund, with a production of 1 cwt. only. There has since been a revival and the output for the period 1929-1933 averaged annually 215 tons valued at £2,114. In 1934 the output was 1,009 tons valued at £3,769, which rose to 3,819 tons valued at £12,453 in 1935 but fell again to 2,628 tons valued at £8,116 in 1936, rising to 3,081 tons valued at Rs. 1,40,365 (£10,554) in 1937. The decline of the industry from the high figures of 1914 to 1921 is of course due to the supplanting of incandescent mantles for gas lighting by electricity. The partial revival of the monazite industry is presumably due to the greatly increased output of ilmenite, the production of monazite as a bye-product rendering cheaper production possible. 3,757 tons were exported in 1937, against 1,936 tons in 1936 and 3,954 tons in 1935.

Nickel.

As a bye-product in the smelting operations of the Burma Corporation, Limited, at Namtu, in the Northern Shan States, there is now a regular production of nickel-speiss, which, during the quinquennium 1929-1933 averaged annually 3,211 tons valued at Rs. 8,19,023 (£61,197). In 1933 the output was 3,350 tons, valued

at Rs. 10,28,523 (£77,333), which rose in 1934 to 3,951 tons valued at Rs. 11,44,337 (£86,401) and in 1935 to 4,850 tons, valued at Rs. 14,00,074 (£105,269). In 1936 the output was 4,325 tons valued at Rs. 14,82,809 (£111,489) and in 1937 was 4,020 tons valued at Rs. 13,91,049 (£104,590) the composition being 30-20 per cent. of nickel, 8.94 per cent. of copper, 6-81 per cent. of cobalt, and 17.7 ozs. of silver to the ton. The speiss is shipped to Hamburg for further treatment.

Petroleum.

The world's production of petroleum in 1926 amounted to nearly 150 million long tons, of which India contributed 0-72 per cent. In 1927, this figure jumped to some 172 million long tons, of which the Indian proportion, on a practically stationary production, fell to 0.64 per cent. In 1928, there was another substantial rise in the world's production, which reached the figure of over 181 million tons. In 1929, there was another jump to over 202 million tons, but in 1930 the world's production fell to about 1933 million tons, in 1931 to about 187 million tons, and in 1932 to about 183 million. tons, whilst in 1933 the production rose again to about 202 million tons, in 1934 to about 215 million tons, in 1935 to 233 million tons, in 1936 to 248-8 million tons (revised figure) and in 1937 to 284 million tons (estimated).1 Decreases were shown by Poland and Roumania. All other important producers showed an increase in production. The United States contributed 62.7 per cent. of the world's supply in 1937, Russia 9.9 per cent., Venezuela 9-2 per cent., Iran 3.8 per cent., Netherlands Indies 2-6 per cent. and Roumania 2.5 per cent. In 1928, India contributed 0-64 per cent., which fell to 0-60 per cent. in 1929 and rose to 0.62 per cent. in 1930, 0.63 per cent. in 1931, and 0-64 per cent. in 1932, and fell again to 0.62 per cent. in 1933, to 0-60 per cent. in 1934 and to 0.50 per cent. in 1935, 1936 and 1937, of which Burma contributed 0-40 and India proper 0-10 per cent.; her position on the list of petroleum producing countries fell from 11th in 1929 to 12th in 1930 to 1933, her place being taken by Trinidad, and to 13th in 1934, 1935, 1936 and 1937, due to the production by Iraq.

The production of petroleum in India (including Burma) increased from 334,811,624 gallons in 1936, to 350,322,222 gallons in 1937, the highest figure in the history of the industry. The increase in

Compiled from World Petroleum of June, 1938.

1

1937 is due to an increase of some 20 million gallons from Singu, 5 million gallons from Attock, 1 million gallons from Thayetmyo, and 1 million gallons from Digboi, accompanied by decreases of 9! million gallons from Yenangyaung and 2 million gallons from Yenangyat.

The amount of gasolene produced from natural gas during the year was 10,616,313 gallons in Burma and 456,780 gallons in the Punjab.

The Yenangyaung field maintained its reputation of being one of the most wonderful oilfields in the world. The total production during 1937, was less than in the previous year but the resources of the field as a whole are sufficient to ensure an adequate supply of oil for many years.

At the end of 1937 there were 2,910 wells producing in the field. Besides a large number of wells drilled to shallow sands, this total includes 180 hand-dug wells, whose continued existence is one of the interesting features of the field.

During the year the deep drilling activities of 1936 in the southern part of the field died down, owing to the disappointing results obtained. On the eastern flank the limit of present economic extension of the oil-sands was approximately demarcated.

Satisfactory results continue to be obtained from gas drives in the leased blocks; in addition to gas drives, gas is also injected with the object of repressuring and storage. Casing policies continue to be carefully designed to protect the oil-sands against the danger of flooding by water and, in general, production methods throughout the field are characterised by a realisation of the importance of the conservation of oil and gas and the prevention of waste, whether simple or underground.

In 1937 the increase in the output from the Singu field was continued. This increased production was due not only to the rapid development of the valuable area in the southern part of the field but also to the successful results obtained from the first wells to produce from behind the practically completed river training wall of the Burmah Oil Company. At the end of the year the total number of producing wells was 568 as compared with 480 in December, 1936. In addition, a number of wells remained cemented above productive sands. These wells can be drilled into productive sands in a very short time and the total field production substantially increased.

There has been no radical change in production methods during the year under report. The fundamental principle underlying the policy of the major operating company at Singu is to make those adjustments at each well which lead to a maximum oil recovery with a minimum production of gas. Wells with high gas-oil ratios are shut in, and the balance of casing-head gas remaining after the satisfaction of the field requirements is returned to dry gas sands The for storage, or to certain areas for repressuring purposes. repressuring operations of the British Burmah Petroleum Company, Ltd., continued to give satisfactory results. The dry gas produced from the new gasoline extraction plant is use either in connection with these schemes or as fuel. Continuous gas lift on some wells producing from lower division sands and gas displacement pumping on wells producing from upper division sands were continuel on a small scale, but production from the great majority of the wells in the field was obtained by ordinary pumping methods.

Although during 1937 active development continued at Yenangyat, the results obtained were somewhat disappointing and a decline in the total production from the Pakokku district, excluding Lanywa, was reported. Because of the large new production obtained from the Singu field, the production from the Lanywa field during 1937 was still further restricted. An inclined well was commenced during the year to tap the known oil sands beneath the Irrawaddy river. Back pressures are maintained on nearly all the wells in this model field, which is operated by the Indo-Burma Petroleum Company, Ltd. While a number of wells are pumped from a central power, the majority have individual pumping motors. The gasoline plant was operated throughout the year and gave a satisfactory yield.

In the Minbu district there were, at the close of the year, 374 producing wells. The total production showed little change. Apart from routine production there was very little activity in the district during the year.

There was a welcome increase during 1937 in the total production from the Indaw field. All producing wells were successfully operated by the automatic gas lift system.

In the Thayetmyo district, whilst there was a slight decrease in production in the Padaukpin field, that of the Yenanma field showed a considerable increase. An extension of the known producing area was proved in this field. During the year, the Burmah

Oil Company's deep test well at Monatkon was abandoned at 8,319 feet as no productive sand had been encountered.

The output from Kyaukpyu remained at its usual low level. In Assam output of the Digboi field increased slightly. There has been no drilling in outside areas in the Assam Valley.

In the Surma Valley there was no production. A final test of the well at Masimpur showed that the horizons penetrated were of no value and the well was abandoned. The results of this well indicated that the structure underground was not as would be expected from the surface evidence, and resistivity observations were therefore carried out and a large number of core-holes were drilled on both flanks of the anticline in order to obtain geological evidence from the rocks hidden beneath the alluvium. The results of this work again showed that unexpected structural complications exist and at the end of the year seismic observations were about to start in a further attempt to ascertain the shape of the structure at depth. In addtion it is proposed to drill a deep core-hole in order to obtain evidence from considerable depth.

In the Punjab the Attock Oil Co., Ltd., operated the Khaur and Dhulian fields. In the Khaur field the deep test for the limestone was successfully cemented and is at present at 5.440 feet in limestone formation and is being tested. Results, however, are disappointing as the well is showing a considerable quantity of water with only a small quantity of ol and it does not promise to be an important producer. Shallow drilling has continued but has given only moderate results.

In the Dhulian field two deep wells were brought on to production in May and November 1937 respectively. These wells have been very steady producers. In the Board's bi-annual report dated 2nd February 1938 these wells were reported as producing 480 and 640 barrels of oil per day respectively. The production of the former fell to 454 barrels and the latter 480 barrels but the fall in the second well, to a very considerable extent, is due to a reduction in size of bean from 5/16" to under ", resulting in restriction of flow. This restriction is considered advisable partly from a storage point of view and partly in the interests of economical recovery of production.

Developments at other drilling wells are as follows:

A well encountered a good show of black oil at 6,200 feetprobably worth 50 barrels per day, but is being carried down

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