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16. Lake Okechobee meteorite by U. S. National Museum.
23. Whilst working in the Pir Panjal in the Baramula district of Kashmir from May to August, 1937, Dr. A. L. Coulson collected
a specimen (51 475) of typical Panjal trap Kashmir.
from a quarter of a mile south of Arian Nagian (34° 4' : 74° 20'), west of Gulmarg, which was analysed by Dr. R. K. Dutta Roy. This epidotised and serpentinised rock had the unusually low silica percentage of 43.30 and was thus considerably more basic than the Panjal trap is generally thought to be. Dr. Coulson accordingly obtained from Mr. D. N. Wadia another typical specimen of Panjal trap (46/983) from between Furwater and Kulmarg in the Pir Panjal (sheet 43 K/10) which was also analysed by Dr. Dutta Roy. This specimen was slightly less basic and its silica percentage was 48.80; it is an epidotised, zoisitised and tremolitised Panjal trap.
Dr. Coulson has noted that besides these very basic and basic traps, acidic rocks occur higher in the Panjal trap suite, which are best described as devritified and otherwise altered toscanites and acid tuffs. Thus a specimen (51/468) from one mile N. N. W. of the Hotel at Gulmarg gave 71.09 per cent. of silica when analysed by Mr. P. C. Roy. A full petrological study of the various rock types present in the Panjal trap will be made when Dr. Coulson completes his field work in a future field season,
Yet another interesting rock type noted by Dr. Coulson was a hypersthene-dolerite (51/546) in the Ferozpur Nala threequarters of a mile south of Tangmarg (34° 3': 74° 25'), at the foot of the Gulmarg hill station. This dolerite is far fresher than the rocks of the Panjal trap, which are generally so epidotised and tremolitised that much of the original structure is lost. The hypersthene-dolerite is taken by Dr. Coulson to be the sole representative so far found in his area of a younger (probably Tertiary) igneous suite. It will be remembered that the age of the Panjal trap is taken as ranging from Middle Carboniferous to Upper Trias or even younger (see C. S. Middlemiss, Pal. Ind., N. S., XII, pp. 12-15, (1928)).
The interesting, very decomposed biotite-granite showing graphic structure, which crops out near Tangmarg, is definitely later in age than the Panjal trap.
out the year.
PALAEONTOLOGY. 24. Dr. M. R. Sahni continued to act as Palæontologist through
Mr. N. K. N. Aiyengar, Field Collector, assisted the Palæontologist during the year in the reorganisation of the Siwalik gallery and in routine work. Mr. Dasarathi Gupta, Museum Assistant, helped the Palæontologist throughout the year in routine work. Mr. P. N. Mukerjee, Assistant Geologist, and Mr. M. S. Venkatram, Field Collector, also assisted the Palæontologist towards the end of the year, in Museum reorganisation.
Considerable progress has been made during the year under review in the rearrangement of the fossil galleries of the Indian Museum. These changes have been carried out particularly with a view to enhancing popular interest in these galleries and at the same time to add to their scientific value.
Several of the larger vertebrates which, owing to exigencies of space, were formerly housed in the invertebrate section, have now
been placed in the Siwalik vertebrate gallery. Rearrangement. Pice torial restorations.
Suitable labels, describing in popular language
the more interesting features of some of these forms, have been prepared by the Palæontologist. Restoration drawings of some of the more interesting genera have also been executed under his direction and are on display. Notable amongst these are the serial wash drawings of certain proboscideans and the Equidae, illustrating various stages in their evolutionary history.
In the invertebrate gallery the work of renovating the show cases and replacing the old labels with new and up-to-date labels has been taken in hand.
An important new feature is the preparation and display of descriptive labels in the Indian languages --Hindi, Bengali and
Urdu, to make the exhibits easily understandDescriptive labels in able to the lay public. A general account of Indian langu
the exhibits in the Siwalik gallery, dealing
origin and migration, has been prepared by the palæontologist in English. This and its translations into the Indian languages may be southern entrance of the gallery.
25. During 1937, the following memoirs were published in the Palaontologia Indica :(1) J. A. Douglas : ‘A Permo-Carboniferous Fauna from South
West Persia (Iran)', Memoir No. 6, Vol. XXII of the
New Series. (2) Helen M. Muir-Wood ; "The Mesozoic Brachiopoda of the
Attock District', Memoir No. 6, Vol. XX of the New
Series. (3) L. M. Davies and E. S. Pinfold ; 'The Eocene Beds of the
Punjab Salt Range', Memoir No. 1. Vol. XXIV of the
New Series. (4) W. B. R. King : “Cambrian Trilobites from Iran (Persia)',
Memoir No. 5, Vol. XXII of the New Series. The following papers of palæontological interest have appeared
in the Records :(1) B. Prashad : Some Freshwater and Land Fossil Molluscs
from near Ghorband, Afghanistan.' (Vol. 72, Pt. 1.) (2) M. R. Sahni : 'Discovery of Orbitolina-bearing rocks in
Burma with a description of Orbitolina birmanica sp.
nov.' (Vol. 71, Pt. 4.) (3) B. Sahni : 'A Mesozoic coniferous wood (Mesembrioxylon
shanense sp. nov., from the Southern Shan States of
Burma.' (Vol. 71, Pt. 4.) (4) S. R. Narayana Rao and K. Sripada Rao: Some Foraminifera
from the Intertrappean beds near Rajahmundry.' (Vol, 71, Pt. 4.)
(5) S. R. Narayana Rao and K. Sripada Rao: 'Holos porella
cf. H. siamensis Pia, from the Rajahmundry limestones.'
(Vol. 71, Pt. 4.) (6) S. L. Hora: 'On a Shark Tooth from the Lower Eocene.'
(Vol. 72, Pt. 2.) (7) S. L. Hora : 'On Fossil Fish-Remains from the Karewas of
Kashmir.' (Vol. 72, Pt. 2.) (8) S. L. Hora: 'Fossil Fish-Remains from the Saline Series of
North-Western India.' (Vol. 72, Pt. 2.) (9) W. Gothan and B. Sahni : Fossil Plants from the Po series
of Spiti (N. W. Himalayas).' (Vol. 72, Pt. 2.) 26. The following paper of palaeontological interest is in the press and is expected to be published in 1938 :
Palaontologia Indica. (1) L. F. Spath : 'Cephalopoda of the Neocomian Belemnite
Beds of the Salt Range.' Memoir No. 1, Vol. XXV of the New Series.
27. Prof. Baron von Huene of Tübingen has completed the examination of the reptilian fossils collected by Mr. N. K. N. Aiyengar from Tiki and Maleri and has submitted a paper on these fossils for publication. He has been able to record the occurrence of fourteen different forms of Tetrapoda, and to establish their relationships, though names could be given only to five of these.
The examination of the collection of primate fossils made by the Yale-Cambridge Expedition from the Siwalik roeks has been completed by Dr. W. K. Gregory, Research Associate in Palæontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York. Among the specimens identified are Sivapithecus sivalensis (Lyd.), Sivapithecus indicus Pilg. Sugrivapithecus salmontanus Lewis, Sugrovapithecus gregoryi Lewis, Brahmapithecus punjabicus (Pilg.) and Ramapithecus cf. brevirostris Lewis. It is expected that an account of the entire collection of primates will be published shortly.
Two specimens of sharks' teeth, collected by Mr. E. R. Gee from the Salt Range, were sent to Dr. S. L. Hora of the Zoological Survey for examination and report. His paper on these has appeared in Records, Geological Survey of India, 72, Pt. 2.
Specimens of fossil fish collected by Mr. E. R. Gee from the Salt Range and by Dr. H. de Terra from the Karewas of Kashmir, were submitted to Dr. S. L. Hora, for examination. His results are incorporated in two papers published in Records, Geological Survey of India, 72, Pt. 2.
Invertebrates. 28. Dr. M. R. Sahni has been engaged in the investigation of various fossil collections made by officers during the course of their
Notable amongst these is the collection of Mesozoic brachiopoda brought by Dr. A. L. Coulson from the Bannu district. The fossils are referred to two horizons ; of these the lower yielded rhynchonellids and is assigned to the Callovian, corresponding to a part of the Namyau series of the Shan States of Burma. The upper, containing terebratellids and terebratulids, is separated from the Callovian horizon by a thick arenaceous series containing unidentifiable fossils, and is probably Oxfordian or younger in age. Amongst the new species described are Ornithella coulsoni, 0. indica, 0. depressa, 0. ovalis, 0. paralagenalis, Kingena punjabica, 'Terebratula' bannuensis, Rhynchonella (? Daghanirhynchia) coulsoni and R. (? Daghanirhynchia) pezuensis. A preliminary notice of a paper by Dr. Sahni on this fauna has already appeared. (Proc. Twenty-fifth Ind. Sci. Congr. Part 3, Abstr. p. 116, 1938.)
A small but valuable collection of fossils has been brought by Mr. J. B. Auden from the Karakorum. According to Dr. M. R. Sahni three different horizons are represented. Amongst the species provisionally identified by him are Martinia sp. nov., related to M. dispar Reed from the Anthracolithic of the Shan States, Fusulina (sensu lato) and Productids, (Permo-Carboniferous); Megalodon sp. (photograph only), (Rhætic); ?Ptyctothyris sp. nov. and Mytilus (Modiolus) sp. nov., allied to M. (Modiolus) imbricatus J. Sow., which is also known from the Callovian (Jurassic) of Somaliland (vide Cox, L. R., The Mesozoic Palæontology of British Somaliland, Pl. XVI, fig. 3, 1935).
Further progress has been made in the identification of the Lower Triassic ammonites from Na-hkam (Northern Shan States) and a provisional note by Dr. M. R. Sahni has been published. (Proc. Twenty-fifth Ind. Sci. Congr. Part 3, Abstr. p. 114, 1938.) The