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But the weakest as well as the deaths of Scott, Wordsworth, and

and appease his alarms. Shoals have been born under a milder of pamphlets, all intended to exter- régime. The lead which the minate ‘Maga,' were forwarded to new Magazine speedily began to Mr Murray, the writers evidently take in both politics and critibelieving that if Murray withdrew, cism, must, more than any other · Maga' was doomed. There were consideration, have brought home

“Review of • Black- to Murray, as the publisher of the wood's Edinburgh Magazine' for • Quarterly,' that the two interests October 1817,” by Campbell Kidd; were somewhat incompatible; and “Letters [four in all] to Dr in the beginning of 1819 he withThomas M-Crie and the Rev. Mr drew his interest in Maga,' and Andrew Thomson on the Parody his Edinburgh agency was transof Scripture lately published in ferred to another firm, Blackwood's · Blackwood's Magazine' by Cal- increasing business as a publisher vinus ”—who was James Grahame, being now quite sufficient to deadvocate; and “A Letter to Mr mand his whole energies. John Murray of Albemarle Street," After the year 1830 Murray -in short, the anti-- Maga' publi- made it a rule to decline all orications of the day would make a ginal poetry; and indeed, in the couple of gooilly sized volumes. years that have succeeded the

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silliest production of the enemy Byron, no great sacrifice

Hypocrisy Unveiled and involved by its observance. Calumny Detected," which ob- had been princely in his tained some notoriety through the muneration of poetry, and the challenges which Wilson and Lock- large sums which he had given hart forwarded to the author, more for copyrights had not always for the purpose of unmasking the been repaid him. Eight or nine calumniator than in any hope that years later he further severed his he would prove worthy of powder connection with belles lettres by and shot. Blackwood, however, disposing of his novels and romanknew quite well what he was doing ces—the most notable of which in giving a free hand to Wilson were · Anastasius' and Hajji and Lockhart, and it was not to Baba,' and Disraeli’s · Contarini be supposed that he would restrain Fleming' — to other publishers. the buoyant spirits that were mak- The business was then narrowed ing “Maga’ a power more and down to the solid class of works inore every month.

A glance at with which the name of Murray the state of contemporary criti- has been chiefly associated during cism will show that strong writ- the present generation,– voyages ing was called for, and that the and travels, biographies of dis

personalities” only consisted in tinguished individuals, works of bringing before the public the science and art, and general litermen who were doing their worst ature.” This field of literature to pervert the literary taste of though of the most practical imthe age.

The very men who were portance, does not give the same lashed were themselves the greatest prospects of sensational success— offenders against the decencies of although we believe the sale of letters ; and the literary Flibberti- Lux Mundi' in our own day may gibbets who even in the present be fairly said to rival any of the day glorify their sufferings, have successes of the ancien régime; reason to be grateful that they and with the banishment of the

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bards from the Albemarle Street of the greatest privileges we have Parnassus, the romance of the in our business.” In the view house subsides into dull though which both these publishers took doubtless remunerative prose. In of their calling, the author will our times “ Murray” is the motto cordially agree. The privilege of foreign travel, the “IIand-book” which is given to the publisher of which is as essential to the British serving the interests of literature, tourist as a Cook's ticket or of recognising and promoting the Foreign Office passport—the book aspirations of genius, of enjoying which we scarcely know whether the friendship and confidence of to ban or bless; for if it betrays the most talented and brilliant your own nationality, it is equally of his contemporaries, is the only serviceable in warning you of the advantage which he possesses over vicinity of your dear compatriots. the ordinary trader; and it is the These useful volumes originated account to which he turns this with the third John Murray, who privilege that must determine the through a long and honourable claim which his memory is to have career has sustained the position upon posterity. " Authors have of his house down to our

been
my

dearest friends and comday; and Dr Smiles in his work panions all the days of my life,” gives us many pleasant glimpses said John Blackwood, speaking at of the Continental journeys under the Scott centenary banquet. taken by him while collecting ma “ To them I can turn in joy and terials for the Hand-books, of the sorrow for safe and certain symfirst series of which he was himself pathy.” In the present day, when the author.

publishing, equally with a brewery To John Murray the elder, or a coal-pit, is regarded as the William Blackwood said with fitting subject of limited liability much justice,-"In your connec- speculation, it is useful to have an tions with literary men, when I ideal, higher and more honourable consider the books you have pub- to the literary profession—which lished and are to publish, you have is, in the ultimate, the exploited the happiness of making it a liberal subject of the relations between profession, and not a mere business author and publisher brought back of the pence. This I consider one to our recollection.

own

DESPOTISM, ANARCIIY, AND CORRUPTION IN THE UNITED STATES

OF AMERICA.

The popular outbreak at New State in Europe is largely repreOrleans to remedy the corruption sented in the population of the or inefficiency of the courts of law United States ; citizenship is not by an act of self-assertive justice, always sought by the emigrant, and the perilous position in which and consequently every European it has placed America's relations Power is interested in the ability with Italy, has revealed a fee of the United States Government bleness of administration in the to afford adequate protection to United States constitution, not in the lives and property of those who deed unknown to those who have have been induced to seek its hospiwatched its working, but mani- tality. If we are not mistaken, the festing itself in situations hitherto difficulties to the central Governwholly unexpected. The central ment of Washington arising out of Government has already been com the New Orleans incident will not pelled to make a humiliating con terminate with its settlement. The fession of its powerlessness to con mass of uncitizenised Germans, trolits individual parts, and to offer Austrians, Russians, Dutch, Scanany except pecuniary redress for dinarians, and French, as well an outrage which, however justitied as the Italians themselves, have upon abstract grounds, is clearly been forcibly reminded that their a violation of international law fatherlands are still interested in and treaty assurances. The posi- their welfare, and that they can tion of the United States Govern- look beyond Washington for proment is not an agreeable one. It tection and redress. The Eurohas received what, had it been a pean Powers have had their eyes European State, would have been opened to the confession which equivalent to a declaration of war; America has made of her incaand though in the present day we pacity to exercise that authority may anticipate that the clifficulty over the different members of her will be got over without the block- confederation which the law of ade of New York or the burning nations demands of every civilised of New Orleans, it is difficult to State, and it will be their duty to see how, even with the aid of the watch more closely than before friendly mediation that will doubt over the fortunes of their emiless not be wanting, America can grants. We have credited the beat a dignified retreat from the United States with possessing a imbroglio.

latent despotism which could be But the effects of the incident effectively used in the public interwill not end with the patching

up ests in times of emergency; but on of the present disturbance. The closer examination we come to the example which Italy has set of conclusion that the republican calling the United States to ac- despotism is only employed as a count for the treatment of its selfish and anarchic weapon, the emigrants will not be lost upon tool of political parties and the other European Powers.

vuxiliary of private interests, and,

Every

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worst of all, it is not in the ex- and brought about the issuing of ecutive power that despotism is the famous Declaration of Indealways vested.

pendence of 4th July 1776, or to Citizens of the United States relate how the thirteen original of America may pooh - pooh, or states became forisfamiliated, enwith more or less vehemence deny tered into an impracticable conand perhaps resent, an assertion federacy.upon 9th July 1778, and or suggestion that there is at least upon 17th September 1787 entered as much despotism in the United into the Union which still exists States as in any other country, in terms of the then adopted Concivilised or uncivilised. It can be stitution of the United States of asserted, and is asserted, that pure America as amended by fifteen republicanism does not pay in the articles.

There are now fortyUnited States, and is ignored; four states in the Union (not that most of the citizens are hood-counting territories), and the winked and deluded, and take a United States have

grown

and shadow for reality ; that the popu- developed, and now rank as one lation is divided into classes, and of the most powerful nations each class has “bosses ” who see to upon earth. Each state in the it that they cat the oyster, their Union is a distinct country, perparty members get the shells, and fectly independent of all the other those not of their party can fight for states, except in so far as it in the odour thereof. These “bosses' common with all other states has are tyrants, the majority of the restricted its powers, privileges, others slaves. The United States, and immunities in terms of the and each state, claims to be a Constitution of the United States republic, but each is practically an as amended. Each state has its oligarchy of an objectionable form. own constitution, adopted by vote Money and political power are of its citizens, and each citizen ever in the thoughts of the people retains his inalienable rights of —with the exception of a small man except in so far as restricted minority of noble men and women. in terms of the state and federal The great idol of the country is constitutions. The citizens of “ Self,” and modern civilisation is each state are entitled to all privimoulded accordingly. It

may be leges and immunities of citizens in said, and practically it is true, the several states. that the present inhabitants of the The legislative powers of the United States are not descended United States are vested in a from the heroic founders of the Re- Congress of the United States, public, and do not possess the self- which consists of a Senate and sacrificing qualities, the honesty of House of Representatives. The purpose, which carried the revolu- Senate is composed of two senationaries unflinchingly through all tors from each state, chosen by difficulties. Unless a change of the state legislature, who serve policy comes timeously, the his- six years, and have each one vote. tory of the Rise and Fall of the Every second year one-third of Republic of the United States of the whole number of senators has America may be written within to be rechosen, their seats becomthe next century.

ing vacated. The members of the It is unnecessary to trace the House of Representatives are circumstances which developed chosen every second year by the

VOL. CXLIX.-NO, DCCCCVII.

3 B

people of the several states; and foundation on such principles, and the representatives are appor- organising its powers in such form, tioned among the several states as to them shall seem most likely to according to their respective num- effect their safety and happiness.". bers, counting the whole number The civil war, which ended of persons in each state, excluding more than a quarter of a century Indians not taxed. The number ago, seems to have established the of representatives for the then point that might is right, and thirty-seven states was restricted, that no form of government, howafter 3d March 1873, to 292, and ever destructive, shall be altered such additional representatives as

or abolished in states or in the should be assigned to a new state Union, unless the party makupon

admission to the Union. The ing the change be sufficiently apportionment of the 292 repre- strong to overcome the active opsentatives to the thirty-seven states position of all citizens of the is made according to the federal United States. Had the natural census taken

every
tenth

year. resources of the seceding Southern The last census returns acted upon states been as well developed then were those of 1880. Certain as now, or had the Union party states have an additional state not enlisted mercenaries or newly census taken, so as to have an arrived immigrants, it is believed enumeration of inhabitants every that the Confederate states would fifth year; and these federal and have succeeded in seceding, and state censuses regulate the appor- that the above-quoted clause would tionment of assemblymen to coun have received a different constructies, and of senators to districts. tion. As it is, there is no appaIn most of the states the legis- rent likelihood of further civil war lature consists of a senate and an between North and South; but ussembly, the assemblymen and there is the writing upon the wall senators being elected by vote of in another direction. The inalienthe citizens.

able rights of citizens are being By the Declaration of Inde- whittled by partisan politicians, pendence of 4th July 1776, which and the Republic cannot exist is incorporated in the constitution when these rights are gone. Oan of each state, the citizens of the man exist without these inalienUnited States “hold these truths able rights? There seems to be to be self-evident: that all men an inconsistency somewhere. But are created equal; that they are the Declaration of Independence, endowed, by their Creator, with which is incorporated into the certain inalienable rights; that constitution of each state, deamong these are life, liberty, and clares that citizens have the right the pursuit of happiness. That to alter and abolish destructive to secure these rights governments

governments.

Were they to try are instituted among men, deriv to get rid of the evils of political ing their just powers from the “ bossism ”and the corrupt and corconsent of the governed; that rupting system of partisan machine whenever any form of government politics, there is no saying what becomes destructive of these euds, form of government may be init is the right of the people to stituted. alter or to abolish it, and to insti A new race of men and women tute a new government, laying its now inhabits the United States.

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