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in the supply beforehand of these by working people. But at such vital qualifications.
times public sympathy in the form This view of the matter may be of liberal and timely help has been summed up as regards force by tak- a bright feature, which will be ening Mr Giffen's recently published tirely absent if a hostile course figures in his book on the growth of action is pursued. Then to of capital in Great Britain. He the employer belong all those says ten thousand million pounds mechanical producers, machinmay be taken as the sum total ery, which do the work of 50 of our industrial capital. De- millions of hands, at least, in Engducting working men's savings land alone, and whose powers inin banks and clubs as a mere flea crease at a greater ratio than bite, he tells us 200 millions is those of workmen—than all animal added yearly. Therefore we get power; and over and above the a sum amounting to about half of visible form of wealth in which the gross yearly wages saved, and property is seen in this country, reinvested by the capitalists. No there is the shipping at sea and figures could more strikingly ex- abroad, and the foreign investhibit the disparity subsisting in ments belonging to our countryforce.
men, which are not tabulated in Resources. The resources of any reliable form, but are known employers are, then, all stores to bring in at the least 85 millions of accumulated and invested cap- of pounds a-year. Let
workital, which comprises all the ing man compare a railway map stocks of everything material of Great Britain with that of any which the earth produces at the other country, and see how close a cost and will of man. Law and network of lines intersects every customs surround the holders of bit of our country, far beyond any these necessaries and luxuries of such provision elsewhere, and he life with a power of possession must feel how much this country which is practically brought home has grown into one huge workshop to us by every policeman's uni- specially equipped with these its form. The penniless workman rapid means of communication, knows very well he can get none and all brought about by voluntary of his wants supplied for long on enterprise under force of circumcredit: the smallest comfort of stances, for these roads are none life is soon withheld from him by of them contrivances of State, but the small capitalist, a shopkeeper, all the outcome of capitalist enterwho in his turn gets but a limited prise. Now, let the worker also amount of credit from a whole- remember that some of these roads sale dealer, and he again has his pay no profit at all to their owners, credit account with the import and never have done so; that to all merchant or manufacturer. And of their owners there are but two if a disruption of the course or pay-days in the year, and that what current is brought about by the they are to receive they seldom penniless working-man consumer know beforehand, and this is but at bottom, it speedily reaches the a type of the prevailing system top and supplies are stopped. This among capitalist employers. He happens on rather a large scale will understand in this manner the in slack times; and in some locali- powers of resistance of his new ties, as in Lancashire and Coven- giant masters, and take care, let try, it is well understood and has us hope, how he picks a quarrel been keenly felt by all, but most with them.
To sum UP, we find that La- willingly assisting as stevedores : bour, aggregate it as we will, not long ago, in a few hours, fifty has only a self-paralysing power.
thousand middle-class volunteers It can suspend its labours, and sprang to the side of our metrobring machinery and other forces politan police as specials, in an of employers to a standstill, and emergency caused by turbulent cut oil income from capitalists. workinen. It is not hard to foreTo go beyond this constitutionally see how new modes of substitution it cannot: such are its limits. To would be volunteered and organised continue in this attitude long is by willing people rather than be impossible for working men, as we stinted of the necessaries of life, have shown. The Scotch are a and by many it would not be unfrugal people, but how short wils welcome as a healthy interlude in the time the railway men found it the self - indulgent dream which possible to hold out! yet at bottom modern life has developed into in they had a good cause for action, this luxurious age. and it enlisted much public sym A solution of the present diffipathy. But while some persons culties may be sought for, but will sympathised all were much incon- be sought for, I believe, in vain, venienced, and some much in in parliamentary action. If arbijured in pocket, by the interrup- tration councils or courts could tion it caused to business. The settle it, so much the better, but railway worker really is the iron- arbitration has long been tried, horse, and the public will never and does not satisfy either side: submit to have his services given its decisions last no time. It will or withheld at the caprice of be found to be one of those probhis driver or attendants, be they lems beyond human wit to arrange as few or as many ins they may. a permanent method of settlement, The owners are tightly meshed in which, while preserving individual Acts of Parliament, and by-and- freedom, shall enforce submission by the whole business of railways to authority in such matters as the may fall under like dominion. It precise amount of a man's daily only needs a little more striking wages and his hours of labour. and disturbance to bring it about; These matters are subordinate to and so much more is the public laws, certainly, but they are laws convenience becoming involved in akin to those which govern the the transactions of these huge operations of nature transcending masses of employees and their em human powers. Present symptoms ployers, that we need but one ini- point to an electrical condition of tial step to be taken, say in rail the industrial atmosphere; energies ways, when the time will be ripe of an excitable kind have, as I have for a general following up such shown, been evolved out of new new mode as may be adopted. conditions, and storm alone will Whether they will be advantageous dissipate them. The duty of outto the masses of workers, time will siders is plain—to act impartially show; but the power to deal with and sustain the law, to study to them lies latent, and is clormant be self-helpful where the old sernow. The widening of interests has vice fails, and hold well tobeen shown ; the capabilities of the gether, never fearing for the repeople would be seen in a hostile sult, while abiding the issue of labour contest. We see now but the struggle. chers unloading ships; oflice clerks
JOIIN MURRAY AND HIS FRIENDS.
“METHINKS,” says George Her which the author or the poet first iot to Sir Mungo Malagrowther, encounters in his descent from the in the “Fortunes of Nigel,' “it spiritual ether to the grosser munwere unseemly that I, who have dane atmosphere. Mind is confurnished half the cupboards in fronted with matter; sordid realibroad Britain, should have my ties are weighed against intellecown covered with paltry pewter.” tual ideas, and the lead almost It would have been equally un shakes the quicksilver out of the seemly if John Murray, who had balance; there is a shock and a in his lifetime published so many disillusion. The publisher arroexcellent biographies, should have gates to himself the attributes of been denied a good memoir to Justice, and we willingly concede himself. The career of a man him the bandage.
We have only whom Lord Byron had dubbed too many precedents for impugnthe “ Anax of Publishers, the ing his verdict; literary history Anak of Stationers,” and whom teems with examples of his fallihis fellow-publishers hailed with bility and his rapacity. The acclamation as the “ Emperor of Curlls and the Griffithses have the West,” must necessarily form given a character to their craft an important chapter in literary which their more righteous suchistory, full of interesting recol cessors have with difficulty lived lections of mighty authors, and down. And even such a work recording the inner history of our as lies before us—a plain tale closest friends, the standard vol- of honourable and generous dealumes on our library shelves. ing in literary wares,
_will only The history of literature from go a certain length in vindicatthe publisher's—that is, from the ing the “trade” in the auctorial practical-point of view, has been imagination. There is a good reamuch less illustrated than is advan son for it: the number of successtageous. The life of the author is ful authors is small, very small ; a debt claimed by the world, and the crowd of ambitious and disonly too readily paid even when appointed writers is numberless the obligation is not overwhelm as the sands on the sea - shore. ing. Naturally in such a record The former may complaisantly the publisher, indispensable as are allow the publisher to be
a Machis functions, does not always fig- cenas; the latter will assuredly ure in the best light. It is he revile him as a Shylock. who subjects genius to base me The position of a publisher, chanical measurement; who keeps while it exposes him to extravathe key of the gate between it and gant and unreasonable expectaa public cager to greet it with tions, also lays upon him obligaopen arms; and who will by no tions from which all other classes means allow it to pass without tak- of traders are happily exempt. ing toll of its effects. The pub- We may dismiss the idea that it lisher is the sharp point of contact is his duty to recognise genius in
A Publisher and his Friends : Memoir and Correspondence of the late John Murray. By Samuel Smiles, LL.1). Two volumes. London : Murray, 1891.
VOL. CXLIX.-NO, DCCCCVII.
the gerin, and to nurse it as in It is not to be wondered at, under a hothouse through the bud and the circumstances, that Murray blossom until the fruit is ripe. was indisposed to give Carlyle the In literature as in horticulture, benefit of the doubt, and that the forcing is not always attended by work had to be taken back to
But we may justly de- Craigenputtock, and find its way to mand that the publisher shall be the public in course of time through able to recognise a work of genius the pages of · Fraser.' But as Dr when it is brought to him, and Smiles truly observes, Carlyle that he shall aid the author in himself created the taste to applacing it before the public. But preciate ‘Sartor Resartus.' Had here comes in the publisher's diffi- it then been published, it would culty. He may be quite alive to probably have proved a blank in the merits and worth of a work, the literary lottery; Carlyle would but he is also aware that these perhaps have been discouraged will not appeal to public opinion from further work in his native and public taste, which make up vein, and Murray would most the gauge that he has to go by. probably have lost his money. It We have a very gooil instance of requires the cumulative force of this in Murray's dealing with Carlyle's books to enable us to apCarlyle and ‘Sartor Resartus.' preciate them individually, and it
Carlyle came up from Craigen- is the publisher's daily experience puttock with the MS. of 'Sartor to meet with works holding out a Resartus,' and with a letter of in- promise that is never justified. troduction from Lord Jeffrey to The publishing house of Murray Mr Murray. Some delay occurred dates back to the year 1768, and in examining the work, and Jeffrey its contemporary head is John called and induced the publisher Murray III. of that name. The to venture upon an edition of 750 business began coerally with a on a "half-protits” agreement- great change in the profession of a liberal enough ofler, considering literature, of which Johnson's inthat Carlyle was only known as dignant denunciations of the pathe author of Schiller' and the tron, and Goldsmith's vindication of translator of Wilhelm Meister,' the craft of letters in his 'Enquiry and the contributor of some Re- into Polite Learning,' were certain view articles. But Carlyle had key-notes. With this change the meanwhile taken his MS. round establishment of the house of Murthe Row, with very indifferent ray was coincident, and it is to its success; and when Murray heard renown that it has done muchof other refusals, he was naturally none more—to elevate the literary unwilling to proceed with the calling to dignity and independence. book upon trust.
The MS. was In that year a young Scotch lieuread, evidently by Lockhart, whose tenant of marines, thrown out of opinion, in quasi-irony, has been active service by the peace, and since permanently appended to the despairing of promotion, quitted work. “He thought it might be Chatham for Fleet Street and bea translation. The work displayed, came a “bookseller.” We have an here and there, some felicity of atlectionate liking for this ancient thought and expression, with con term, for its more modern substisiderable fancy and knowledge, tute is often not coextensive in but whether or not it would take import. The shop he went into was with the public seemed doubtful.” the “Ship,” opposite St Dunstan's
Church; and here for twenty-five welcoming genuine and spontaneyears he carried on a solid busi
ous appreciation, he resents nothness, publishing a number of works ing more than flattery from such of which scarcely the names linger a source. Murray understood this in our literature, except Isaac well, and his letters were undoubtD’Israeli's Curiosities of Litera- edly as pleasant as valuable to the ture,' Whitaker's "Manchester,' recipients. Writing to him on Mitford's "Greece,' and Lavater's one occasion, Isaac D’Israeli thus · Physiognomy,' his last and worst compliments him :enterprise, over which he lost £3900 for the engraving of the specimens I have seen of your happy
“Your letter is one of the repeated plates. He also made some essays art of giving interest even to commonin periodical publication, an annual place correspondence; and I, who am * London Mercury,' written mostly so feelingly alive to the pains and by himself, and the ` English Re- penalties of postage, must acknowview,' in which he had the doubt- ledge that such letters, ten times ful assistance for some time of the repeated, would please me as often." notorious and unfortunate Gilbert Lord Byron's appreciation of Stuart. Lieutenant Murray was Murray's letters had long ago still a young man when he died, made us familiar with their merits, and his son, who was to succeed and in the volumes before us we him in the business, was only fif- find fair and fashionable teen at the time.
dames like Lady Caroline Lamb Although the heir to an estab- and Mrs Norton hanging on his lished house, John Murray II. accents, or rather on his pen. was far from finding smooth water The two great facts in John under him when he was launched Murray's career, which, by their into business. He had a partner, importance and wide-spreading conMr Highley, whom he felt to be sequences, throw into the shade all an incubus upon his views, and his other literary acts, important as he early showed his firmness and they are intrinsically when viewed decision by getting rid of him. by themselves, were his association His earlier letters indicate a re with Byron and his publication markable grasp of business, enter- of the Quarterly Review'; and prise, determination, and great con- naturally both these subjects ocsistency of purpose and principle, cupy a large portion of Dr Smiles's which were the dominant charac- volumes. Those who expected imteristics of his successful life. He portant additions to our Byronhad had a fair education at Dr iana” will, however, feel considBurney's and other good private erable disappointment. We are schools; and he had that discrim- merely again led over the same inative literary instinct and taste old ground that we have already which, whether the product of traversed with Moore. This is education or a natural gift, is the not surprising; for the great bulk note of all great publishers. IIis
Ilis of Moore's materials, including all correspondence from the beginning the letters from poet to publisher, proves how readily he had mas were supplied by Murray, who, in tered his position. The author a jocular balancing of accounts looks to his publisher for a plain, with Moore, credits himself with matter-of-fact, sensible opinion ; £2000, for “contributing one-half he will not tolerate the language of the work myself by Lord Byron's of superior criticism; and while letters to his publisher.