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to yield, and even to accept the English. The strong castle of condition, which has been pre- Guignes, among other fortresses, sented on thousands of canvases, passed to the English crown in a that six of the principal burgesses way which reads like a chapter of should come to Edward's camp

An English prisoner carrying the keys of the city in who was employed in repairing their hands, bareheaded and bare- the walls, cujusdam lotricis fedis footed, and with ropes about their amplexibus associatus,” learned necks.

from this Rahab that " from the Never probably in the history bottome of the (city) ditch, there of England has there been two a wall made of two foote years more laden with victories in broade, stretching from the ramthe field than 1346 and 13-17. A piers to the brimme of the ditch triumphantly successful campaign within forth, so that, being covered in France, ending in the victory of with water, it could not be seen, Crecy and the capture of Calais; but not so drowned but that a repeated victories over the Scots, man going aloft thereon should and the leading away into cap- not be wet past the knees, it tivity of David, King of Scotland, being made for the use of fishers.” and Charles de Blois, besides a Under cover of night the sollier host of other notable prisoners, passed in safety along this wall to represent achievements which can the English camp, and returning rarely have been equalled in so with thirty men, led them into short a space of time. But, as the town by the same passage, and though to check the national pride, wan all the fortresses of the a dire misfortune was destined to castle" before the townspeople overtake the country.

knew “what had happened to The Plague, which had its origin them within the castle.

amongst the East Indians and A truce soon followed, during Tartarians,” advanced over Europe which an incident occurred which in 1347 and 13-18, and finally is strangely illustrative of the reached our shores in the spring state of society at the time, and of of the last-named year. Though the prestige which English valour it travelled slowly through the had established over the minds of country, it counted its victims by Frenchmen. While the Duke of thousands, and according to the Lancaster was taking part in an exbest authorities from one-third to pedition against “the heathens ”in one-half of the population of the Prussia, Otto, Duke of Brunswick, country perished. Three Arch- laid a plot to take him prisoner. bishops of Canterbury died plague- When accused of this unknightly stricken in one year, and under scheme, Otto denied it vehemently, the site of the present Charter- and charged the Duke of Lancaster house 50,000 victims of the pesti- with lying. A challenge followed, lence were buried.

when it was agreed that the duel But neither this awful visitation should be fought out in the presnor the campaign of 1347 put an ence of the King of France. On end to the strife between the two a fixed day the lists were formed nations, and though the war was at Paris, and the king and his carried on with varying success, nobles being present, the Duke of the balance of advantage was be- Lancaster appeared ready and willyond question on the side of the ing to put the matter to the hazard.

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“On the contrary part, the said Otto landed at Bordeaux, and advanced scarcely was set on his horse, and was inland to fulfil his commission. not able decently to set on his helmet

In those days armies marched nor to weelde his speare (or else he

without commissariat and without fayned), whose unableness being perceived by the French king, the King hospitals. War was made to supof Navarre, and others, the king took port war with a vengeance, and the quarrel into his own hands; the Black Prince probably did whereupon Otto was commanded first only what every commander simito depart the lists, and so went his larly placed would have done, when way, but the duke abode still with- he burnt and destroyed cities, and in them.”

laid waste whole districts which Both combatants were bound had formerly blossomed as the over to keep the peace, an

Mr Thompson has for the necessary precaution so far as first time successfully traced the one was concerned, and the Duke line of march pursued on this inof Lancaster, in recognition of his road, and the frequency of such knightly bearing, was loaded with entries as " three neighbouring favours by the king. On taking towns burnt,” capture and dehis leave, Philip would have pre- struction of Galiax,” “Plaisance sented him with a casket of jewels, burnt," &c., makes us content our but “nil horum voluit nisi solam selves with the statement that the spinam quæ fuerat de corona Jesu army marched from Bordeaux to Christi,” and with this he departed. Narbonne on the Gulf of Lions

The short-lived truce which and back. The spoils accumulated made this incident possible was, were enormous, full licence having however, no sooner over, than been given to the soldiers to take "grim-visaged” war again showed what they could keep. its front in the fairest fields of Flushed with victory, the prince France. King Edwarıl once again determined to march across France led an army into the northern to join the king, and for a time provinces, while the Black Prince there appeared to be every probawas commissioned to reassert his bility of his being able to

carry out father's supremacy over the Duchy his intention.

Without encounof Guienne. It is clitlicult to read tering any serious opposition, he the account of this expedition advanced as far as the Loire, where without a feeling of horror. No he learnt that King John of France one who has visited the valley of was marching to oppose him with the Garonne, and the districts a force of 60,000 men. To have watered by its aflluents, can fail encountered such an army with to have been struck by the beauty his small following of 7000 men, of the scenery, the fertility of the in the midst of an enemy's counsoil, the happy industry of the try, would have been an act of people, and the quiet prosperity of madness, and he therefore purthe towns. In this favoured re- posed to retreat with all speed to gion Nature has been lavish with Guienne.

But the rapidity of her gifts. The choicest fruits and John's movements defeated the flowers grow in almost tropical plan. For three days the two profusion, and corn yields abun- armies marched southwards on dant harvests to the farmers. converging lines, and came within Such was also the state of the striking distance in the neighbourDuchy when the Black Prince hood of Poitiers.

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A battle having just become in- them like as the wolves chase and evitable, the Black Prince drew up

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According to the his army in array on the 19th French historians, this rout was September 1356. “ The vaward of non fugam sed pulchram retracthe armie he committed to the cionem”!! Earles of Warwicke and Oxford, The discomfiture of the Dauthe iddle ward was guided by the phin's division seems to have exPrince, and the rereward was led ercised so terrifying an influence by the Earles of Salisburie and on the division commanded by the Suffolke.” A long hedge and ditch Duke of Orleans that it was never which skirted the plateau where engaged, and marched off the field the English were posted, and fol. without striking a blow. But it lowed the slope of the hill into the was otherwise with the troops valley below, separated the French commanded by the king. Having from the 1st and 3d divisions of bound himself by an oath that he the English army,

while the would not leave the field unless prince's division was posted on a he were taken or slain, he led his hill on the right front. The 1st men against the English, who, havdivision was drawn up on the ing already sustained an unequal slope of the hill and on the left, contest for hours, were faint and the 3d division was posted within weary with the strife. Manfully, reach of a gap in the upper part however, they met the onslaught of of the hedge. Baker's mention the enemy, and though the advanof this gap is important, and ex tage of both numbers and conplains the commonly accepted error dition was in favour of the French, that the battle was a mere struggle the sturdy valour of the English in a deep lane.

prevailed. The French attack opened with the advance of the cavalry, a divi- worthy Prince of Wales, cutting and

" Then bestirreth himself the sion of which made for the gap, with hewing the Frenchmen with a sharpe the intention of taking Warwick sword," and “at length thrusteth in rear. There, however, it was thorow the throngs of them that confronted by Salisbury's troops, guarded the French king. Then and was compelled to retreat be- should you see an antient beginne to fore the arrows of the English to fall downe : 'the blood of slaves

nod and stumble, the bearers of them bowmen. On the repulse of the

and princes ran mingled together cavalry, the Dauphin's division was

into the waters which were nigh. ordered to attack. “ Apparatus In like manner the bore of Cornehujus aciei,” says Baker, “fuit wall rageth, who seeketh to have terribilior atque veemencior quam none other way to the French king's facies

belli primitus repressi.” standard than by blood onely: but, With shouts of “St Denis for us!” when they were come there, they

met with a company of stonte men they charged against the English to withstand them. The Englishmen ranks with a weight and fierceness fight, the Frenchmen also olay on, which for a moment shook the but at length, Fortune making haste English line.

Hand to hand and to turne her wheele, the prince preassteel to steel the men on both eth forward on his enemies, and, sides fought desperately. At like a fierce lion beating downe thé length the Frenchmen began to proud, he came to the yeelding up

of the French king." waver, and finally turned and ran, pursued by the English, who “slué With the king was taken his

son, and a host also of knights and ing incidents. It takes the reader nobles. Of the rest, 2800 men

behind the scenes. It initiates were slain, and the remainder were him into the secret springs of scattered in flight. Thus was in- ('ourt intrigues and councils. It flicted on the French a defeat to discovers to him the true motives which, for completeness and for of political adventurers and of the consequences arising from it, meddling ecclesiastics ; and it Waterloo and Sedan are alone echoes in his ears the pæans of comparable. Loaded with honours, triumph from many a hard-fought the Black Prince, with “those field. Succeeding historians have few, those happy few” who had drawn largely on its pages for the shared in his triumph, returned principal events of the period; but to Bordeaux, from which port he they have too often passed unsailed with his captives to Eng heeded by those details and light land.

touches which are essential to the Here Baker's Chronicle comes right understanding of history. to an end, and there could not be These are carefully illustrated by found a more fitting closing scene Mr Thompson, whose notes, which to a historical drama than the are full and accurate, supply an account of so signal a victory effective atmosphere and backBut the interest attaching to the ground to the picture which Baker Chronicle is not contined to its painted with such vividness and record of political crises and strik- force five hundred years ago.

AN INDIAN RING.

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BUNKUMPORE is a big and im- treated us for his benefit to a portant Indian station, with its bucketing fielcl-day, in the course English troops and its native of which we had executed many troops, its general and his manauvres, more or less satisfacstaff

, its Resident, its magistrates, torily, on the dusty and broken plain and other varieties of officialdom ; devoted to the instruction of the its Maharajah, with his Court and troops quartered in the station. administration; and last, not least My part in the morning's proin interest to the English society, ceedings had not incurred any of its race-course and training-stables. our commanding officer's choicest The annual race week is one of its flowers of speech, and—except that oldest and most important insti- I had been told in a grim undertutions. Many horses then come tone, when the distinguished visifrom the other Presidencies, bring- tor was out of earshot, that my ing owners, trainers, and jockeys method of commanding a squadron in their suite. The talk of the was like that of an old woman male portion of the community at driving an apple-cart, a form of that season becomes very distinctly address so comparatively mild that based on the Indian Turf Guide’; I took it as a compliment rather while the whole attention of the than otherwise—I had escaped the softer sex is devoted to devising somewhat severe criticism which the variety of toilet necessary to not unfrequently followed my most

effective appearance in the strenuous efforts to show myself grand stand.

an incipient cavalry general. It is curious how at this partic I had breakfasted copiously and ular time the consciences of all the comfortably with my cheery great Panjandrums, who live in brother officers at the mess, and the hills, prick them into visiting was subsequently occupying a long and inspecting such portions of chair in the cool verandah of my their departments as are located in bungalow, clad in the lightest of Bunkumpore. The Panjandrums shirts and pyjamas, smoking the are kind and considerate, however, Trichy of digestion and repose, and the real business of the week and preparing to read leisurely is never interfered with. An off the pile of newspapers which had day or an unoccupied hour or two just arrived from England. in the morning is found sufficient The sun was as yet unable to for the official business, and the dart its rays through the thick Panjandrums see more of their foliage and gorgeously coloured subordinates at the race-course and blooms of the creepers which spread the allied dinners and balls than over the roof of the bungalow, and anywhere else.

twined in many knotted tendrils It was an off day nearly at the round the pillars of the verandah. end of this festive period—in fact The stillness of the coming heat we had only one more day's racing was gradually settling over the before us—when a very distin- compound, where a couple of lean guished officer having expressed bullocks, released from their water

wish to see the gallant —th cart labours, were lazily chewing Hussars on parade, our colonel had the cud, and ineffectually flapping VOL, CXLIX.-NO. DCCCCVII.

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