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penetrate into the interior further has to picture the breathless, revthan the foot of civilised man had erent patience with which he yet trodden.”

His pages reek watched the veil moving little with the slaughter of countless by little aside from the face of pachyderms as well as of elands, nature, to note the masculine fibre giraffes, and lions. The term of of the mind that steered so stouta single human generation has ly athwart the strong current of sufficed to extinguish these noble contemporary thought, before realforms of life in Bechuanaland; ising how bitter must have been their existence is, indeed, incom- the doom to which jealous ignorpatible with civilisation, unless by ance consigned him. His precious timely and kindly forethought writings were torn from him and the example of the United States condemned; he himself, deprived Government is followed in reserv of books and writing materials, ing large tracts as national parks, was imprisoned for many years ; wherein some of the old world the piercing intellect, forced to animals

may
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refrain from observation or We may plume ourselves, not search, brooded in silence without reason, on the restrictions the might - have - been. placed in late years on the cruelty imprisoned,” he wrote mournfully of human beings, whether towards in after - years, “ because of the each other or towards the lower incredible stupidity of those with animals. It is an astounding whom I had to do.” Could human matter for reflection how long the cruelty devise a more brutal punmuch vaunted 66 march went on

ishment than this? before it occurred to men that Oh, but it may be said, this the world would be a better place happened in the dark ages. Very if there were less suffering in it. well : skip three hundred years, Some of the pioneers of civili- and observe the incidents of the sation themselves suffered most “march ” just two centuries ago. bitterly. No inortal

Sir Thomas Browne, Doctor of born upon this earth more willing Medicine, the cultivated and lively and capable to leave it a better author not only of Pseudodoxia place than he found it than the Epidemica,' a work devoted to Franciscan friar, Roger Bacon. the refutation of vulgar errors, In his day alchemy and astrology but of the far deeper and tenderer obscured the field to be afterwards Religio Medici,' appears in the explored by the clear lenses of witness - box to give evidence chemistry and astronomy; yet, against two witches. hindered as he was by the pre More than a hundred years later judice and superstition of the (we are getting towards the recent thirteenth century, his genius stages of the "march " now) lively touched the true clue to physical debates took place in the House knowledge, and revealed to him, of Commons upon a bill to abolas through a mist, the outlines of ish bear - baiting. The bill was truth.

thrown out by 50 votes to 32, The vast range of subjects dealt although, to illustrate the horrors with in his little-known works; the of the system, the Hon. George spirit in which they are handled, Lamb, member for Dungarvan, so averse from the mysticism and produced a printed paper (which obscurantism of his contemporaries, is still in existence) in the form of -testify to his unflagging zeal and a play bill, having at the top the seldom erring understanding. One Royal arms between the letters

ever

was

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scores.

A. R. (Anna Regina), of which are admirably turned out and the following is the text : driven, but there are still many "At the Bear Garden in Hockley of a minimum of corn and a max

whose owners act on the principle in the Ilole, near Clerkenwell (reen.

“ These are to give notice to all imum of whipcord. In one such gentlemen, gamesters, and others that I was travelling one day: the on this present Monday, being the driver plied his whip vigorously 27th of April 1702, a great match is about the tenderest parts of his to be fought by a bald faced Dog of horse's flanks, and awkwardly alMiddlesex against a fallow Dog of lowed the lash to strike me across Cow Cross, for a Guinea each Dog,

the face. five let-goes out of hand, which goes

The pain was acute, fairest and furthest in wins all: being and I did not suffer in silence; a (teneral Day of Sport by all the Old yet for one indirect cut that I Gamesters and a Great Mad Bull to received in that journey, the be turned loose in the Game - place, unfortunate quadruped received with Fire-works all over him, and two

He received punishment or three Cats ty'd to his Tail, and

at the rate of about fifty lashes Dogs after them. Also other variety of Bull-baiting and Bear-haiting. Be

a mile, which, if his average daily ginning at two of the Clock.”

task is moderately computed at

twelve miles, would give the It is true that the advertisement hideous total of six hundred was at that time (in 1825) more lashes a-clay! than a century old, but there was This incident took place in nothing in the law as it then was broad daylight, but cabmen's to prevent similar horrors, and night- horses are indeed a pitiful the llouse of Commons refused to class. Nearly all of those that alter it.

are assembled nightly in Palace This brings the matter down to Yard, when the House of Commons our own times.

Much has been is sitting, are suffering from navicdone, but our hands are hardly ular disease, caused by fast work clean enough for complacency yet. on hard pavements. You may see

Few societies have done more the unhappy animals standing with good work than that for the Pre- first one forefoot, then the other, vention of Cruelty to Animals, pointed forward to relieve the pain, yet who can walk in the Birdcage which must resemble toothache on Walk in the carly morning and il large scale, for it is caused by watch the barbarous treatment of the decay of a bone nearly two costers' donkeys and ponies there, inches long in the centre of the without seeing that more is wanted foot. Would society endure horses than any society, however dili- being worked in this condition gent, can effect ?

It is a long, flat if they could signify their pangs piece of road, and underfed, over as plainly as a fine lady with loaded animals are mercilessly raced neuralgia? along it.

The barbarity of tight bearingIt is a pity that horses suffer reins was forcibly exposed and mutely. if they could express condemned by a writer in ‘Maga ' their torments by yells as piercing of June 1875, and certainly the and loud in proportion to their excessive use of them thereafter size as, for example, a wounded became less common; but it is hare utters, we should soon be still too often to be seen, It enlightened as to the amount of would not be seen at all if people suffering in our streets. Some of in general understood the peculiar the hansom cabs which ply there form of torture produced by it.

It

are

no

A pair of fat, well-groomed, 16- ling too fast to take sufficient hands carriage-horses standing in thought. the streets are not subjects to at Although we are all ready to tract commiseration from passers- take credit for the advance of by; the restless tossing of their civilisation, there are constantly heads may

be taken for the sign of heard complaints about the signs pride and spirit : but what heart- of the times. One of the comrending groans could alone ex monest of these is that “servants press what these fine animals have are not

what they were. to endure! Along the top of a would be very odd if they were, horse's neck runs a massive sinew, considering that masters pride strong enough to support the lever- themselves upon being very differage of the head ; it is attached ent from those of olden time, and to several vertebræ nearest the that all the surroundings and manshoulder, then it runs free over ner of life have altered so much. the crest and becomes attached But what is intended to be conagain to the vertebræ nearest the veyed is that servants poll. When the head is pulled longer so good as they were. It into the position decreed by man's is a peevish and wearisome comvanity, the vertebra under the plaint that has been heard from crest press hard into the sinew, generation to generation. Even and must cause intense suffering, such a shrewd observer and frank sometimes setting up the inflam- moralist as Defoe gave utterance mation known as poll-evil. to it nearly two centuries ago.

Some years ago I was witness Hear his grumble in" Everybody's of an act of great though unin- Business is Nobody's Business tentional cruelty inflicted by the about the servant girl of 1725 : ignorance of scientific people

“Her neat leathern shoes are now concerned in the management of transformed into laced ones with high

electric exhibition. Among heels; her yarn stockings are turned other examples of the applica- into fine woollen ones, with silk tion of electric lighting was one clocks; and her high wooden pattens to show it in operation under

are kicked away for leathern clogs. water. A glass globe, filled with She must have a hoop, too, as well as water, contained a burner in full woolsey petticoat is changed into a

her mistress ; and her poor linseyblaze, and—a goldfish. Of course good silk one, for four or five yards the fish was only put in to make wide at the least. Not to carry the an attractive object, but one has description further, in short, plain only to remember that fish suffer country Joan is now turned into a from exposure even to ordinary fine city madam, --can drink tea, take daylight, that the whole surface snuff, and carry herself as high as

the best." of their bodies is sensitive to it, and lastly, that they have no But indeed this spirit of comeyelids — cannot close their eyes plaint is of far higher antiquity

to realise that this was torture than Defoe's day. As a narrative, applied of more than Carthaginian few chapters of Holy Writ are ferocity. In this matter of cruelty more graphic than 1 Sam. xxv., the intentions of this generation which describes an episode in the are undoubtedly good, although knight - errantry of David, the it seems as if in some respects future King of Israel. He comes

66 whose civilisation had outstripped know- to the abode of Nabal, ledge—as if we had been travel- possessions were in Carmel; and

2 o

an

VOL, CXLIX.NO. DCCCCVI.

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WES

ex

the man was very great, and who have derived most advantage the name of his wife was Abigail ; from the general advance in comand she was woman of good fort and abundance of every sort, understanding, and of a beautiful But to quote Mr Leslie Stephen countenance : but the man once more,

" We must not cry churlish, and evil in his doings.” over a dead donkey while the chilHas it ot a familiar ring in our dren are in want of bread.” Che cars when this rich churl times have a far graver aspect claims, “There be many servants than any that have been touched that break away from their masters on in the random and somewhat nowadays"? Well, at all events, trivial paragraphs of this article. persists the laudator temporis acti, We cannot escape from our own there was always a wholesome shadows. The time may be at distinction between classes until the door when the people shall be recent years: the aping of gentil- so well educated, and shall have ity by such persons as have no learnt so perfectly the art of selfreal claim to the quality has come government, that spoiled ballotin since the first Reform Act. papers will be unknown, save such Not so.

Here is a passage from as may be defaced, of significant a letter to the · Edinburgh Maga- purpose, by poetical lampoons on zine' for September 178.), which the candidates. But also the time might have appeared with equal must be at hand when, if the

popufreshness in the Saturday Review' lation maintains its present rate of last week :

of increase, standing-room on the “The word gentleman seems to globe will become a pressing probhave extended its signification very

lem. The strain of competition is considerably within these last few intense; capital and labour seem years, and in my memory to have to have thrown aside all semblance comprehended almost every male of goolwill; there is an anxiety being who wears id linen shirt. The

on the minds of those who have gentleman, I was informed, who had leisure to think that is not lessened come to take my measure for a pair of black plush Breeches, was in the by the thought that the adminislobby; the gentleman of whom I hul tration of affairs in this country bought some cart harness had, it depends upon those who have little seems, done me the honour to call time for reflection, upon whom the when I was abroaul (i.., out walking question of a few shillings a-week or driving, not in foreign parts), and more or less Wages presscs far had left his name on

cari, forsooth," &c.

more nearly than the guidance of

an empire's destiny. There The influence under which the many who sigh, “Ask for the old minds of men revert fondly to paths where is the good way, and bygone times is not altogether walk therein, and ye shall find rest unkindly ; " the

pattern of the for your souls,” and to these it altar of the Lord which our fathers seems almost as if the dilemma madlo" must over be dearer to us were one fulfilling the condition than the latest improved pattern: stipulated for by the heathen but to fall foul of trilling failures poetin social respect, or to imagine

“ Nor let the God in person stand disa new-born uppishness in wage

play'd, earners, betokens imperfect under- Unless the labouring plot deserve his standing or a dull imagination. aid." It sits with least grace on those

HERBERT MAXWELL,

be

TIREE SCOTTISH EARLDOMS.

Tue reviewer who would keep portion of the area to the south abreast with Sir William Fraser's of the Forth. In the 'Earls of historical labours has his work cut Haddington’ he has taken us to out for him. Every year sees a East Lothian and the Merse, as in fresh addition made to the already his ‘Lennox,' the “Montgomeries, long array of sumptuous volumes Earls of Eglinton,' and the Colquwhich are at once the envy of the houns of Luss' he has let light in book-collector and the pride of the upon the history of the West. In fortunate few who honestly come his histories of the Wemysses of by copies. We have for a short time Wemyss, and now in the Leven had before us two goodly volumes and Melville volumes, Fife has on the Hamiltons of Haddington; been opened up to us; and crossand almost before we have had ing the Tay, in his Earls of leisure to make our way through Southesk ’ he has become the histhem, a triplet comes to swell their torian of Angus. Cromartie and number,—three volumes on the its Earls have carried him into the history and archives of the Earls very centre of the northern Highof Leven and Melville. Sir Wil- lands. We trust that he will hold liam Fraser has done great service on his course, and that before the to Scottish History: he would do Pentland Firth has set a natural not little also to historians them- boundary to his researches, he may selves if he would make public the give us a history of the House secret which enables him, amid of Sutherland, which is decidedly other duties, to produce and pub- wanted to round off his truly lish two or three large quartos per national collection of the great annum, with all the care, finish, Scottish families. and accuracy which characterise

Tynninghame, the pleasant seat the result of years of labour. It of the Earls of Iladdington,1 has is to be feared, however, that the long been known as the repository secret would be as little generally of a valuable mass of documents applicable as the disclosure of Dr of national as well as family inJohn Brown's painter as to his terest, and the researches of presuccess in mixing his colours, and vious historical writers have prethat few among us are prepared to pared us to appreciate the importface the amount of industry in ance of the manuscript collections volved in securing the quick suc formed by the first Earl. Not cession of this great series of Scot

very many years ago, attention tish family histories.

was sensationally directed to the It is satisfactory to mark how Haddington archives by a rumour widely Sir William Fraser's labours that the famous letter to the Pope,

spreading over Scotland. In written by the Scottish barons in the "Scotts of Buccleuch,' the 1320, the original of the en· Douglas Book,' and the Book of graving in the Diplomata Scotia,' Caerlaverock,' he has covered not and of the photographic facsimile merely the Borders, but the greater in the National Manuscripts of

are

1 Memorials of the Earls of Haddington. By Sir William Fraser, K.('.B.,

In 2 vols. Privately printed. Edinburgh.

LL. D.

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