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use, in the mountain valleys and The capital of the pirate disin every tiny level space where trict, even in its ruins, is very there is an absence of rock, and fine. It consists of two distinct they are few and far between in parts—one on the hill, where are rugyed Cilicia. Their threshing the principal buildings, and one floors are round flat spaces con in the valley below, about 1.} mile structed at the edge of their fields, distant: these towns were joined round which they are accustomed by a fine paved road, lined on to drive over the grain on pieces both sides with rock-cut tombs of wood with bits of flint set in and ruined buildings. It was on below- most probably bearing il an aqueduct which supplied the striking resemblance to the “new lower town with water that we sharp.threshing instrument having found an inscription which settled teeth ” mentioned by Isaiah (xli. the question as to the discovery 15). For grinding grain the of the object of our search : “The wealthier have the regular grind- city of the Olbian Castles erected stones with two handles, common this water-course." It was a late in the East; but the poorer are inscription of the Roman period, content to grind their grain in but for this we did not care—the holes or natural mortars in the site of the capital of the pirates rocks, with a rounded stone for was found. l'p in the higher pestle.
town the two chief buildings were Iligh up in the Taurus range, a fort and the temple of Jove. shortly before the passes into On the fort we found an inscripKaramania are reached, we archa- tion which told us that it was ological nomads came across the crected under the priesthood of object of our search - namely, the Teucer, the son of Tarkyarios, and capital of the district of Olbia, under the direction of Tberemos, where the priest - kings of the the son of Orbalaseta of Olba.' Cilician pirates held their court. Such a formula as this we found Still we
were always amongst on the fortress at the lip of the *Yourouks, who have converted the Olbian cave, nearer the sea, and ruins of this ancient capital on the the statements of Strabo as to the hill of the castle of Djebel Hissar, dynasty and priesthood of Teucer as they call it, into the nearest were substantially confirmed. The approach to it village that the dis- great temple was about half a trict contains. The inhabitants mile from the fort. It owes its of this spot are perhaps the most preservation to the fact that it sedentary of their rice, inasmuch was subsequently converted into as the spot is 3800 feet above the a (hristian church : the columns level of the sea. They can here are all there, thirty-two in all, remain all the year round, though of the Corinthian order, and most how they pass the winter months of the wall enclosing the sacred in those miserable hovels amid ice precincts is still standing. This and snow was a mystery to us. was the shrine where the priestEven in April tho snow had not kings of the Teucrid dynasty held long disappeared, and the cold their sacerdotal court. A few biting winds made us pile on logs hunılred yards from the temple of to our fire, despite the blinding Jove were five elegant columns smoke which poured from it into standing, with monolithic granite our den.
shafts and Corinthian capitals—all
that is left of a temple of Tyche, authors who cannot review their which, from an inscription, we own books, from the adverse critiwere able to name. There stood, cism of the opposite side. Luckily too, a Roman triumphal arch, the for the Cilician pirates they have remains of a long colonnade, a left ruins behind them, and detheatre, and many other buildings crees, inscriptions, and bas-reliefs on this hill of ruins, and as we on their .rocks, which prove to us contemplated them we were full that they were no ruffian bandits, of admiration for the pirates who like those which now haunt Asia had erected them. In the district Minor, but a race of wealthy, of Olba we found something like civilised, and independent men, seventy inscriptions, giving us whose marauding was doubtless true glimpses of the history of carried on in self-defence, and in the pirates.
resistance to that gigantic power In the world's history it has which eventually crushed them in been the fate of many men and its iron grasp. many races who have not written their own history, to suffer, like
J. THEODORE BENT.
EARLY ROM.1.1 ISTRITION OX THE RISE OF A STATUE
IN THE VUSTUM OF THE (WITOL.1
(On one side of the 1.69.59:-)
Et posset redimi morte aliena salus,
Pensassem pro te, cara Ilomoneral, libens,
Ut te matura per Streil morte sequar.
Fataque malendo sollicitilla meil.
Viximus hic omnes (situs unus habet.
Et fivcant votis numina cuncta tuis,
Il tibi victuro proroget ulterius.
(On the other side of the bus':-)
Siste gradum, quarso, verbatyue pucat lege.
lloc llomonara brevi condita sum tumulo,
Quam Pallas cunctis artibus erudiit.
Injecere manus in villa fati mihi.
Maror Atimeti conjugis ille mei.
Quæque tuis olim perfruerere bonis.
1 (iiven in the Rev. Dr Edward Burton's : Description of the Antiquities and other Curiosities of Rome' (second edition, 1928), vol. i. pp. 146, 147; where Dr Burton says that he considered it worth copying, from the beauty of some of the sentiments.
Would cruel Fates permit vicarious death,
And Death restore a soul from Hades free,
Would I, dear Homoncra! ransom thee.
By a swift death, o'er Styx to thee I'll flee.
Stay, heedless pilgrim! stay a little space
Thy steps, and read brief record of my doom.
With all her lore Pallas my spirit taught :
With envious grasp my youthful beauty sought.
Is thy grief, Atimetus, husband mine!
J. P. M.
TIIE GOLI)-SUPPLY OF ENGLAND AND INDIA,
Were all classes of men who long-run always involve similar trarle together agreed never to results. This is a fundamental ask each other for payment in axiom which opportunist finance coin, the theory that credit rather ignores. than money
is the foundation of Our last object-lesson has been commerce would be
more given in Argentina. From it we widely accepted than it is likely learn that a country having no to be, with the recollection of the gold - mines, and commerce condition of the money - market sufficiently important to secure during the first two weeks of last to it a supply of gold, cannot November fresh in our minds. for long together pay in gold the About the middle of that month gold which it borrows abroad. the financial system which has There were those who, in the its centre in London was nearer heylay of Argentine finance, saw collapse than it has been for four- clearly enough that the gold which and-twenty years.
A dearth of Englishmen were sinking in the metallic money was the cause of River Plate would stay there, the disturbance in the value of At present (whatever may be the securities, as well in men's case a generation hence) the inminds. So nicely is the apex of the dustrial condition of the country commercial pyramid poised on our
is such that it is incapable of slender stock of gold, that the sending a current of gold on to withdrawal of half a million of the English money-market in resovereigns can set it rocking, and sponse to that which sets out a contribution from France, Russia, from here. When we call in our or elsewhere of a similar amount, foreign debts we expect them to is sufficient for the moment to be paid in gold—we expect the assure the ('ity that it will not interest always to be paid in topple over.
gold; but a country which has It is not the business of the little or no gold revenue or gold practical man to look far ahead. resource has to buy the İle thinks he is more likely to modity with its domestic money lose money by making and act at scarcity prices. It is a lighter ing on it forecast of the results tax, or at least a less immediately of viven economic conditions, than pressing tax, to borrow more gold by operating from day to day in to pay the interest on the capital accorilance with the immediate in- of the debt, than to raise the means terests of the speculating public. of paying it from the proceeds of But haute finance-- that which the labour of the people ; hence makes the market, fixes the price, loan after loan is procured from and sends one kind of stocks up abroad with a constantly diminishand another down—cannot exist ing chance of repayment either of from hand to mouth. Time is as principal or interest.
principal or interest. If the goldnecessary as opportunity for the supply of England, which is beevolution of successful results, and yond all dispute indispensable to it is time which establishes the her commerce—and the more not truth of economic doctrines, and the less indispensable as her credit proves that similar causes in the system expands—is to be main