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would, as every one is well aware, ment, begins to go much beyond discredit and shatter our system this point, there is always a risk beyond hope of reconstruction. of rendering the service unpopu

But there are other and even lar, or, in the crise of a regiment, graver reasons why the present provoking in outbreak of insubsystem of voluntary enlistment ordination. Hence, any commandcannot, in the nature of things, be iny vilicer who is wise and prumade to last much longer. Social- dent, in luis own interest and in ism and socialistic principles have that of his regiment, takes care certainly made some progress in to pay clue heel to these considEngland during recent years, and erations, and keeps himself well there is some reason to fear that posted in the amount of work the army may have to a certain which his men are daily doing, in degree become infected by such order to avoid giving cause for principles. Indeed, when one con- discontent, and possibly acts of siders the classes from which our insuboriinition. It is needless recruits are mainly drawn, one Sill that the men is well as sees that it is quite possible that the vicers see and know all this, this may be the case. Recent and are perfectly well aware that outbreaks of insubordination and the military authorities dare not grave breaches of discipline lave, punishi muinous offenders in such rightly or wrongly, been itsserted il Wily ils would really deter others to have been in some degree due from following their example. to such causes

as these

But This is the real secret of the frewithout attributing any great im- quent relaxations of discipline portance to such statements which have been witnessed during opinions, it may be remarked that recent years of offences formerly it has not escaped observation or punished by courts-martial being comnient, either in our

now dealt with by commanding in for(iyn armies,' that these of- oicers, diss dies It must be evifences have been leniently dealt dent to every one that, under such with, and that far less severe pun it condition of things, the disciishment has been meted out to piline of an army cannot be ettithe offenders than would have been ciently maintained, but must inawarded in any foreign army. The evitably, as we are forced to fill real fact is, that with il voluntary our ranks with worse and worse system of enlistment like ours, the material, yo from bad to worse. military authorities cannot afford After it due consideration of all to be severe, because in that case these figures and facts, can any the army would cease to attract one who honestly wishes to judge even the few recruits who can now the question have any doubts as be induced to enlist.

to the increasing unpopularity of For similar reasons, in peace army service throughout the Unittime there is a certain amount of vd Kingdom, or fail to see that, work which can be demanded from if our army is to be maintained our soldiers with safety; but as at all, some very material changes soon as the military authorities, and reforms will have to be made as represented either by a general in order to secure a sufficient numor commanding officer of a regi- ber of recruits every year?




1 The comments of the foreign military press, especially of the German military organs, upon these matters last summer were very strong and outspoken,

It may surely be asked why it is present lamentable state of things that, in a country like ours, where to pass, and of the measures which Government service under the will have to be adopted in the near Crown, even in the lowest ranks, future to make the service more is so eagerly coveted and competed attractive, are, I need hardly say, for, whether it be in the police, wide questions, which would lead the navy, the customs, or the post me far beyond the limits of this office, the army should be the sole article. This side of the question exception? Why is it that service I must therefore leave for the in the ranks is boycotted, banned, present, in the hope that I may and barred by the mass of the have a future opportunity of dispeople, and is deemed by thousands cussing it. still to be a mark and a badge of

F. CHENEVIX TRENCI. social degradation and downfall ? Why is it that, in a country where Note.—The vastly increased imthe population is redundant, where migration into England of thouthe struggle for a bare livelihood is sands of almost destitute foreign so intense, remorseless, and fierce, labourers, which has been taking and where thousands of youths place during late years, is, or have no chance or avenue of em rather ought to be, a factor in ployment in the skilled or favour of recruiting. These imskilled labour market—nay, more, migrants, by their poorer standard where many of them are actually of living, cheaper habits of life, in want of sufficient food from day and their willingness to accept to day—these destitute youths will, starvation wages for all kinds of it would appear, do almost any- the cheaper forms of unskilled thing sooner than don the Queen's labour, are constantly ousting and uniform, whereby, in addition to displacing large numbers of unother advantages, they would se skilled English workmen, and cure for themselves comfortable thereby rendering it increasingly and regular shelter, clothing, and difficult for them to obtain work food ?

in civil life. These unskilled Surely these things are to the workmen are, of course, the very general public a paradox and a class from which our recruits are puzzle, and betoken plainly that largely drawn. In 1880, the numthere is something radically wrong ber of these foreign immigrants in the system at present in vogue. was 68,316 ; in 1889, the number The consideration of the causes and rose to 147,398.

Vide Emigrareasons which have brought the tion and Immigration Returns.


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Mr KINCLIKE could scarcely be meditirtive habit of mind which called a contributor to Black afterwards distinctive wood,' for he never wrote in it of him, and which led him in but once, when il sentence which discussing

matters to he had intended to be introduc- tike views so original and unertory to the narrative of an inci- peateel. dent in the French Revolution llis repute night never have grew into a paper highly character extended Dyond the circle of his istic of its writer. But for more immecliate acquaintance - for he than thirty years he had been the nerer showed himself competitive close friend of the late ind then of or ambitious---but for his famous the present Editor of this Magazine, journey to the East. The interior in which his writings were fri- of Turkey, the Troad, Cyprus, the quently the subject of discussion: Desert, Damascus, were comparaand they have been the publishers tively untrolden ground half a of the successive volumes of his century ago, and the notes he took well-known history of the War in hal all the freshness and picturthe Crimea, the first of which ap- esqueness which come from the enpeared in 186:3 and the last in deavour of so original an observer 1887; throughout which period to depict what is at once deeply their relations of business and of interesting and little known. But friendship were close and constant. the first casting of these notes into It is fitting, therefore, that these shape was by no means what was pages should contain some tribute finally given to the world. For to one who leaves a name so emin inilny years the inost fastidious ent in literature, and who lived on tiste was constantly at work upon terms so intimate not only with it, altering, blotting, expanding, the conductors of this Magazine, and polishing. Nobody who has but with many of their friends observed the fatal effects which and contributors.

have often attended this process, It is aflirmed on excellent au or, indeed, who has considered thority that Kinglake was born, the matter from the common-sense not as commonly stated in 1811, point of view only, would recombut in 1809. Ile went to Cam- mend such a concentration of solibridge in 1828, and was the con itude on a subject demanding, as temporary there of Temyson, vlid Kinglake's, no especial research Thackeray, Monekton Milnes, and or exactitude. It might well have others who

to eininence been expected that in the long enWithout making himself remark- deavour after perfection the sharpable there as a student of subjects ness, the clistinctness, and the force which lead to honour's, or of gen- of the original impressions would eral literature, he was socially be hopelessly frittered away and noted as a sayer of that kind of lost. But it was the special charepigram, the force and neatness of acter of Kinglake's intellect to be which infuses such a special llavour able to indulge all this paternal into his writings. And doubtless fondness, not only without injury there was already apparent that to the subject of it, but with a



constant infusion of interest and circle, “Kinglake always says the
spirit. After an interval which best thing.'
would in most minds have dimmed It was when he was well on for
into vagueness the reminiscences fifty that the two chief events of
of the trip to the East, the record his later life occurred. In 1857
of it came forth so rich in colour, he entered Parliament as Liberal
so incisive in form, so finished in inember for Bridgewater, not far
literary grace, that it at once macle from which, at Tuunton, his family
its author famous. Probably no dwelt. That this event had any
book of travel which does not de- important effect on his reputa-
pend for its interest on exciting tion or his success in life cannot
adventure or absolute novelty of be maintained. He never evinced
subject, ever gained more celebrity the qualities which command the
for its writer. Other notable works attention of the House. Matter
relating to travel in the East ap- however excellent could scarcely
'peared about the same period make effective way through his
such as Miss Martineau's East- unemotional manner and subdued
ern Life,' and Curzon's admirable utterance. It is probable, too,
Monasteries of the Levant' that his literary repute was

of without attracting a title of the disadvantage to him, as it not unattention given to · Eothen.' The commonly is in the eyes of those book sparkles with fine points like who conduct the affairs of the a brooch set with brilliants. The nation, and frequently conduct “Methley” described as his com them so badly. But the incipanion was Lord Pollington, after- dents of political life were often wards Lord Mexborough ; the in- intensely interesting to him, and terpreter Mysseri, kept, at the brought him in a wholesome way time of the Crimean war, an hotel out of his shell, and into contact at Constantinople, where, perhaps with the movements of the world in virtue of the fame derived from around him. It was not merely the book, in which he is favourably the questions of the day that thus mentioned, he exercised an inde- occupied him; the system of parpendence of demeanour not dis- liamentary business had also its tinguishable from incivility. charm; and up to the close of his

For many years Kinglake's repu- life, he would fondly dwell, in all tation as a writer continued to rest, the detail which his singularly acundiminished, on the excellences curate memory supplied, not only of this small volume. Notwith on a political crisis of his own day, standing that he was always among but on the forms of proceeding the most quiet and unobtrusive of which attended it. But it cannot men, he was by no means one of be said that, on public grounds, those who disappoint expectation. his parliamentary life, which lasted In his deliberative way he would twelve years, need now be dwelt on. always utter something worthy to When the armies landed in the catch attention. A lady whose Crimea in 1854, Kinglake's quiet acquaintance with persons of note but genuine love of adventure had was extensive, and who has been already brought him to the scene. honoured by pleasant verses from Landed with his pony, he was Thackeray, her frequent visitor, present at the battle of the Alma.

observed to the present Before the opening of it, when near writer, in discussing her brilliant the headquarter staff, he met with

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a slight mishap from the slipping by neglect, was in a proportionate of his saddle, which was not with- degree gladdened by treatment so out important results. One of the cordial; and it is quite conceivstaff thus records the incident: able that he may thus have been “Lord Raglan was most kind, rid- inspired by gratitude with that ing up with inquiries and offers of view of Lord Raglan's military help. Mr Kinglake was all thanks. qualities which became a chief That night, after the battle, Lord motive of his history. That work Raglan met him wandering about, has been so largely discussed, and not knowing where to go, so he the conclusions come to about it asked him to dinner. Of course have been so generally in agreehe came, and delighted every one ment, that its merits and defects present with his charming manner need not be entered upon here. and conversation."

It may, however, be observed of Mr Higgins, the well-known what will yet find a multitude of “Jacob Omnium” of that time, readers, that its matter is of differtook occasion afterwards to relate ent kinds, and widely various dethis accident in print, and went on grees, of historical merit. Of one facetiously to remark that King- kind are all those parts which lake was

the first man who fell express the prepossessions of the on the British side.” It so hap- writer, such as the terrible caricapened that the whirligig of time ture--so clever, yet so grotesque before long brought Jacob up for of the French Emperor; and of St ballot at the Athenæum, of which Arnud, "formerly Le Roy”; and club Kinglake was an intluential the history of the origin and conmember; and the unlucky narra- stitution of the Times' newspaper tor of the incident, seeing too late - very piquant, but apparently the impolicy of his olence, begred founded on grounds entirely fanKinglake not to blackball him. ciful. Prepossessions of this un“I will not blackball you," was the favourable: kind found, however, answer,

but I will not vote for an ample balance on the side of you." It was mainly for other culogy. In his “Crimead,' the part reasons, however, that Jacob, who of Achilles is assigned to Lord had for long been sowing similar Raglan, and of Ilector quite justly dragon's teeth broadcast, was all to Todleben ; while on the other too plentifully blackballed. hand Louis Napoleon continues to

Lord Raglan, most amiable and figure throughout as one of those courteous of commanders, followed ill-disposed and somewhat futile up this introduction with a con deities who used, from their dissiderate kindness which was all tant Olympus, to muddle the that Kinglake could have desired, aflairs of the Greeks. These repand far more than he could have resentations are often supported expected, and which continued on ingenious and refined surmises throughout his stay of about four —too ingenious and too refined to weeks in the Crimea-affording atrord a secure foundation. Of hiin, of course, many invaluable quite a different character are the opportunities for observation. It parts of the history in which he cannot be doubted that this degre: cleals with facts.

These were olof favour won the sensitive heart lected with astonishing patience, of the future historian, who, as

and fitted in his mosaic with an he would have been easily chilled interest always fresh, so that no

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