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they may have arisen among the acter. In extremes of heat and lowest social strata, such as the cold, insurrections are rare. ModJacqueries; or have sprouted forth erate heat, on the other hand, among the highest classes, and thus especially if dry, being favourable be out of reach of the comprehen- to social and political evolution, sion and contact of the mass. This by reason of the greater energy it was the case with Nihilism in its infuses into nerve and muscle, is earliest manifestations. They all favourable to agitations. Lomend by triumphing, but until they broso gives tables showing that, adapt themselves to their sur as in the ancient world so in the roundings may constitute a polit- modern, revolutions and revolts ical crime, though one that is are most abundant in Europe durevidently but temporary, which a ing the spring and summer. Drytime not far distant will transform ness of the atmosphere, hastening into heroism or martyrdom. the processes of loss and repara

Historians are often called upon tion of the nervous system, renders to decide between revolutions and a people excitable and ready to rebellions. Many are the features revolt. Thus is explained also the they have in common, for even the well-known turbulence and impalmost legitimate of revolutions can tience of control of mountaineers, not be accomplished without a cer recognised from the times of Pistain amount of violence. Success istratus to our own.

If the inounor non-success in the course of tain be too high, however, the years is often the only proof of rarefaction of the atmosphere has the legitimacy or illegitimacy of a depressing effect ; yeniuses cease the agitation, of its physiological to appear; the race deteriorates or pathological character. The physically, morally, and politically. production of geniuses, however,

Race has also an enormous inis the highest effort of human fluence on popular movements. evolution. A study, therefore, of Dolichocephalous and fair peoples their natures and the causes of are much more inclined to agitatheir being in the agitations in tions than brachycephalous and which they appear, will give us,

dark ones.

Thus, in the French in pure solution, as the chemists Revolution, out of eighty-nine would

say,

the true character and great innovators and revolutionthe true causes of those great aries twenty were brachycephalevolutions which are called revolu ous, sixty-nine clolichocephalous. tions, distinguishing them perfect- The northern fair races of Europe, ly from revolts.

which lead the vanguard of civilWorking on these lines, Lom- isation, can show the records of broso proceeds to examine the few revolts, but of some great various conditions. the milicu.r, revolutions; while the dark races so to speak-in which revolutions of the extreme south present us and revolts arise, — the physical, with instances of many revolts, anthropological, social, political, but few great revolutions. Furand economical causes from which ther, abundance or poverty of food, they spring. Climate, for in the or abuse of alcoholic stance, and meteorological condi- drinks, largely intluence insurtions strongly influence the abun rectionary movements. Extremes dance or rarity of insurrections, of abundance or poverty depress going far also to determine their mind and body, and while they revolutionary or seditious char- may favour revolts, are hostile

use

as

en

even We are

as

to revolutions. Alcoholism is called “Eyes and no eyes.” It
fatal to all strictly revolutionary might be contended that we knew
movements, while it is most all these things before, that some
fertile in seditions. The impetu- even are trite. Ordered by Lom-
ous character of revolts is still broso's hand they assume new sig-
further shown by the fact that nificance, and give food for deep
women and youths are constantly reflection concerning the multitu-
found their instigators and dinous external influences which
furtherers, while in revolutions are at work on our whole being,
appear men of mature age. True, modifying and moulding us in-
among the Nihilists many women dividually and masse,
are to be found, but this Lom- in matters in which
broso treats an exception, wont loudly to assert our inde-
adducing various social reasons pendence of thought and action.
to explain it, such as the fact Instead, it seems we are in the
that Nihilism represents the mys- power of a host of plastic agents
tic - religious tendency inherited which unswervingly fashion every
from the horrors of famine, fire, part of our individual and social
and inundation in Russia, which life. What becomes of free-will
has been turned into a political under such circumstances? Have
tendency, as is well expressed not our modern scientists de-
by the women when they exclaim, stroyed it once again ? and will
speaking of the Revolution, " Thou the Dantes, and Miltons, and
art my beloved spouse,” in the

Boethiuses of the future have to same manner as saints and nuns

reargue it anew? Certainly the salute Christ.

results of the scalpel and microIn an able chapter Lombroso scope brought to bear upon Homo traces the influence which geniuses, sapiens is little flattering to the enthusiasts, madmen, and crimi- vanity of the self-styled "head of nals have had on revolution and creation.". How little of the revolt; discusses the conditions sapiens there is in the bulk of under which political crime is humanity, how dependent the most likely to abound, or rather sapientia is on muscles, nerves, has actually abounded in the and disposition of internal parts, past, and still occurs; and finally on cliinate and meteorological conapplies his researches and ditions, modern scientists clusions to the elaboration of the amply show. But is there not, punishments, and especially the perchance, an ineffable something preventive measures which politi- that they miss and lose sight of ? cal crime demands, for he lays We trust so; certainly the tendthe old proverb, Prevention is ency of the day is too much to better than cure,” here, as else

“ Take upon us the mystery of things, where, well to heart.

As if we were God's spies." The perusal of this book recalls the old story of our nursery days

HELEN ZIMMERN.

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The time of the year was Ipril, each other, Virchow said

“ Seit the thermometer stood at 80, the Adam" Since Allam.” They days were lengthening, the barley looked like brothers. Schliemann was ripening, as some weary tril wils the taller and broader, somevellers reached a hotel in Cairo. thing between a jovial fariner and They had seen early morning in a German oflicer, but keen, genial, a sinall boat on the Suez Canal, impulsive ; while Virchow was while slevout worshippers were shorter and slighter, with the saying their prayers, and a camel simplicity and intensity of genius was threading its waly on the marked on his features. Somebanks near Goshen. They had times they were accompanied by felt the sun at mid-day it Is- fellow-workers not then resident mailia, seen the tleseri and the in the hotel--11. Virville, who was palms and the low tlat mud-build- then exploring the remains of the ings of the poor fellalin. They temple at Bubastes, and Schweinnoticed for the first time the furth, the African traveller. They precious water sold in skin bottles are enamoured of the land, and at Tel-el-Kebir. The sand lay in say they could spend here a thouheaps on the uneven surfaces of sand years. the railway - carriages, and the We have now before us the stifling atmosphere within was writing of three of these friends only less distressing than the clouds in our interleaved Bible. of dust outside. The open omnibus l'rofessor Virchow, who knows of Shepheard's hotel has passed his Bible, turned up Exodus opthrough the crowded streets, posite the story of Israel in avoided the runner before some Cuypt, and wrote, "Rudolf Virwealthy citizen's chariot, and at chow, in returning from a journey last stopped. There, on the cool to Nubia and lpper Egypt in broad verandah where magicians special research of the statues and ply their enchantments and ven- pictures of Rameses 11., the king dors sell their wares, the new of the oppression.”

are investigated by the Dr Schliemann wrote in Greek, older inhabitants.

with cert:in adaptations, two hexThe hotel became a home to us, ameter lines from the Odyssey, because of the presence there be " King Zeus, grant me that [Tefore us of our friend Irofessor lemachus] may be happy among Virchow of Berlin; and that (men], and may have all [his] evening, without any previous heart's desire." arrangement, we found that his Dr Schweinfurth wrote, “Ich seat was placed opposite our party glaube, dass die hohe Bedeutung at table. lle introduced us to his der biblischen Geschichte für die companion, lleinrich Schliemann, Erziehung des Menschengeschthe discoverer of Troy. When lechts in der Natürlichkeit der asked how long they had known darin enthaltenen Gedanken liegt,

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welche stets die urmenschlichen we had seen before. So, after Gefühle anrufen und alle Unnatur that sixty minutes' experience in ausschliessen.”—Cairo, 8 April ’88. the large hall at Cairo, in our

[Translation.] In my belief, the little bedroom where mosquitoes deep significance of the Biblical hummed round us all night in the story for the education of the sultry air, the whole scene was human race consists in the fidelity again enacted for us in the theatre to nature of the thoughts it em of memory. As, after a stormy bodies, which always appeal to the voyage, the traveller, though on deep-seated feelings of men, to the land, thinks he is still in the movexclusion of everything that is con- ing ship, so our mind surged and trary to nature.

swelled under the force of the imNext evening Dr Schliemann petus received from the story of and my husband exchanged places, the dreams, hopes, fulfilments of a the latter sitting beside his old single life. We felt when with master of German student days, him that we were in a great presand the writer next Dr Schlie- ence—a life that had been built

Some funny remark was up of varied and costly experipassed about the exchange of their ences, and which was always imwine. As we sat there, Schlie- bibing from every source. While mann told us his life-story. In- he was speaking, waiters tense reality and carnestness in hurrying to and fro, sometimes life and pursuit of one aim always whisking off the flies, again putcaptivate one, and among a crowd ting down the quaint brass fingerof mere pleasure-seekers often with bowls; but the guests were scatsoulless faces—breathing wax fig- tering, the chairs were creaking ures—one learned much from the over the smooth surface of the purposefulness of Dr Schliemann. polished floors, and the dinner was

In that land where there is no over, before we thought it had twilight, in a city where almost well begun. The flight of time every nationality is represented, was the only obstacle to his going on a soil which rewards the ex

on much longer. plorer at every turn of his spade, Since the news of his death and the student every look at an reached us a week ago, busy workold papyrus, surely the living pic- ers have been in our brain digging ture which was on that night to away the heap of material which be painted for us had a fitting has accumulated since that night background. In our childhood we two years ago, and we have rewent to dioramas, and great was freshed our memory by reading our delight as we watched the his autobiography.

The warın moving pictures, the thunder- heart and the clear brain which storms, moonlight effects, sunris- had mastered so many languages, ings and sunsets.

We used to go and told the story with such arthome to our attic nursery with less simplicity, as if only for the the green baize curtains and the first time, made an impression not sloping windows, to reproduceeasily to be forgotten. Here are to any audience we could lay some of the results of our excahold of queerly made pictures vation. gummed rolls of

paper,

It was in romantic surroundwith lighted tapers behind pin- ings that the boy's life was spent. holes in our illustrations, and Behind the garden-house of his musical accompaniments, of what childhood was a pond, out of

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which, ran the legend, a maiden Hopping Peter stimulated his derose each night, holding a silver sire to learn geography, and inbowl; and in the village a small creased his passion for the myshill with burial-place, in which a terious. robber-knight had laid his child, Another event which he loved coffined in a cradle of gold. To to dwell upon was the entrance add to all this, there was a liv- of a drunken miller into the ing heroine in that fairyland, the grocer's shop where, as a young little Minna, whom he loved, and apprentice, he was working from who always shared his dreams. 5 A.M. to 11 P.M. This man reWhen poverty blocked the way, cited a hundred lines of Homer, he used to say to his father, “Why and the boy was so attracted by not dig up the golden cradle or the rhythmic cadence that he fish for the silver bowl?" His wept, though not understanding father pinched himself to afford a word, and had the lines repeated as a Christmas gift to the little three times. He spent all his lad of eight a Universal History, little savings in giving three glasses with an engraving of Troy in of whisky as a reward to the man ; flames. " If these walls were as and from that moment constantly thick as those in the picture," prayed to God that he might learn said the boy to his father, “ there Greek. must be some remains of them ; His deliverance from grinding and I shall excavate them some potatoes, sweeping the shop, and day.” The agreement was made selling herrings and candles, came between father and son. Not in this way.

He lifted a cask too every bud opens to a flower, not heavy for him, spat blood, and every acorn becomes an oak, not could work no

more; and the every beginning has an ending so next glimpse we catch of him is true in every detail to the ideal as a cabin-boy on the Dorothea, first raised in that child's ima- selling his coat to buy a blanket. gination.

The brig was wrecked; he did Among his childhood's friends, not know the name of the land besides the faithful Minna, was he was cast upon, but he heard the village tailor, Wöllert, who a voice, as he writes, that “the had one eye and one foot, and tide in my earthly affairs had was for this reason called " Hop- come, and that I had to take it piny Peter.”

This man had a at its flood." He was on the most wonderful store of tales, coast of llolland ; and from that which he told with inimitable country wrote to a kind friend in skill, one of which was how he llamburg, telling him of his unhad caught a stork which used to fortunate position. llis letter build a nest on Schliemann's barn, reached the friend when sitting and fastened a piece of parchment at a large dinner-party; a subround its foot asking the pro- scription was started on the spot, prietor of its winter's home to say and £20 forwarded to Schliewhere it lived ; and that it had mann. The recommendation returned in the spring with which accompanied the money verse of bad German tied to its got him a situation.

IIis new foot, telling that it had been to work was stamping bills of exSt John's Land. In the written change and getting them cashed story of his life, he tells how this in town, and carrying letters to and several other anecdotes of and from the post-oflice. HIis

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