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an opportunity of practically con never hesitated to differ from the futing the slander. He was in- great man, and to speak his mind vited to Brook Street; he was --notably on the American and made welcome at Fryston, and not Oriental questions, and on the long afterwards came the per. arrangements at the British Muemptory demand, not for the five seum, as to which he probably bepounds, “but for £50), which he lieved himself by far the better must have within twenty - four authority. There are happy and hours to stive off imminent ruin. graceful notes from Vr Delane And when Milnes, instead of send nd Dean Stanley, and one from ing the £50, writes kindly to him, Carlyle which is characteristic: inquiring the nature of the emer - The new Grace of Fortune is a gency which has necessitated such thing we are all glad of and wish a demand, he is repaid by a letter, well to. I will only say, may the modelled apparently on the immor- noble British Peerage, once one of tal epistle of Dr Johnson to Lorul the noblest things in all the world, Chesterfield, in which his patron- and still a very noble, find you an age' is repudiatel, his character honour and possession to it, and maligned, and his pretensions to you it a ditto, ditto to you !” The literary eminence turned to ridi- two men had been attracted to cule.”
each other from the first, perhaps In 1863, Milnes, when getting by the cynical and paradoxical on in years, was gratitied by the humour which common to peerage he hoped to have inheritel. both; and the irritable Chelsea He atlected to take it grumblingly age had taken kindly to the hosas “a second class -as a sort of pitable master of Fryston. At consolation stakes in the political Fryston he had licence to indulge
Of course he was pleased, his humours, and was made comand he liked the title, for few men fortable, so far as possible, in momore appreciated social distinc- nastic silence and seclusion. On tions. His friends knew it, and the very last visit, we are told Mr Reid prints a selection from that he came down to breakfast innumerable congratulatory let- the first morning in a shockingly ters. Nr Gladstone writes bad humour, but was gradually Premier :
soothed into complacency by un“I cannot sign the appointment to obtrusive attention. the Chiltern IIundreds without a In 1866, as one of the English word of regret, though I write it Commissioners to the French partially in the dark.... If you are Exhibition, Lori Houghton reabout to be removed to another viveil old friendships, and made place,' I sincerely hope you may de
many new acquaintances. He rive gratification from the transfer, which I believe would be regarıled by
was introduced to the reigning the public as a just tribute to your spirits in light literature and character and powers.
The superior fiction—to About and Flaubert, beings among whom you may then to Daudet and Zola. For the go, could not have more pleasure in friend of Mr Algernon Swinburne receiving you, than we, your humble
had a catholic toleration for all companions, have regret in losing you." the eccentric forms of French
We may remark, parentheti- genius, even when it confounded cally, that Milnes, although an licentious realism with artistic advanced Liberal, and a hearty freedom. At the same time, admirer of Mr Gladstone's genius, there are letters from graver men,
which show that the catholic métier. Though he was thus liberality was reciprocal. We crippled, he resolutely pursued his may single out a flattering pas- social life, resolved that illness sage in a letter from Montalem- should make as little difference bert: " Mrs Craven would be as possible in his ordinary habits. delighted to hear from you, par- During his stay in Scotland, he ticularly if you take the trouble visited at many of the country to read her book, "Récit d'une houses he had known in earlier Sour.' I am sure it will greatly days.
And he could talk interest you.”
just as delightfully as of old of Unlike most of us, Lord Hough- the people and the places he had ton early got over the worst of his known in bygone times.” But his earthly trials, and few men upon old friends had been dropping off the whole led a more pleasant or fast, and death came to surprise placid existence. When he had him at Vichy in the summer of once resigned himself to carry the 1885. One Sunday he took part cross of the disappointment of his in an animated conversation at political aspirations, he walked the table d'hôte of his hotel, exaway with it contentedly enough. plaining to some French RepubAnd when the destructive fire licans the services the Prince of occurred at Fryston in 1876, he Wales was able to render to Engconsoled himself philosophically lish society. That night he was with the general sympathy of his suddenly taken ill, and he had friends. He was happy in his breathed his last early on the folcircumstances, his habits, and his lowing morning. So the intellecchildren. Possibly, as infirmities tual viveur and the man of society began to grow upon him, he may par excellence may be said to have have felt the mortification of hon- literally dropped in harness; but ours coming too late. He very we know that he deserved the sensibly declined the succession eulogy pronounced by Mr Reid : to the Presidency of the Geogra “ The kindest of human hearts phical Society, although he had ceased to beat, and the shadow always taken a lively interest in of a great sorrow fell upon a its proceedings, and would once thousand homes of rich and poor, have delighted in the duties of of cultured and simple, scattered the post and the distinction it throughout the world, in all of conferred. He writes rather sad- which his presence had been welly in 1882 that his limbs are comed as that of a friend." There crippled and his brain growing was no man to whom, as a simdull, so that he found himself in- ple acquaintance, we should have capable of writing a promised ar turned with more confidence for ticle for the 'Quarterly.' Never- counsel or assistance of any kind theless, he stuck manfully to his in case of real and urgent distress.
PROFESSOR LOMBROSO'S NEW THEORY OF POLITICAL CRIME.
LITTRÉ, that eminent French remarks thereon must necessarily writer and thinker, lays it down be but cursory. But if they exas his opinion that political crime cite the reader's curiosity, and inis among all crimes that which duce him to go to the fountainmost demands our careful atten- head, some purpose will have been tion—at least as modern society effected. is constituted—because its effects This important work, yet annot only operate on individuals, other evidence of the powerful but on the public weal, interna- vitality which informs the Italian tional relations, and public mor- School of Criminal Anthropology, ality. “This crime,” he goes on is divided into two parts.
The to say, “is worthy of being studied first, treating of the anthropology as a case of social pathology." and sociology of political crime, is
Whether it was this suggestion entirely the work of Professor on the part of Littré, or whether Lombroso himself. In the second, it was the logical consequence of which sets forth the manifestaall his previous studies in criminal tions of political crime in ancient science, in any case the French- and modern history, and studies man's desire has been carried out penal codes from the point of view by Professor Lombroso of Turin, of criminal anthropology, Lomin a large and important work broso has been assisted by Projust published in Italy, called “Il fessor Laschi. The methods of Delitto Politico e la Rivoluzione' investigation pursued by the Ital(“Political Crime and Revolution'). ian scientist in his previous works It is a book crowded with a mass are,
also followed in of careful research, of facts and this book that is to say, the figures and data, and, as such, criminal is regarded as rather an forms rather stiff reading for the organic than a psychological angeneral public, to whom also the omaly. He is studied in himself, circumstance that it is written in physiologically and anatomically, Italian will help to make it less as well as in his milieu. Tables accessible. Still, like all Professor of statistics and graphic represenLombroso's previous works, it can tations of the relative frequency not be overlooked by those who of a particular kind of crime are would keep themselves au fait of given. In short, an attempt is the modes and methods of modern made to introduce the light and thought; for the influence of Lom- order of science into the great broso's books in Italy, France, and limbo of crime, with the hope Germany has been as immediate thus in time to lead up to a legisand decisive as that of “The Ori- lation somewhat more rational and gin of Species. It is not to our discriminating than the inadequate honour that in England is yet he patchwork which mere empiricism is so little known.
and antiquated and unscientific It is for this reason that I pro- conceptions has begotten for us. pose to give an account of the It is needful, first of all, to debook in these pages, though from fine what is meant by the term its technical character, its discur- political crime. Many celebrated siveness, and its great length, my penal lawyers have asserted that
such a thing does not exist. Daily tion, by some neurotic genius or experience shows us how very historical occurrence. Neverthelightly the so-called “free” coun- less, the genius and the occurrence tries regard political crimes com are, so to speak, accidental; the mitted on the territories of their changes they work have been slowless fortunate neighbours. Lom- ly ripening throughout the course broso, on the contrary, insists that of years, just as the infiltration such a crime does exist. He main- of a little water and the generatains that the majority in every tion of a certain amount of steam country is a hater of everything may produce some tremendous telnew (misoneistic). He goes on to luric catastrophe, which in truth assert that we are all misoneistic has been preparing for long ages even the most progressive-mind- in the gradual, ceaseless working ed among us — adducing endless of the earth's internal forces. examples from customs, religion, Revolutions, therefore, are science, letters, arts, even fashions, crime. They are the historical to prove his point. This leads him expressions of a people's developto the momentarily startling asser ment. They are necessary from tion that the existence of misone- the point of view of the physiolism in the majority implicates- ogy of society regarded as an ennay, necessitates—the existence of tity, and can in no sense of the political crime. This crime Lom- word be classed as anti-social. broso defines as any violent assault They change the religion or the against the political, religious, or government with which the genius social misoneism of the majority of the people among whom they
-against the form of government occur is no longer in harmony, which results from it, and the with the smallest possible amount persons who officially represent it. of friction, substituting the new For misoneism is, from this point order of things with the least ofof view, as much a physiological fence to the misoneistic tendency characteristic of society as a whole, of the majority, and hence with as material and mental functions the greatest possible amount of are physiological characteristics of
Rebellions, on the other each particular individual. Every hand, are hatched out hurriedly, violent assault on the misoneism artificially, at false temperature, of society is therefore an assault and under high pressure; they on a physiological fact; and since are therefore embryos doomed this fact is a social fact, an attack to certain death. on it is anti-social, which is equiva Such the key-note of Professor lent to saying that it is a crime. Lombroso's new work. Under the
Now, the progress of the world heading of misoneism, he adduces requires that misoneism should endless examples to show that the not reign supreme. It must be extension and tyranny of the law offended from time to time. But of inertia in the moral worldin the mode of offending it con
that hatred now so little recogsists the difference between politi- nised, which takes its rise in the cal crime and the legitimate work- difficulty and disgust which we feel ing of change — in other words, when we have to substitute a new between rebellion and revolution. sensation for an old one—is so Revolutions, in the proper sense common even in animals that it of the word, are immediately de- must be classed as physiological in termined, almost without excep- its character. The dislike shown
by animals to all that is new is only after several months, and in well known to those who have the presence of a third person, did observed them closely. Lombroso he consent to listen to him and cites the instance of an ape, which, shake hands. Women, too, have a let loose in its native haunts, after large dose of this quality. They having been dressed in European cling to their particular method of fashion, was received with horror religion, to time-hallowed customs, and shunned by its companions; to forms often grown empty of and a hen which, painted green by meaning. In some regions and an artist, was mercilessly pecked tribes this extends to the language and hunted out of the yard by of their ancestors, so that they the other fowls. (Æsop no doubt often speak differently from the would have deduced from these men, when these, as in America, incidents other conclusions than or on the Orinoco, have adopted those drawn by Lombroso.) Dogs the tongue of the surrounding which always bark quite needlessly, tribes. To this day the peasant and not because they have to keep women of the Romagna speak a watch, at every carriage which language hardly changed from the passes through the silent street Latin of old times. Savages are of the village horses which classed by Lombroso in the same shy when their riders appear in category as women and childrena different dress—COWS which re i.e., as beings whose psychic weakfuse to be milked when the milk ness is such as to prevent them, inaid is in holiday attire, — these once they have assimilated a cerand endless other cases may be tain number of sensations, from cited as examples of the funda- assimilating others, especially if mental misoneism of organic na the difference be great, and there ture. 1 Nor need we do more than is no connecting link between mention the ingrained conservat- them. Thus in primitive lanism of children. Every one, for in- guages an elephant is a bull with stance, who has told them stories, the teeth ; in Chinese, horses are knows how they delight in the big dogs; in Sanscrit, a stable for repetition of the same tales-nay, horses is (1 stable for oxen for even of the self-same words—and horses ; a pair of horses is a how they notice and correct any yoke of oxen of horses. If connectchange. Varigni tells us how à ing links be wanting, the perceplittle boy two years of age, who tion is associated with such fatigue was very fond of him, recoiled as to produce real pain, which from him in horror when he was sometimes reveals itself in horror. obliged, in consequence of rheu- There then takes place in the matic pains, to wrap up his leg normal mind that which happened in cotton - wool, looked at him in the case of a lunatic woman, with suspicion, and uttered frantic who, whenever she went out of howls. Even after he was well he doors, remained impressed with sought to avoid him, and cried the first object or first person she whenever he went too near; and saw, and for the whole day sub
1 Lombroso himself is an amusing case in point. From early youth he possessed the art of divining fruitful ideas, which at the time seemed absurd to scientific men as well as to the public. Every line of investigation he took up was at the time apparently opposed to the current tendency of thought, and only received attention at a later date.