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3. p. 232.

nearly all fertile. Flower buds obtuse. Flowers white,
small, having an agreeable odour. (Don's Mill., iii.
p. 232.) This species is found wild from Pennsylvania
to Virginia, where it forms a shrub, growing from 4 ft. to
6 ft. high. It was introduced in 1736, and produces
its flowers in July and August. It prefers a moist soil,
and is readily propagated by division of the root. Plants,
in the London nurseries, are Is. 6d. each; at Bollwyller,
80 cents; and in New York, 27 cents.

748 Varieties. H. a, 1 vulgaris Ser. in Dec. Prod., iv. p. 14.; H. vulgàris Michr. Fl.

Bor. Amer., i. p. 268., and probably of Pursh; H. arboréscens Curt. Bot. Mag., t. 437., Lam. II., t. 370. f. 1., Schkuhr Handb., t. 119., Mill. Icon., p. 251.; H. frutéscens Mænch Meth., i. p. 106.,

Du Ham. Arb., i. t. 118.—The nerves of the leaves puberulous. * H. a. 2 discolor Ser., l.c.-Leaves almost white beneath from tomentum.

2. H. (A.) CORDA'TA Pursh. The cordate-leaved Hydrangea. Identification. Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 309., exclusive of the synonyme of Michx. ; Don's Mill Engravings. Wats. Dendr. Brit, t. 42. ; and our fig. 749. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves broadly ovate, acuminated,

rather cordate at the base, coarsely toothed, glabrous beneath. Flowers all fertile. Flowers small, white, sweet-scented. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 232.) We agree with Torrey, in thinking this merely a variety of H. arboréscens. It is a native of Carolina, on the mountains, and on the banks of the Missouri, above St. Louis; where it forms a shrub, growing from 6 ft. to 8 ft. high. It was introduced in 1806, and flowers in July and August. H. georgica Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836, only differs from it in flowering a little

749 later, and in being rather more robust.

3. H. ni'vea Michx. The snowy-leaved Hydrangea.
Identification. Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 268. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 232.
Synonymes. H. radiàta Wal. Fl. Car., 251., ex Michx., but not of Smith.
Engravings. Wats. Dendr. Brit., t. 43. ; Lam. III., t. 307. f. 2.; and our fig. 750.
Spec. Char., fc. Leaves cordate, oval, acuminated, sharply

toothed, clothed with white tomentum, or pubescence,
beneath. Corymbs flattish. Sepals of sterile flowers
entire. Flower buds depressed. Flowers white, rather
large. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 232.) It is found wild near
the Savannah river, where it forms a shrub, growing
from 4 ft. to 6 ft. high. It was introduced in 1786,
and flowers in July and August. Its propagation and
culture are the same as those of the preceding species.

750 Variety. si H. n. 2 glabélla Ser. in Dec. Prod., 4. p. 14.- Leaves nearly glabrous

beneath. Flowers all fertile. This variety has, probably, originated

in culture.

sa 4. H. QUERCIFO‘lia Bartram. The Oak-leaved Hydrangea. Identification. Bartram Trav., ed. Germ., p. 336. t. 7., ex Willd. Sp., 2. t. 634.; Don's Mill., 3. Synonyme. H. radiata Smith Icon. Pict., 12., but not of Walt. Engravings. Bot. Mag., t. 975.; and our fig. 751. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves large, ovate, serrately lobed, and toothed, pilose be

neath. Corymbs rather panicled, flattish. Sepals of sterile flowers entire. Flower buds depressed. Flowers white. Sterile, or outer, ones of the

3 U 3


P. 233


corymbs large. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 233.) 751
A native of Florida, growing from 4 ft.
to 6 ft. high. It was introduced in 1803,
and flowers from June to September.
This is by far the most interesting of the
North American hydrangeas, from its large,
deeply lobed, and sinuated leaves; and its
fine, large, nearly white corymbs of flowers,
which are sterile, and appear from June
till they are destroyed by frost. Culture
as in the preceding species; but it is essen-
tial that the situation be sheltered, and the
soil kept somewhat moist, otherwise the
leaves are not perfectly developed, and the
branches are apt to be broken off by high
winds. Price of plants in the London nur-
series, 2s. 6d. each.

B. Species Natives of Asia.
5. H. HETEROMA’lla D. Don. The diverse-haired-leaved Hydrangea.
Identification. D. Don Prod. Fl. Nep., p. 211.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 233.
Spec. Char., fc. Leaves oval, acuminated, sharply serrated, tomentose be-

neath, 5 in, long, and nearly 3 in. broad. Corymbs supra-decompound, diffuse, pilose. Sepals of sterile flowers roundish-oval, quite entire. Flowers white. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 233.) A native of Nepal, at Gosainthan ; where it forms a shrub, growing from 4 ft. to 6 ft. high. Introduced in 1821.

App. i. Half-hardy Species of Hydrangea. H. Hortensia Sieb., H hortensis Smith, Hortensia opulöides Lam., H. specidsa Pers., Primula mutabilis Lour., Viburnum serratum 'and v. tomentosum Thunb., the Chinese Guelder Rose (Bot. Mag., t. 438 ; and our fig: 752.) is well known by its ample corymbs of snow-ball-like flowers, which are of a whitish green when they first appear, but which afterwards become of a fine lour, and finally die off with a purplish tinge. It is called Temeri. hona (that is, the globe flower) by the Japanese, and Fun-Dan-Kwa by the Chinese. In Europe, it was named, by the celebrated Commerson, in honour of Madame Hortense Lapeaute, the wife of his most particular friend M. Lapeaute, a watchmaker. Commerson first named it Lapeaútia; but, in order that the compliment paid to Madaine Lapeaute might be the more direct, he changed the name to that of Hortensia, from her Christian name, Hortense. The plant was afterwards discovered to be a species of Hydrangea, a genus pre. viously established by Gronovius : but the name of Hortensia was retained as its specific appellation, and it is still the common name by which the plant is known in French gardens. In Britain, it is so hardy, that, in the neighbourhood of London, and in all mild situations not far distant from, and not much above the level of, the sea, it will stand as a bush in the open ground, dying down to the roots

752 in severe winters, but springing up again with great luxuriance the following year; and, if the soil be rich, and kept moist, flowering freely during grea part of the summer.

The hydrangea is said, in the Nouveau Du Hamel, to have been cultivated in the Isle of France, in 1789 or before, and it was brought to the Kew Garden, from China, in 1790, by Sir Joseph Banks, It soon became popular throughout England, and eminently so about Paris.

The Culture of this kind of Hydrangea is remarkably easy; and the plant is particularly suitable for persons who have little else to do than attend to their garden, or their green-house; because it cannot receive too much water, and droops immediately if water has been withheld; reviving rapidly, when apparently almost dead, very soon after water has been given to it. Cuttings may be put in at any season; and, if this be done when the plant is in a growing state, they will root in a fortnight; and, if transplanted into rich moist soil, they will flower in a month. Few shrubby plants make a more magnificent appearance on a lawn; particularly when planted in peat or boggy soil, in a moist situation, partially shaded. To keep the plant in a vigorous state, none of the wood should ever be more th three years old ; and there should, th be a succession of two years' old shoots kept up, to supply the place of those which are cut out annually.

Blue Hydrangeas. A remarkable circumstance in the culture of the hydrangea is, that, when it is placed in certain soils, the flowers, instead of being of the usual pink colour, become of a fine blue. This we have already noticed (p. 216.) as affording an example of what 'De Candolle calls a variation in plants, as contradistinguished from a variety; the latter being capable of being continued by propagation, but not the former, Various conjectures have been made as to the cause of this blue colour. The most general seem to be, that it is owing either to the presence of alum, or that of oxide of iron ; but, nevertheless, watering the plant with alum, or chalybeate water, will not produce it in every soil, though it appears to do so in some. The towers are sometimes blue in


plants growing in loamy soil, and sometimes in those growing in peaty or boggy soil. In order to produce this colour, some have recommended steeping sheep's dung in the water given to the plant, and others mixing the soil in which it is grown with peat ashes, wood ashes, oxide of iron, nitre, alkali, or a little common salt. Neither science nor experience has hitherto, however, been able to determine positively the cause of this change of colour; and, of course, nothing but experiment in every particular case will decide what soil will produce it. About London, the most effectual are the loams of Hampstead and Stanmore Heaths, and the peat of Wimbledon Common. About Edin. burgh, the soil found in the surrounding bogs; and about Berlin and Petersburg, also, bog earth has been found to produce this colour in the hydrangea.

Statistics. There are various instances of large hydrangeas growing in the open air recorded in the Gardener's Magazine. One at Sydenham, in Devonshire, has had 1000 heads of flowers expanded on it at one time. One at Redruth, in Cornwall, is described as being as big as a large haycock. In Pembrokeshire, at Amroth Castle, a plant, 33 ft. in circumference, and 6 ft. high, has had 832 beads of flowers expanded on it at once. In Sussex, at Ashburnham Place, a plant, 30 ft. in circumference, and 5 ft, high, produced 1072 heads of flowers in one season. In Scotland, in Argyllshire, at Lochiel House, a large plant furnished from 600 to 700 flowers, all fully ex. panded at the same time. At St. Mary's Isle, in the Stewartry of Kircudbright, a plant, 32 it. in circumference, produced 525 heads of fowers; and one in Fifeshire, at Dysart House, 40 ft. in circumference, and 6 ft. high, produced 605 flowers. Plants, in the London nurseries, are from 6d. to Is. each; at Bollwyller, 2 francs, and the blue from 3 to 6 francs ; at New York, 50 cents.

Several other Spécies of Hydrangea, natives of Japan and Nepal, are described in Don's Miller, iii. p. 233. ; but none of them, as far as we know, have been introduced. H. vestita Wall., a native of the mountains of Nepal, with large white flowers, and leaves downy beneath, would be a desirable introduction and is, probably, the garden hydrangea of China in a wild state. H. altissima Wall., according to Mr. Royle, climbs lofty trees : but this circumstance, in our opinion, ought to separate it from this genus, however much it may resemble it in its flowers.




There are very few plants belonging to this order that are truly ligneous, and of these the only hardy species which it contains are comprised in the genus Bupleurum.



Pentándria Digýnia. Identification. Tourn. Inst., 309. t. 163. ; Lin. Gen., 328. ; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 127. ; Don's Mill., 3.

p. 296.
Synonymes. Tendria and Bupréstis Spreng. Syst., 1. p. 880.; Bupliore, or Oreille de Lièvre Fr.;

Hasenöhrlein, Ger.
Derivation. From bous, an ox, and pleuron, a side; from the supposed quality of swelling cattle

that feed on some of the species of the genus. The name of Hare's Ear, which is preserved in the French and German, has reference to the shape of the leaves. Gen. Char. Margin of the calyx obsolete. Petals roundish, entire, strictly

involute, with a broad retuse point. Fruit compressed from the sides. Seed teretely convex, filattish in front. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 296.) Smooth shrubs, evergreen, or subevergreen. Natives of Europe and Africa, and some of Asia ; but none of them growing higher than 5 ft. or 6 ft. Only one hardy species is in cultivation in British gardens.

. 1. B. FRUTICO'sum L. The shrubby Bupleurum, or Hare's Ear. Identification. Lin. Sp., 343.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 301. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836 Synonymes. Tendria fruticosa Spreng. in Schultes Syst., 6. p. 376.; Bupréstis fruticosa Spreng.

Mag., Séseli æthiópicum Bauh. Pin., 161. ; Séseli frutex Mor. Umb., 16. Engravings. Sibth. Fl. Græc., t. 263. ; Wats. Dendr. Brit., t. 14 ; Du Ham. Arb., 1. t. 43. ; Jaune

Pl. Tr., I. t. 65.; Mill. Icon., t. 74. ; and our fig. 753. Spec. Char., &c. Shrubby, erect, branched. Leaves oblong, attenuated at the base, coriaceous, 1-nerved, quite entire, sessile. Leaves of involucre

oblong. Ribs of fruit elevated, acute. Vittæ broad. Bark of branches purplish.

Leaves of a sea-green colour. (Don's Mill., jï. p. 301.) A native of Portugal, Spain, the south of France, about Nice, Corsica, Sicily, Mauritania, and Thessaly. It is a shrub, growing 3 ft. or 4 ft. high in a wild state, and sometimes to the height of 6 ft. in British gardens. Introduced in 1596, and flowering in July and August. It is readily propagated by cuttings, and is of free growth in any dry calcareous soil. The blue glaucous hue of its smooth shining foliage renders it a desirable addition to every collection. If planted in an open airy situation, in a deep soil, not moist, and allowed to extend itself on every side, it would soon form a large hemispherical bush, highly ornamental during winter from its evergreen foliage, and during July and August from its bright yellow flowers. Plants, in the London nurseries, are ls. 6d. each.

753 App. i. Half-hardy Species of the Genus Bupleurum. B. gibraltárica Lam., B. coriàceum L'Hérit., B. obliquum Vahl, B. arboréscens Jacq., Te. ndria coriacea Spreng., B. verticale Ort., is a smooth evergreen shrub, with coriaceous glaucous leaves, fragrant when bruised. It is a native of Gibraltar, on rocks; was introduced in 1784, and grows to the height of 3 ft., flowering from June to August. It is nearly as hardy as the common species.

. B. plantagineum Desf., Tenoria plantaginea Spreng., is a native of Mount Atlas, with mucronate, stiff, coriaceous, sessile leaves. It was introduced in 1810, and grows to the height of 2 ft. Op 3 ft., flowering in August.

B. canescens Schousb. is a native of Mogador, with ohlong membraneous leaves. It was intro duced in 1809, and grows to the height of 2 it. or 3 ft., Aowering in August or September.

h B. fruticescens L. is a native of Spain and the north of Africa ; but, it is hardly worth cultivation as a shrub. It was introduced into British gardens in 1752, but is rarely to be met with.





The genera belonging to this order, which contain ligneous plants, are dràlia and Hédera; and their characteristics will be found stated shortly below. Ara'lia L. Margin of the calyx very short, entire, or toothed. Petals 5,

free, and expanded at the apex. Stamens 5. Styles 5, expanded, spreading divaricately. Berry 5-celled, usually torose. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 388., adapted.) – The only species not herbaceous is a fruticose deciduous

leaved plant, assuming the character of a tree. HE'DERA Swartz. Margin of the calyx elevated or toothed. Petals 5—10,

not cohering at the apex. Stamens 5—10. Styles 5-10, conniving, or joined in one. Berry 5—10-celled. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 391.) – The only hardy species is a climbing evergreen shrub.


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ARA'LIA L. THE ARA'LIA, or ANGELICA TREE. Lin. Syst. Pentándria

Pentagynia. Identification. D. Don Prod. Fl. Nep., p. 185., in a note; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 257.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 588. Synonymes. Aràlia sp. Lin.; Aràliæ vèræ Blum.

Derivation. According to some, from ara, annoyance, the spines being very troublesome, in its

native country, to travellers; but, according to others, a name of unknown meaning, under which one species was sent to Fagon, at Paris, from Quebec, in 1764, by one Sarrazin, a French phy. sician.

Description. A shrub, with a single stem, having the habit of a tree; and bearing large compositely divided leaves, peculiar in character among shrubs, and very interesting.

du 1. A. SPINO'sa L. The spiny Aralia, or Angelica Tree. Identification. Lin. Sp., p. 392. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 389. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Synonymes. Aralie, Fr. and Ger. ; Spikenard, N. Amer. Engravings. Schmidt Arb., t. 102. and t. 103.; Wats. Dend. Brit., t. 116.; and our fig. 754. Spec. Char., fc. Stem arboreous and prickly. Leaves doubly and trebly

pinnate. Leaflets ovate, acuminated, and deeply serrated. Panicle much branched, beset with velvety stellate down.

754 Umbels

nuinerous. Involucre small, of few leaves. Petals white and reflexed. Styles 5, divaricate, arched. Fruit 5-ribbed. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 389.) growing to the height of 10 ft. or 12 ft., with a single erect stem; a native of Carolina and Virginia, in low, fertile, moist woo is. Introduced in 1688; and flowering in August and September. An infusion of the fruit, in wine or spirits, is considered an effectual cure for the rheumatism. In British gardens, this species is propagated by cuttings of the roots; and, from its large doubly and trebly pinnate leaves, it forms a singularly ornamental plant, with a spreading, umbrella-like head, when standing singly on a lawn. After the plant flowers, the stem commonly dies down to the ground, like that of the raspberry, and like it, is succeeded by suckers. Pursh“ mentions a variety in which the petioles of the leaves are without prickles.” It is found in South Carolina, near Charleston.

There are some other suffruticose species of Aràlia, hardy or half-hardy, natives of North or South America, such as A. hispida, Bot. Cab. t. 1306., which are barely shrubby, and some shrubby species, natives of Japan, Cochin-China, or New Zealand, which are not yet sufficiently known, and have not been introduced.


A tree,



HE'DERA Swartz. The Ivy. Lin. Syst. Pent-Decándria, and Pent

Decagýnia. Identification Swartz Fl. Ind. Occ., p. 581. ; D. Don Prod. Nep., p. 186.; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 261. ;

Don's Mill., 3. p. 391.
Synonymes. Aràlia, sect. Gymnópterum Blum. Bijdr., p. 871. ; Hédera, and Ardlia sp. Lin.; Lierre,

Fr. ; Ephen, Ger.
Derivation. Various etymologies have been proposed for the word Hédera ; but the most probable

supposition appears to be, that it is derived from the Celtic word hedira, a cord. The English word Ivy is derived from the Celtic word, iw, green.

Description. The hardy sorts are evergreen shrubs, climbing by the clasping roots produced by their stems; but there are a number of species considered at present to be of this genus, natives of warm climates, growing to the height of 'from 15 ft. to 20 ft. without support.

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