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together, on peduncles.

718 Sepals reflexed.' Stamens very prominent, conniving, hairy, longer than the style. (Lindley in Bot. Reg., t. 1692.) A shrub, growing to the height of 4 ft. or 5 ft. ; a native of the northwest coast of North America; whence seeds were sent to the London Horticultural Society, by Mr. Douglas, in 1826. The bush bears some similarity to R. trifòrum; but the berry of R. níveum is about the size of that of the black currant, and of the same deep rich purple. It resembles a small smooth gooseberry; "but its flavour is very different: it is entirely destitute of the flatness which is more or less perceptible in even the best gooseberries; in lieu of which it has a rich subacid, vinous, rather perfumed, flavour, which is extremely agreeable. The fruit is rather too acid to be eaten raw; but, when ripe, it makes delicious tarts, and would, probably, afford an excellent means of improving the common gooseberry by hybridising.” (Lindl. in Bot. Reg., Aug. 1834.) R. niveum, apart from these considerations (which, however, will probably lead to its culture in the kitchen-garden), is, from its white pendulous flowers, a valuable addition to our ornamental hardy shrubs.

4 5. R. (1.) Cyno'sbati L. The Dog-Bramble Gooseberry. Identification. Lin. Sp., 292 į Mill. Dict., No. 5. ; Berlandier in Mém. Soc. Phys. Gen., 3. pars 2.

t. 1. f. S.; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 479. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 178. Synonyme. R. I trifidrum var. Engravings. Mém. Soc. Phys. Gen., 3. pars 2. t. 1. f. 3. ; and our fig. 719. Spec. Char.,&c. Infra-axillary prickles 1-2. Leaves 34-lobed, softly

719 pubescent. Peduncles bearing 23 flowers. Calyxes campanulately cylindrical. Petals small, much shorter than the stigmas and stamens. Style simple, toward the middle hairy,rarely glabrous. Berry prickly. A native of mountains in Canada, on the authority of Pursh : and of Japan, on the authority of Thunberg. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 479.) It hardly differs from R. divaricàtum, except in the broader tube of the corolla, and the shorter stamens. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 178.) It was introduced in 1759. Grows to the height of 3 ft. or 4 ft., and produces its flowers in April. There are two varieties: one with whitish flowers, and smooth fruit; and the other with prickly branches and fruit, and flowers pubescent and purplish. The former is a native of Hudson's Bay; and the latter, about Lake Huron.

# 6, R. (T.) DIVARICA'TUM Dougl. The spreading-branched Gooseberry. Identification. Dougl. in Bot. Reg., t. 1959.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 178. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Synonymes. R. ?trifòrum var.; R. ? Grossularia var, triflora subvar. Engravings. Bot. Reg. t. 1959. ; and our fig. 720.

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Spec. Char., fc. Branches divaricate, bristly, at

length naked. Spines 1–3 together, axillary,
dcfexed, large. " Leaves roundish, 3-lobed,
deeply toothed, nerved, glabrous. Peduncles
3-flowered, drooping. Calyx funnel-shaped ;
with the segments at length spreading, and
twice the length of the tube. Style and sta- 720
mens exserted.

Berries glabrous, black, smooth, and spherical; pleasant to the taste. Petals white. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 178.) A common bush, on the banks of streams, near Indian villages, on the north-east coast of North America; where it forms a shrub, growing from 5 ft. to 7 ft. high.; flowering in April. Introduced in 1826. It is nearly allied to R. trifòrum, of which, like R. Cynósbati and some of the following sorts, it is, probably, only a variety.

7. R. (T.) irri'GUUM Dougl. The well-watered Gooseberry. Identification. Dougl. in Hort. Trans., 7. p. 516.; Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer., I. p. 231. ; Don's Mill., 3.

p. 178. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.
Synonyme. R. ?triflorum var.
Engraving. Our fig. 721.
Spec. Char., fc. Prickles axillary, ter-

nary. Leaves cordate, somewhat 5-
lobed, toothed, ciliated, pilose on both
surfaces, nerved. Peduncles 3-flow-
ered, beset with glandular hairs. Calyx
campanulate. Segments linear, about
equal in length to the tube. Berries
glabrous, spherical, half an inch in dia-
meter, smooth, juicy, and well-fla-
voured. Apparently closely allied to
R. trifòrum. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 178.)


721 Found on the north-west coast of America, on moist mountain rocks, near springs and streams; on the Blue Mountains; and on the banks of the Spokan river. A shrub, growing to the height of 3 ft. or 4 ft. Introduced in 1820.

• 8. R. HIRTE’LLUM Michr. The slightly hairy-branched Gooseberry. Identification. Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 111. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 479.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 178. Spec. Char., &c. Spines infra-axillary. Branches sparingly hispid, with short hairs. Leaves small

, cleft half-way down into 3 dentate lobes. Peduncles 1-flowered. Berries glabrous, red. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 479.) A native of rocky mountains in Canada and Virginia. It was introduced in 1812. Grows to the height of 3 ft. or 4 ft.; produces its greenish white flowers in April and May; and ripens its red fruit in August.

9. R. GRA'CILE Michx. The slender-branched Gooseberry. Identification. Michx. F1, Bor. Amer., 1. p. 111. ; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 479. Spec. Char., fc. Infra-axillary spine very short. Petioles of leaves slender.

Disks cut into acute lobes. Peduncles slender, upright, bearing about 2 flowers. Calyx glabrous, tubularly bell-shaped. Berries glabrous, purple, or blue; of exquisite flavour. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 479.) Wild in the mountains of Tennessee, and in mountainous meadows from New York to Virginia. Introduced in 1812. Growing to the height of 3 ft. or 4 ft.; and flowering in April and May.

. 10. R. ACICULA'RE Smith. The acicular-spined Gooseberry.
Identification, Smith in Rees's Cycl. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 178.
Synonyme. R. U'va-crispa Sievers in Pall. Nord, Beytr., 7. p. 274., ? Pall. Fl. Ross., 2. p. 37.
Engraving. Led. Fl. Ross. Alt. III., t. 230.


Spec. Char., 8c. Very prickly. Prickles stipular, 3—5-parted. Leaves

rather pubescent, nearly orbicular, 3—5-lobed. Lobes bluntish, deeply serrated. Peduncles usually l-flowered, bracteolate in the middle. Calyx campanulate, smoothish. Berries bractless, and, as well as the styles, quite glabrous. Stem erect, or procumbent. Petals white. Berries glabrous, yellowish, or purplish; sweet, with a grateful taste. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 178.) A native of Siberia, on stony, rocky, mountainous places. Plants bearing this name are in the Horticultural Society's Garden.

» ll. R. GROSSULA'RIA L. The common Gooseberry. Identification. Lin. Sp., p. 291.; Smith's Engl. Bot., t. 1292.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 179.; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Synonymes. R. U'va-crispa Ed. Fl. Dan., 546.; Grossularia hirsuta Mill. Dict., No. 9. ; R. U'va. crispa var. 5 sativa Dec. Fl. Fr., 4. p. 408., Plenck Icon., 148.; Feaberry, Cheshire and the north of England; Feabes, Norfolk ; Grozert in Scotland ; Groseiller à Maquereau, Fr. ; Griselle

in Piedmont ; gemeine Stachelbeere, Ger. ; Uva Spina, Ital. Derivation. Uiva-crispa signifies the rough grape. Feaberry is a corruption of fever-berry, from

the fruit being formerly, according to Gerard, considered a specific against fevers ; feabes, or feapes, is an abbreviation of feaberry. Grozert is evidently taken from the French name. Grosseiller à Maquereau is from the Latin name Grossularia, and the use made of the fruit as a sauce for mackerel. Stachelbeere signifies prickly berry and Uva Spina, the prickly grape. Gooseberry is from gorse berry, from the prickliness of the bush resembling that of the gorse, or furze ; or, more probably, from the use made of the fruit as a sauce to young, or green, geese. Engraving. Engl. Bot., t. 1292. Spec. Char., fc. Prickles 2 or 3 under each bud. Branches otherwise smooth,

and spreading or erect. Pedicels 1-2-flowered. Leaves 3—5-lobed, rather villous. Bracteas close together. Calyx campanulate, with reflexed segments, which are shorter than the tube. Petals rounded at the apex, glabrous, but bearded in the throat. Style always beset with long down.

Don's Mill., iii. p. 179.) A native of Europe and Nepal, in woods and hedges. Varieties. sa R. G. 2 U'va-crispa Smith Engl. Fl., ii. p. 333. ; R. U'va-crispa Lin. Sp.,

292., Smith Engl. Bot., t. 2057.; U'va crispa Fuch. Hist., t. 187.; U'va spina Math. Valgr., 1. t. 151. f. 1., Blackw. Herb., 277.; R.

U'va-crispa var. 1 sylvestris Berlandier; has the berries smooth. * R. G. 3 spinosissima Berl. MSS. has the branches thickly beset with

spines. R. G. 4 reclinata Berl. MSS.; R. reclinatum Lin. Sp., 291.; Gros

sulària reclinata Mill. Dict., No. 1.; has the branches rather prickly,

and reclinate. # R. G.5 Besseriàna Berl. MSS.; R.hýbridum Besser Prim. Fl. Gall. Austr.,

p. 186.; has the branches prickly, and the fruit pubescent, inter

mixed with glandular bristles. Native of Cracow, in hedges. * R. G. 6 subinérmis Berl. MSS. — Plant nearly glabrous. Bark smooth,

brown. Prickles axillary. Flowers and leaves small. Native about

Geneva. Perhaps a subvariety of R. G. reclinata.
R. G. 7 macrocárpa Dec. Prod., iii. p. 478. Stigmas often longer than

the petals. Flowers and berries large.
R. G. 8 bracteata Berl. MSS. — Berries clothed with 2–4–5 straight,

coloured, nearly opposite, bracteas and bristles, resembling sepals, which fall off before the berry arrives at maturity. (Don's Mill., iii.

p. 179.) Other Varieties. We have little doubt that the greater number of the sorts described in this division of the section Grossulàriæ are only wild varieties of the common gooseberry. Till lately, botanists made even the rough and the smooth-fruited kinds of the cultivated gooseberry two distinct species, as may be seen by the synonymes to R. U'va-crispa above; though it was recorded by Withering, that seeds from the same fruit would produce both rough and smooth-fruited plants. If varieties were to be sought for among the sorts in cultivation, they would be found almost without number. The following selection of garden varieties has been made solely with reference to the habit of growth of the plants :

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The Red Champagne, or Ironmonger, has the branches erect and fasti

giate, and will form a handsome bush, 6 ft. or 7 ft. high. Horseman's Green Gage is a most vigorous-growing plant, with a spread

ing head, and will form a bush 10 ft. high. The Red Rose is a vigorous-growing bush, with a pendulous head, but

seldom rising higher than 3ft., unless trained to a stake to some

height before it is allowed to branch out. Description, Geography, fc. The gooseberry, in a wild state, is a low shrub, varying much in habit and magnitude, according to the soil and situation in which it is found. Villars, in his Histoire des Plantes du Dauphiné, mentions that the gooseberry is common every where in that country; that in hedges it grows to the height of 5 ft. or 6 ft., with large villous leaves ; but that on mountains it is seldom found so high as 2 ft., and with very rough branches, wholly covered with yellowish stiff prickles. In England, the gooseberry is found on old walls, in woods, and in hedges; and, in Scotland, occasionally in the neighbourhood of villages; and, though undoubtedly naturalised in both countries, it appears to us very doubtful whether it is aboriginal in either. It is, however, truly wild in France, Germany, and Switzerland, more particularly in the Valais and in Piedmont, where it is called griselle, and where it is found in copse-woods, producing a small, green, hairy fruit. The common gooseberry, or a species nearly allied to it, Royle observes, is found in the Himalayas, on mountains near the almost inaccessible sources of the Ganges. There can be little doubt of its being indigenous in North America, where it is known by botanists under various

Among other localities, we may cite as one the rocks about the Falls of Niagara, whence branches and ripe fruit have been sent to us. When the bush is of any considerable size, it is always found in a tolerably dry and loose free soil, and in a situation rather shady than otherwise ; unless we except the instances in which the seeds have been carried by birds to the tops of walls, the summits of ruins, and the hollow trunks and partially decayed branches of old trees. In the famous lime tree at Neustadt, in Wurtemberg, gooseberries are grown in the hollow branches, and the fruit sold to strangers, as mentioned in detail in p. 372.

History. The gooseberry does not appear to have been known to the ancients; and it is uncertain at what period in modern times it began to be cultivated in gardens. The earliest notice of it appears to be in the Commentaries of Matthiolus, who states that it is a wild fruit, which may be used medicinally. Among British authors, it is first mentioned by Turner, in 1573, and afterwards by Parkinson and Gerard; the last noticing it not only for its medicinal properties, but for its use in cookery. In the first edition of Du Hamel, the gooseberry does not appear to have been cultivated about Paris ; but he says it was to be found in abundance in hedges and thickets, whence it might be transplanted into cultivated grounds, the bark having the advantage of not being liable to be eaten by the rabbits, on account of its prickles. The Dutch appear to have been the first who brought the fruit to any considerable size. In Les Agrémens de la Campagne, published in 1750, “ les groseilles” are said to be no where so good as in Holland; and directions are given for propagating, training, and pruning the plants, so as to bring the fruit to a large size, which vary very little from the most approved practice of the best Lancashire growers of the present day; and accordingly, in the Nouveau Du Hamel, it is stated that M. Delauny had seen, in Holland, gooseberries as large as plums. Allioni, in his Auctuarium ad Floram Pedemontanam, published in 1789, says that the fruit of the gooseberry is eatable, though it is somewhat astringent; but that it is neglected in Piedmont. In Britain, the earliest notice of the culture of the gooseberry is in Ray, who mentions the pearl gooseberry as in cultivation. The fruit appears to have been in little esteem in England, even so late as in Miller's time, though the currant was then in some repute; and in the same work it is stated, that so little was known of it in Paris, that the Parisians had not even an appropriate name for it. In Britain, it has certainly been brought to its present highly improved state by the Lancashire weavers, about the end of the last and the beginning of the present century; and it might, probably, be traced in company with the weavers, from Lancashire to Norwich, and from Norwich back to the Low Countries, which, as we have already seen, were famous its culture. At present, the gooseberry is universally cultivated in Britain, as one of our most valuable table and culinary fruits; and the improved British varieties are finding their way throughout the continent of Europe, and that of North America.

Properties and Uses. The unripe fruit was formerly employed, in France, in culinary preparations, for the same purposes as verjuice, to which Du Hamel says that it is inferior, from its peculiarly herbaceous taste. Gerard recoinmends the unripe fruit to be used in broths, instead of verjuice; and says that the ripe berries, if eaten by themselves, " ingender raw and colde bloode.” The tender leaves, he says, if put into a salad, are good for curing the gravel. The gooseberry, in its present improved state, is used in British kitchens, before it is ripe, for tarts, puddings, sauces, creams, &c., and for preserving whole, from the beginning of May till the middle of July, when it becomes ripe. It is also used for making British champagne, or green gooseberry wine. When ripe, it is brought to the dessert till the end of August; and, by shading the bushes of particular kinds, a supply may be kept on them till October and November, and, in dry autumns, till Christmas. In a ripe state, its principal culinary uses are for making jam and wine; but it is also employed for tarts and puddings, which are by some preferred to those made of green gooseberries. Directions for making gooseberry wine (together with a detail of the crushing-press, utensils, &c., requisite for making the British champagne) will be found in the Gardener's Magazine, vol. viii. p. 180. and p. 551.; and in the same volume are also directions for making gooseberry brandy. In the General Index to the first ten volumes of the Gardener's Magazine, a great many references will be found to articles on the culture of the gooseberry, and on the different purposes to which its fruit is applied by British housewives ; and the essence of the whole information on the subject, contained in that work, will be given in our Suburban Gardener. As we are here treating of the gooseberry solely as an ornamental shrub, we consider it unnecessary to enter into any details respecting the soil, situation, and culture of a shrub so easily managed. a. Sorts of Gooseberries belonging to Division A, with greenish white Flowers,

which are not yet introduced. R. sardsum Hook.; R. saxatile Dougl. MS.; R. trifidrum Bigel. Fl. Bost., edit. 2. p. 90. ; has the stems rarely prickly, and the fruit resembling a common ooseberry. It is found wild about Lake Huron, and may, we think, be considered as a variety of R. trifldrum.

R. rotundifolium Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 110., has the spines nearly axillary, the leaves nearly orbicular, and the berries smooth. It is a native of the high mountains of Carolina.

R. caucásicum Adams (Don's Mill., fii. p. 178.) has stipular prickles, and 5-lobed leaves. It is a native of Caucasus, and “perhaps only a subvariety of R. G. Uiva-crispa.”

R. cuneifolium Ruiz et Pav., and R. cucullatum Hook. et Am., are described, in Don's Miller, as natives of South America, with the habit of R. O. U'va-crispa.

B. Flowers red. $ 12. R. SPECIO'sum Pursh. The showy-flowered Gooseberry. Identification. Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 731.; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 478. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 185. Synonymes. R. stamineum Smith in Rees's Cycl., Dec. Prod., 3. p. 477. ? R. fuchsioides Fl. Mex.,

ic, ined., Berlandier Mém. Soc. Phys. Gen., 3. pars 2, p. 43. t. 3. ; R. triacanthum Menzies. Engravings. ? Fl. Mex., an unpublished figure; Mém. Soc. Phys. Gen., 3. pars 2. 1. 3. ; Sw. Fl..

Gard., 2d ser., t. 149.; and our fig. 722. Spec. Char., &c. Shrub prickly. Prickles infra-axillary, triple. Branches

hispid. Leaves with petiole short, and disk wedge-shaped at the base, rounded at the outer end, indistinctly 3-lobed, incisely crenate, glabrous, and nerved. Peduncles longer than the leaves, and bearing 1-3 flowers. Pedicels and germens hairy with glanded hairs. Bracteas rounded or very

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