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App. i. Other Sorts of Myricària not yet introduced. M. squamosa Desv., Amn. Sc. Nat., 4. p 350., Don's Mill., 2. p. 728., is probably only a variety of M. dahurica

M. longifolia Dec., Don's Mill., 2. p. 728. ; Tá marix germánica Pall. ; T. decándra Pal.; T. longifolia Willd., M. linearifolia Desv.) is a native of Siberia, at the Baikal, in saltish places. There are two forms of it described by Ehrenberg, in the Linnæa. It grows to the height of 5ft or 6 ft.

M. herbácea Desv., Tamarix germánica subherbácea Pall., appears to be a variety of M. ger. mánica, as are, probably, all the other sorts above mentioned. The leaves and young shoots of this sort are used by the Mongolians as tea, and are administered by the priests of Tibet as medicine.

M. bracteata Royle Must., p. 214. t. 44., is found in the vicinity of Cashmere. M. élegans Royle, 1. c., is found at Lippa and Kunawar, where the climate resembles that of Tar. tary, and the soil is saline.

Both these Nepal species will probably prove hardy in Britain, when introduced.

CHAP. XLVIII.

OF THE HARDY LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF THE ORDER PHILADEL

PHA CEE.

The hardy ligneous genera of this order are only two, and their characteristics may be taken together, as representing those of the order. Philadeʻlphus L. Calyx with an obovate top-shaped tube that adheres to

the ovary: the limb is in 4–5 parts. Petals 4-5, in æstivation convolutely imbricate. Stamens 20–40, inserted into the throat of the calyx, in 1—2 series, shorter than the petals; the filaments distinct. Styles 4-5, in some instances connate, in others more or less distinct. Stigmas 4-5, oblong or linear, in most instances distinct, in a few connate.

Capsule half adnate to the calyx, of 4–5 cells, and enclosing many seeds. Seeds resembling sawdust ; individually awl-shaped, smooth, and included in an oblong, lax, membranous aril, that in some instances is fringed: they are grouped upon an angular placenta, in the angles of the cells. Albumen fleshy. Èmbryo inverted, almost as long as the albumen. Cotyledons oval-obtuse, flattish. Radicle rather taper, longer than the cotyledons, straight, obtuse. Shrubs or undershrubs, from the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, and some of them from Western Asia. Leaves opposite, nerved, dentate or almost entire. Flowers white, pediceled upon axillary or terminal peduncles, that are branched in a trichotomously cymose, or in a

somewhat panicled, manner, bracteated. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 205.) DECUMA'RIA L. Calyx with its tube bell-shaped ; its limb with 7-10 teeth.

Petals as many as the teeth of the calyx, alternate with them, oblong. Stamens thrice as many as the petals, 2 in front of every petal, 1 between every, 2 petals, all in 1 whorl. Style 1, very thick, expanded at the tip into a disk that bears 7–10 radiating stigmas. Capsule of egg-like figure, terminated by the style and stigma, and connate with the calyx to higher than the middle. The calyx has 7-10 nerves, and is toothless. The capsule has 7–10 celis, is valveless, and opens irregularly near the rather prominent nerves of the calyx. Seeds numerous, oblong, each enclosed in à membranous aril, and obliquely affixed to the centre. A sarmentose shrub. Leaves opposite, glabrous, entire, or dentate at the tip. Leaf buds hairy with short reddish hairs. Flowers white, sweet-scented, terminal, disposed subcorymbosely. The sexes are sometimes diæcious in

gardens. (Dec. Prod. iii. p. 206.) Dev'TZIA Thunb. is a genus closely allied to Philadelphus; and it is highly

probable that some of the species will ultimately be found to be as hardy as those of that genus; but, as this has not yet been proved to be the case, we have treated it as only half-hardy.

GENUS I.

PHILADEʻLPHUS L. THE PHILADELPHUS, or Mock ORANGE.

Lin. Syst. Icosandria Monogynia. Identification. Lin. Gen., No. 614. ; Gærın. Fruct., 1. p. 173. t. 35. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 205. ; Don's

Mill., 2. p. 806. Synonymes. Syringa Tourn. Inst., t. 389., not of Lin. ; Philadelphus, Fr.; Pfeifenstrauch (Pipe

Shrub), Ger. Pipe Privet, Gerard; the Syringa of the gardens. Derivation. Philadelphus is a name used by Athenæus for a tree which cannot now be identified : Bauhin applied it to this genus. (Encyclopædia of Plants, p. 415.). Instead of the common trivial name Syringa, applied to this genus in gardens, as its English name, we have substituted its generic name, Philadelphus; Syringa being the generic name of the lilac.

Description. Deciduous shrubs, natives of Europe, North America, and Asia; cultivated for their very showy white flowers; most of which have a strong scent, resembling, at a distance, that of orange flowers, but, when near, disagreeably powerful. All the species are of the easiest culture in any tolerably dry soil; and they are all propagated by layers, or by suckers or cuttings. The only sorts in the Horticultural Society's Garden, which are truly distinct, either as species or varieties, are P. coronàrius, P. (c.) inodorus, P. verrucòsus, P. láxus, P. (1.) grandiflorus, P. hirsùtus, and É. tomentosus. The price of plants, in British nurseries, varies from 9d. to 1s. 6d. each ; at Bollwyller, from 50 cents to 2 francs ; and at New York, from 25 cents to half a dollar.

§ i. Stems stiff and straight. Flowers in Racemes. 1. P. CORONA'RIUS L. The garland Philadelphus, or Mock Orange. Identification. Lin. Sp., 671. ; Schrad. Diss. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 205.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 807. Synonyme. Syringa suaveolens Mænch Meth., 678. Engravings. Bot. Mag., t. 391. ; Schkuhr Handb., t. 121. ; Lam. III., t. 420.; and our fig. 673. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves ovate, acuminate, serrately denticulate, 3-nerved, rather glabrous, but hairy upon the veins beneath ; inflorescence racemose. Flowers sweet-scented. Lobes of the calyx acuminate. Styles distinct almost from the base, not exceeding the stamens in height. A native of

the south of Europe, but not common there. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 205.) Varieties. This species varies in having its leaves sometimes perfectly glabrous

beneath, and sometimes slightly pubescent along the nerves; and, besides, as follows: $ P. c. 1 vulgaris Schkuhr Handb., t. 121., Lam. II., t. 420., Dec. Prod.,

iii. p. 205.—A shrub of about the height of a man. Leaves ovate

oblong, large, and rather distant. P. c. 2 nànus Mill. Dict., 2.-A shrub, 2 ft. high ; its branches and

leaves crowded, and its flower-bearing branches incurved.

seldom flowers, and it is not known of what country it is a native. - P. c. 3 flòre plèno Lodd. Cat. is a dwarf plant, like the above, but with

double flowers. P. c. 4 variegatus Lodd. Cat. has the leaves variegated with white or

yellow, and is one of the few varieties of deciduous shrubs, which preserve, through the summer, a tolerably healthy appearance with

their variegation. Description, fc. The common syringa, or mock orange, is a shrub of 10 ft. or 12 ft. in height, crowded with slender upright shoots, which are produced from the base, and along the sides of the stem. These shoots are clothed with a white bark, and interiorly they have a very large pith. The leaves are rough, and of a deep green above, though they are pale beneath. The flowers come out from the sides and ends of the branches, in loose bunches, during the

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months of May and June, before any of the other species of the genus.
The flowers smell like those of the orange, and the leaves taste like the fruit
of the cucumber. Very little is known as to the native country of this species.
In the Nouveau Du Hamel it is considered as indigenous to Switzerland; and
Pallas is said to have found it in beech forests on Caucasus. In the time
of Miller, it was unknown of what country it was a native. Clusius, who,
in the sixteenth century, observed plants of it in Spain, Austria, and
Hungary, says that he never found it any where in a wild state; and that
it was introduced into these countries from Belgium, where it was first cul-
tivated in Europe. It was known to the ancients, and cultivated by the
Parthians in the same country where Pallas found it in a wild state.
(See Apollodorus, book iv., as quoted in the Nouveau Du Hamel, i. p. 71.)
It was first brought into notice, in modern times, by Bauhin; and it is now,
owing to the extreme hardiness of the plant, to be found in almost every
garden from Lisbon to Naples, and from the Mediterranean to Stockholm and
Petersburg. It is one of the few shrubs that can be used to decorate the
gardens of the latter cities; though not without some protection during
winter. In British garden it has been known since the time of Ger ed, who
had plants of it growing in his garden, "in the suburb of Holborne, in verie
great plentie.” The flowers are used to give their perfume to pomatum. It
will grow in almost any situation, whether open or shady; and it is easily
propagated by division of the root, and by suckers, layers, or cuttings. The
general mode of propagation, in British nurseries, is by taking up the plants,
and dividing them.
** 2. P.(c)INODO'RUS L. The scentless-flowered Philadelphus,or Mock Orange.
Identification. Lin. Sp., 671. ; Catesb. Car., 2. t. 84.; Pursh Flor. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 329.; Sims Bot.

Mag., t. 1478.; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 206. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 808. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.
Synonymes. Syringa inodora Manch; P. láxus in various English gardens
Engravings. Catesb. Car., 2. t. 84.; Bot. Mag., t. 1478.; and our fig. 674.
Spec. Char., fc. Leaves broad-ovate, acuminate,

perfectly entire, 3-nerved, usually feather-nerved.
Flowers singly, or in threes. Style, at the very tip
divided into 4 oblong stigmas. A native of South
Carolina, upon the banks of rivers : very rare. Re-
cent botanists do not find it in Carolina. (Dec. Prod.,
iii. p. 206.) Introduced into British gardens in 1738,
and to be found in various collections. It is a some-
what rambling shrub, not quite so high, nor alto-
gether so hardy, as P. coronàrius; though it appears
to be only a variety of that species. There are
plants in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, and
in the Vauxhall Nursery, and they are easily re-

674 cognised from every other sort, by having the leaves perfectly entire.

3. P. (c.) ZEY'HERI Schrad, Zeyher's Philadelphus, or Mock Orange. Identification. Schrad. Diss. Philad. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 205. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 807. Engraving. Schrad. Diss. Philad., ic. Spec. Char., &c. Not so tall as P. c. vulgàris. Leaves ovate, acuminate, serrately denticulate, rounded at the base, 3-nerved, hairy upon the veins beneath. Inflorescence somewhat racemose. Flowers fewer and larger than in P. c. vulgàris, and scentless. Lobes of the calyx long, acuminate. Style deeply 4-cleft. A native of North America. It differs from P.c. vulgàris, chiefly in its leaves being rounded at the base, and in its flowers being fewer, larger, and scentless. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 205.) There is a plant in the Horticultural Society's garden. $ 4. P. VERRUCO'sus Schrad. The warted Philadelphus, or Mock Orange. Identification. Schrad. Diss. Philad.; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 205. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 807. Synonyme. P. grandifidrus Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 570., Lodd. Cat. ed. 1836. Engravings. Bot. Reg., t. 570.; and our fig. 675. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves elliptic-ovate, acuminate, denticulate, pubescent with hairs beneath, and bearing beneath, upon the midrib and primary veins, warts

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edit, 1836.

at the base of the hairs. Similar

675 warts are, also, on the peduncles, pedicels, and calyxes. Inflorescence racemose. Lobes of the calyx acuminate. Style, at the very tip, 4-cleft. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 206.) A native of North America. Introduced in 1800, or before; and forming a vigorous-growing shrub, 8 ft. or 10 ft. high,or more, with young shoots twice the thickness of those of P. coronarius, and having a somewhat more fastigiate habit. P.speciosus Schrad. appears to be only a variety of this species. When in flower, this sort and the two following makea splendid appearance; the plants, in fine seasons, being so entirely covered with bloom as scarcely to show the leaves. To give them a gardenesque character, they ought to stand singly, with abundance of room, and have all their suckers removed as they are produced, so as to leave each bush with only a single stem. 5. P. (v.) LATIFO'lius Schrad. The broad-leaved Philadelphus, or Mock

Orange. Identification. Schrad. Diss. Philad. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 206. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 807. ; Lodd. Cat., Synonyme. P. pubescens Cels Hort., Lois. Herb. Amat., t. 208. Engravings. Lois. Herb. Amat., t. 208.; and

our fig. 676. Spec. Char.,fc. Bark whitish. Leaves broad-ovate, acuminate, toothed, nerved with about 5 nerves, and pubescent with hairs beneath. Flowers in racemes. Lobes of the calyx acuminate. Style 4-cleft at the very tip. A native of North America. It is distinguishable by its bark being whitish; and by its leaves, especially those of the younger branches, being more broadly ovate; and by the hairs they bear not being based by warts. (Dec. Prod., iï. p. 206.)There are plants in the Garden of the London Horticultural Society, and in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges ; and they appear to us to be nothing more than a variety of

676 P. verrucosus. As a tolerably distinct variety, however, and as a splendid plant when in flower, it is well deserving of cultivation. 6. P. (v.) FLORIBU'NDUS Schrad. The abundant-flowered Philadelphus,

or Mock Orange. Identification. Schrad. Diss. Philad. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 205. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 807. Engraving. Schrad. Diss. Philad., ic. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves ovate-oval, and with a long acuminate tip, serrately

toothed, 3-nerved, pubescent, with hairs beneath. Inflorescence subracemose. Flowers 5—7, showy, slightly scented. Lobes of the calyx long and acuminate. Style 4-cleft at the very tip. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 205.) A native of North America, which has been some years in British gardens,

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1836.

where it grows to the height of 6 ft. or 8ft., flowering in May and June. The plant with this name in the Horticultural Society's Garden appears to be only a variety of P. verrucosus. § ii. Stems more slender, rambling, twiggy, and loose. Flowers

solitary, or 2 or 3 together. 7. P. LAʼxus Schrad. The loose-growing Philadelphus, or Mock Orange. Identification. Hortul. Schrad. Diss. Philad.; Dec. Prod., 3.

677 p. 206. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 807. Synonymes. P. humilis Hortul.; P.pubéscens Lodd. Cat., edit. Engravings. Schrad. Diss. Philad., ic. ; and our fig. 677. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves oval-ovate and with a long acuminate tip, toothed, pubescent with hairs beneath. Flowers solitary, 2 together. Lobes of the calyx very long, acuminate. Style 4-cleft. Stigmas about level with the stamens. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 206.) A native of North America. Introduced about 1830; and, according to the specimens in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and at Messrs. Loddiges, a rambling sarmentose shrub, growing to the height of Žft. or 4 ft., with somewhat pubescent leaves, and brown shoots; apparently, the tenderest of the genus.

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;

8. P. (L.) GRANDIFLO'Rus Willd. The large-flowered Philadelphus,

or Mock Orange. Identification. Willd. Enum., 1. p. 511.; Guimp. Abb. Holz., t. 44.; Schrad. Diss. Philad. ; Dec.

Prod., 3. p. 206. ; on's Mill., 2. p. 807. Synonyme. P. inoddrus Hortul. ; P. láxus Lodd. Cat., edit. 1836. Engravings. Guimp. Abb. Holz., t. 44. ; Schrad. Diss. Philad., ic.; and our fig. 676. Spec. Char., &c. A shrub, 10 ft. or 12 ft. high. Epidermis of the branches

of a reddish brown colour. Leaves ovate, with a long acuminate tip, denticulate, 3-nerved, hairy upon the veins, and with groups of hairs in the áxils of the veins. Flowers about 3 together, or solitary; scentless. Lobes of the calyx long, acuminate. Styles, concrete into one which extends beyond the stamens. Stigmas 4, linear. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 206.) A native of North America; introduced into British gardens in 1811. A loose, rambling shrub, seldom exceeding 4. ft. or 5 ft. in height, and differing in P. làxus chiefly in having more pubescence on the leaves, and considerably larger flowers. * 9. P. HIRSU'tus Nutt. The hairy-leaved Philadelphus, or Mock Orange. Identification. Nutt. Gen. Am., 1. p. 301.; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 206.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 808. Synonymes. P. villosus Lodd. Cat.; P. gracilis Lodd. Cat. Engravings. Wats. Dend. Brit., t. 47. ; and our figs. 678, 678 a. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves oblong-ovate, acute, dentate, 5-nerved, hairy on both surfaces, whitish on the under

Flowers singly, or by threes. Styles concrete to the tip. Stigmas undivided. Frequent in rocks of

North America, in Tennessee,
by the river French. (Dec.
Prod., iii. p. 206.) Introduced
into British gardens in 1820,

678 where it grows to the height

of 3 ft., flowering in June. 678 a

This is a hairy sarmentose

shrub, distinct from all the other sorts; and which would, probably, grow to the height of 20 ft. or

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one.

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