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t. 1832.; and our fig: 664.) has the flowers red; pulp of fruit red-
even the coldest winters. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 3.)
flowers. It is common in gardens, and is a little more impatient of
cold than the preceding variety. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 4.)
white. Calyx slightly yellowish. Pulp of the fruit of a pale red. It
brum. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 4.)
white. It is cultivated in gardens, and is the tenderest of all the
forms of the species. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 4.)
P. G. 5 flavum Hort. has the flowers yellow, but is rare in gardens. Description, fc. A tree, in magnitude and ligneous character, bearing considerable resemblance to the common hawthorn. In the south of France, and in Spain and Italy, it grows to the height of 18 ft. or 20 ft.; forming a very branchy twiggy tree, seldom found with a clear stem, unless it has been pruned up. In a wild state, about Marseilles, it forms a thorny bush; but, in the gardens about Nice and Genoa, it is a very handsome small tree, much admired both for its flowers and its fruit. It is a native of Barbary, Persia, Japan, and various parts of Asia ; and it has been long introduced into the West Indies and South America. In the Himalayas, Mr. Royle informs us that the pomegranate grows wild; and, also, that it is planted near
664 villages. It forms quite a wood in Mazanderan, whence the dried seeds are exported for medicinal use. The famous pomegranates without seeds are grown in the rich gardens, called Ballabagh, lying under the snowy hills near the Caubul river. They are described as delicious about Hadgiabad, and throughout Persia. Though grown in most parts of India, large quantities, of a superior quality, are yearly brought down by the northern merchants from Caubul, Cashmere, and Boodurwar.” (Illust., p. 208.) At a very early period, the pomegranate appears to have attracted the attention of mankind. It is mentioned by Theophrastus under the name of Roa; the Phænicians named it Sida; the Greeks, Cytinos; and the Romans, according to Pliny, Malus Punica. The Jews appear to have held the tree in great veneration. It is mentioned, in the Old Testament, as one of the fruits discovered in the Land of Promise; and, while the Israelites sojourned in the wilderness, it was selected as one of the ornaments to the robe of the ephod. The two large pillars of brass, made by Hiram for the porch of Solomon's Temple, were ornamented with carvings of the pomegranate; and, from other passages in Holy Writ, a wine appears to have been made from it. Pliny speaks of getting a colour from the flowers for dyeing cloth a light red. He mentions nine varieties; including the sweet, the sour, the temperate, the austere, and the wine-flavoured. The rind of the sour kind, he says, is the best for tanners and curriers to dress their leather with. The celebrated kingdom of Granada is supposed to have derived its name from the trees planted in it by the Moors; which is rendered highly probable by the arms of the city of Granada being a split pomegranate. The earliest mention of the pomegranate in England is in Turner's Herbal, in 1548 ; but it was probably introduced long before that time by the monks, and planted in the gardens of the religious houses. For a long period, it was kept exclusively in houses, along with orange trecs; and we find, accordingly, that it fruited in the orangery of Charles I., as Parkinson informs us, under the care of Tradescant, when
he was that king's gardener. It seems to have been first tried in the open air by Miller, at Chelsea ; and, at the suggestion of Bradley, in the garden of Cambden House, and in other gardens about Kensington; as the oldest specimens in the neighbourhood of London are at these places. At present, it is in most collections as an ornamental wall tree, and it ripens its fruit, or, at least, produces them of the full size, frequently, in the neighbourhood of London in fine seasons ; but the varieties most generally cultivated are those with double flowers. The largest double-flowered pomegranate in England is supposed to be that trained against the walls of Fulham Palace, which is at least 40 ft. high, and 50 ft. broad.
Properties and Uses. In the south of Europe, the pomegranate is cultivated for its fruit; and, in some places, as a hedge plant. "It is also grown as an ornamental tree; the stem being trained to the height of 6 ft. or 8 ft., and the head afterwards allowed to spread, and droop down on every side. In the conservatories in the neighbourhood of Paris, and in France generally, the doubleflowered variety is planted in large boxes, and treated like the orange tree. For this purpose, young plants are grown in the orange nurseries about Nice and Genoa, and exported to different parts of the world. Both the single and the double-flowered varieties are very frequently trained against walls, both in France and Italy; and the more ingenious cultivators intermingle the branches of the one sort with those of the other, so as to make a display of both double flowers and fruit, apparently on the same tree. The pulp which encloses the seeds is sometimes acid, sometimes sweet ; and, in other cases, vinous, astringent, and refreshing. A syrup is made from this pulp by the druggists, which is employed as an astringent and detergent; the dried flowers are likewise kept in shops, for making infusions for the same purpose. Lord Bacon recommends the juice of pomegranates as good for liver complaints; and Woodville says that it is preferable to that of oranges, in cases of fever. The rind of the fruit, on account of its astringent properties, has been used as a substitute for galls, in making ink; and is said to be still employed, in some parts of Germany, in dyeing leather red, in imitation of morocco. In the Himalayas, Mr. Royle informs us, the rind of the fruit, called naspal, “ being very astringent, is used in medicine, as well as in dyeing. The employment, by the natives of India, of the bark of the root for the expulsion of the tape-worm, being now well known, since the subject was communicated by Drs. Hamilton and Fleming, is a remarkable instance of the oblivion into which even a valuable medicine may fall, as this property was well known to Dioscorides ; i. c. 154.” (Illust., p. 208.)
Poetical, mythological, and legendary Allusions. The pomegranate is mentioned by the earliest poets. Ovid tells us that, when Ceres discovered that Pluto had stolen her daughter Proserpine, she implored Jupiter so earnestly to restore her, that he consented, provided she had eaten nothing during her residence in the infernal regions. Unfortunately, while walking in the Elysian Fields, Proserpine had gathered a pomegranate, and eaten seven grains of it; and had been observed by Ascalaphus; who, informing Pluto of the fact, was turned by Ceres into an owl for his interference. (Ovid. Met., v. f. 6.; Fast. iv. v. 417.) Nicholas Rapin, in his poem entitled Les Plaisirs du Gentilhomme Champetre, published in 1583, gives the following origin to the pomegranate: A young girl of Scythia having consulted the diviners to know her fortune, was told by them that she was destined one day to wear a crown. This rendered her so proud and vain, that she was easily seduced by Bacchus, on his promising to give her a crown. He soon grew tired, and abandoned her ; and, when she afterwards died of grief, he metamorphosed her into a pomegranate tree, on the fruit of which he affixed a crown (alluding to the shape of the calyx); thus tardily and ambiguously redeeming his promise. Many other poets have mentioned the pomegranate; among whom may be enumerated Chaucer, in his Romance of the Rose ; Andrew Marvell ; Thompson, in his Seasons ; Moore; and Byron. This shrub is considered the emblem of democracy; probably from its fruit consisting of numerous seeds, which form
its valuable part, and a worthless crown. In allusion to the latter circumstance, Queen Anne of Austria had for a device a pomegranate, with the motto, “ My worth is not in my crown” (Reid's Hist. Bot., i. p. 150.); and Phillips says that the French, in the Island of St. Vincent, had a riddle on the pomegranate, which was Quelle est la reine qui porte son royaume dans son sein ?" alluding to the same properties. (Pom. Brit., p. 318.)
Soil, Situation, Propagation, 8c. The single wild pomegranate will grow in almost any soil; but the double-flowered varieties, and the species when it is intended to bear fruit, require a rich free soil. The double-flowering pomegranate trees, grown in boxes by the French gardeners, are planted in the very richest soil that can be composed; and a portion of this soil is renewed every year, when the roots are severally pruned. The head, also, is thinned out, and so cut as to multiply, as much as possible, short slender shoots; on the points of which alone the flowers are produced. In training the pomegranate against a wall, in England, it is necessary to keep this constantly in view; for, if these slender shoots are cut off, no fowers will ever be produced, The plant is easily propagated by cuttings of the shoots or of the roots, by layers, or by grafting one sort on another. It also rises freely from seeds ; but these ought to be sown immediately on being removed from the fruit; because they very soon lose their vital powers. Price of plants, in the London nurseries, is 1s. each ; at Bollwyller, where the pomegranate is a green-house plant, plants of the species are 2 francs each, and of the varieties from 3 to 6 francs; at New York, plants are from 75 cents to 14 dollars each. The double sort, grafted on the single, may be purchased, at Genoa, at 1 franc each.
. 2. P. (G.) na'na L. The dwarf Pomegranate. Identification. Lin. Sp., 676.; Sims Bot. Mag., t. 634. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 4. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 653. Synonymes. P. americana nana Tourn.; P. Granatum ndnum Pers. Engravings. Bot. Mag., t. 634. ; Trew Éhret., t. 71. f. 3. ; and our fig.665. Spec. Char., &c. Stem shrubby. Leaf linear. Flower red.
Native of the Caribbee Islands, and of South America, about Demerara, &c. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 4.). Persoon considers it a variety of P.. Granátum, in which opinion we concur. P. nana is said to have been brought to France from Guiana and the Antilles, where it is used for garden hedges. It was introduced into England in 1723; grows to the height of 5 ft. or 6 ft., and flowers from June to September. In the West Indies, it continues flowering all
665 the year; which may have weakened the plant to such a degree as, in time, to have given it its dwarf habit. It is much smaller in all its parts than the species, and considerably more delicate.
OF THE HALF-HARDY LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF THE TRIBE FUCHSIE Æ,
BELONGING TO THE ORDER ONAGRACEÆ.
The genus Fuchsia is well known to British gardeners, as containing some. of the most beautiful of the half-hardy ligneous plants in cultivation. All the species and varieties hitherto introduced or originated, when planted in a dry soil, and a sheltered situation, in the neighbourhood of London, though they may be killed down to the ground by the frost, may have their stools preserved alive through the winter, by covering them with litter, haulm, or leaves, in such a way as to throw off the wet; and, this covering being removed in spring, the plants will shoot up vigorously, and flower freely during the whole summer. They are, thus, admirably adapted for planting in dug beds and
borders, in the same way as has been recommended for the different varieties of Ròsa indica (p. 782.), and for pelargoniums (p. 483.). Some of the species are low shrubs, such as F. cónica, F. virgàta, F. macrostèmon, F. rosea, F. parviflora, F. hýbrida, F. excorticàta, F. globòsa, &c. Others are shrubs growing to the height of 6 ft. or 8 ft.; such as F. coccinea, F. gracilis, F. tenélla, &c.; and F. arboréscens and F. apétala grow to the height of from 12 ft. to 36 ft. The higher-growing sorts, when trained to single stems, may be planted out, in the beginning of summer, in borders, or on lawns, as temporary single trees; and in the autumn, on the first appearance of frost, all the side shoots may be cut in close to the trunk, and the plant taken up, and placed among dry sand, in a cellar, during the winter. About the middle of the following May, these plants will have begun to push, along the whole length of their stem; when they may be replaced in the border or lawn; not omitting, however, to let them be planted in a large mass of entirely fresh soil, light, and enriched with rotten leaves, or very old, rotten, hot-bed dung. Some of the finest ornaments to the gardens in the neighbourhood of London are produced in this way, with comparatively little trouble and expense.
All the species are remarkably easily propagated by cuttings; which may be put in either of the old or new wood. One of the most expeditious modes is, to put a plant into heat in January, and take off the shoots, for cuttings, as soon as they are three inches long, as recommended to be done with the teascented rose. (p. 801.) Abundance of plants may be thus raised every spring, for turning out into the open garden in May; and these plants, in cold situations, or in moist soils, may either be taken up, and preserved in a cellar during winter; or left to perish, and their places supplied by others, raised in the manner mentioned. In dry soils, they may be cut down to the ground after the first frosts, and the stool, or stock, covered with litter, or leaves, or a hillock of earth. In low situations near the sea, and in others which are equally favourable in point of climate, the plants may be cut down, and left unprotected.
In this genus, as in most others containing numerous sorts, and from which many seedlings have been raised in gardens, there is reason to believe that many of the kinds named and described as species are only varieties or hybrids. Mr. D. Beaton, an experienced cultivator, and an intelligent writer in the Gardener's Magazine, observes that “ The botanical difference, if any, of all the Chilian fuchsias is very trifling. Dr. Lindley remarks that there
“ who consider the greater part of the Chilian fuchsias as mere varieties of F. macrostèmon,” to which Mr. Beaton replies that “whoever considers this considers the reverse of what is the fact. Their origin is still more singular. F. macrostèmon, in all likelihood, is as much a variety as any of them. F. cónica, F. gracilis, F. tenélla, F. virgàta, and many more varieties, or perhaps species, may be originated by fertilising the stigmas of F. coccinea with the pollen of F. arborescens: this I have proved three times over ; and I have every reason to believe, though I have never proved it, that F. stèmon may be produced from F. cónica, fertilised by the pollen of F. arboréscens. All the Chilian fuchsias will intermix freely with the pollen of F. arboréscens; and, what is very singular, F. arborescens will not intermix with their pollen; at least, I have failed in several attempts to effect this. F. excorticàta, a New Zealand species, impregnated with the pollen of either F. cónica or F. globòsa, will produce fac-similes of F. díscolor, or the Port Famine fuchsia;
and the seedlings so produced will not flower till the second or third year, which is the case with F. discolor.” (Gard. Mag., vol. xi. p. 581.)
These circumstances, Mr. Beaton thinks, go far to prove that plants can be originated artificially, which will be found capable of reproducing themselves from seeds, ad infinitum, with as little variation as is to be found in any natural species; and we believe this is in conformity with the experience of gardeners in the culture of Cape heaths, pelargoniums, &c. “Botanists,” Mr. Beaton adds,
say that species so produced revert to either of their parents in the third or fourth generation, or become sterile altogether. This,” he continues, “is
plausible enough in theory, in the closet, but will not do at the potting bench. The pollen of fuchsias, and, perhaps, of most plants, is capable of maintaining its fertilising properties for an indefinite space of time; and, if well preserved, will be as fit for use when five years old as when newly gathered : the only conditions necessary for the preservation of its fertilising powers are, an absolute exemption from moisture, and to be kept in an atmosphere above the freezing point. It is supposed, by some, that the presence of the petals of the flower are essential to the delicate process of nourishing the embryo seeds ; but this is a mistake: the service of the petals is entirely at an end the moment the stigma is ready for the pollen.” (Ibid.)
The fuchsia and the pelargonium are two of the finest genera from the Old World that can be introduced to ornament the gardens of Australia, and more particularly those of Van Diemen's Land.
In the following enumeration, we have chiefly adopted the names given in our Hortus Britannicus, and included the additions that have been recorded in recent volumes of the Gardener's Magazine.
F. microphylla H. B. et Kunth (Bot. Reg., t. 1269. ; and our fig. 666.) is a native of Mexico, with small, elliptic, oblong leaves, and small short flowers. It was introduced in 1828 ; grows from 4 ft. to 6 ft. high, and produces its pinkish red flowers from June to September. It is a very hardy species.
F. thymifolia H. B. et Kunth (Bot. Reg., t. 1284.) is a native of Mexico, 666
F. rosea Ruiz et Pav.; F. lyciöldes Bot. Reg., t. 120., Bot. Mag., t. 1024.; is a native of Chili, with small purplish pink flowers. It was introduced in 1796, and, in favourable situations, will grow to the height of 12 ft.
F. parviflora Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 1048.; F. ovata Moc. et Sesse; closely resembles the preceding sort. It is a native of Mexico, and was introduced in 1824. It grows to the height of 6 ft., and flowers from May to October.
F. arboréscens Sims Bot. Mag., t. 2620.; F. ame'na Hort.; F. hamelioides Moc. et Sesse; F. racemosa Id., Bot. Reg., t. 943. ; has broad leaves, and small red flowers. It is a native of Mexico; was introduced in 1824 ; grows 15 ft. or 16 ft. high; and flowers in September and October.
F. gracilis Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 849; F. decussàta Graham, Bot. Mag., t. 2507. ; has pubescent branches, and flowers with purple petals and bright scarlet calyx. It is a native of Mexico, and was introduced in 1823 : it grows to the height of 8 ft. or 10 ft., and flowers from May to October.
7.g. 2 multiflòra Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 1052., has glaucous leaves, smaller than those of the species.
F. macrostèmon Ruiz et Pav. (Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 1062.) has the petals blue and spreading, not convolute; and the calyx scarlet. It is a native of 'Chili, in marshes; and was introduced in 1833. It grows to the height of 12 ft., and flowers from July to October.
F. m. 2 teneua Dec.; F. gracilis var. tenéila Lindi. Bot. Reg., t. 1052.; has opposite leaves, which are smaller than those of the species.
P. conica Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 1062., is a native of Chili, with the corolla purple, and calyx scarlet; the leaves in whorls, and the tube of the corolla conical, which gives a conical shape to the calyx. This, which is one of the handsomest sorts of Fuchsia, was introduced in 1824. F. virgàta Swt. has flowers somewhat resembling those of the preceding sort
. It is a native of Mexico, whence it was introduced into Britain in 1825, and is considered one of the hardiest species of the genus.
F. coccinea Ait. ; F. péndula Salisb.; F. magellanica Lam., N. Du Ham., 1. t. 13. ; Nahasia coccinea Schneevoogt; Skinnera coccinea Mænch ; (Bot. Mag., 't. 91.
; and our fig. 667.) is a well. known species, with opposite or whorled leaves, and axillary drooping flowers. The calyx is scarlet, and the petals violaceous. It is a native of Chili, in marshes, as far south as the Straits of Magellan. It was introduced into Kew Gardens by Captain Firth, in 1788, and was greatly admired, being the first species of the genus seen in a living state in England. Soon afterwards, Mr. Lee, one
of the founders of the Hammer smith Nursery, obtained a plant of it; and, having soon discovered with what ease it may be multiplied, he raised, as we have been informed, many hundred plants, which, by showing only two or three at a time, he was enabled to sell at one guinea each.
F. apétala Ruiz et Pav. grows to the height of from 10 ft. to 12 ft., and produces drooping flowers, 1; in. long, with red calyx. It is a native of Chili, and was introduced in 1825. It flowers in September and Oc. tober.
F. discolor Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 1805., is a native of the Falkland Islands, at Port Famine; whence it was introduced in 1830. Dr. Lindley observes, that "it is difficult to distinguish it from F. gracilis, and F. te.
667 nélla; yet it is decidedly different. It is remarkable for its compact bushy manner of growth, its deep purple branches, its small very undulated leaves, and also for being apparently more hardy than any other fuchsia yet in the gardens." For the latter reason, Dr. Lindley attaches "especial importance to it; for, by a judicious intermixture of its pollen with such beautiful plants as F. cónica, F. globosa, and its other more tender relatives, the race produced may probably be rendered capable of bearing the climate of Great Britain." (Bot. Reg., i. 1805)