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habitant of the green-house, is, doubtless, as hardy as many plants that are placed against the conservative wall.

P. caudatum Ait. (Bot. Mag., t. 2341..; and our fig. 658.) is a shrub, a native of the Canary Islands ; introduced in 1779, and growing to the height of from 3ft. to 4 ft. In the green-house, it produces its flowers from January to April, and it is, doubtless, half-hardy.

Cliffortia ilicifolia L. (Hort. Elth., t. 31. I. 35.) is a shrub, a native of the Cape of Good Hope, which has been in our green-houses since 1714. It is interesting in its notched, stem-clasping, stiff, toothed leaves; and, with C. obcordàta L., another Cape species, well deserves a trial against a conservative wall. Both grow to the height of 3 ft., and flower from May to July, or later.

CHAP. XLIII.

OF THE HARDY LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF THE ORDER CALYCANTHA'CEÆ.

All the kinds of plants of this order are ligneous : they are included in two genera, Calycanthus Lindl. and Chimonánthus Lindl. Those of the first genus are from North America, and quite hardy in England ; those of the second are from Japan and China, and thrive best, in England (at least, north of London), when trained against a wall. “ In the stems of all the plants belonging to this order, there is the usual deposit of concentric circles of wood around the pith, and, in addition, four very imperfect centres of deposition on the outside next the bark; a most singular structure, which may be called, without much inaccuracy, an instance of exogenous and endogenous growth combined in the same individual. A good figure of this interesting peculiarity has been given by Mirbel, in the Annales des Sciences Naturelles, vol.

xiv. p. 367., who originally remarked it in one species, and I have since ascertained it to exist in all. It must also be added, that the woody tissue of this order exhibits disks extremely like those of Coniferæ.” (Dr. Lindley in his Nat. Syst. of Botany, p. 160.). The characteristics of the order will be apparent in those of the genera, which are as follows: Calyca'nthus Lindl. Calyx with a pitcher-shaped and rather fleshy tube,

and a limb consisting of many lobes that are lanceolate, unequal, of a lurid purple colour, rather coriaceous, in many series, and imbricate, These are the sepals and petals, which are not distinguishable. Stamens many, inserted into a fleshy disk at the throat of the tube of the calyx, in many series : they are unequal, deciduous; the 12 outer ones fertile, and the inner ones sterile. Anthers adnate, outward in their position, of 2 cells, which open longitudinally and outwardly. Ovaries many, inserted upon the inner face of the wall of the tube of the calyx, and included within the tube ; each containing 1—2 ovules, and terminated by a style, which extends beyond the tube of the calyx. Stigma simple. Carpel : integument somewhat horny; seed solitary from the abortion of one of the ovules, ascending, its hilum opposite the point of the attachment of the carpel to the calyx. Embryo without albumen, straight; its cotyledons convolute, its radicle inferior. Shrubs, native of North America. Branches brachiate. Leaves opposite, feather-nerved, rough. Flowers axillary, terminal, lurid purple in colour, sweet-scented. Bark and leaves sweet-scented. (Dec. Prod., iü.

p. 1. and 2.; and Lindl. Nat. Syst. of Bot., p. 160.). CHIMONA'NTHUS Lindl. Calyx with oval, obtuse, imbricate lobes resembling

bracteas, the inner resembling petals. Stamens nearly equal, persistent ; the 5outer ones fertile, in maturity being connate at the base, and covering over the throat of the tube of the calyx. Shrubs, native of Japan and China. Flowers appearing before the leaves, solitarily, from the places of axils of old leaves ; extremely fragrant with a sweet odour; yellowish, with a purple interior. Bark and leaves scentless. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 2.; and Lindl. Nat. Syst. of Bot., p. 160.)

GENUS I.

p. 652.

CALYCANTHUS Lindl. The Calyca'ntius, or AMERICAN ALLSPICE.

Linn. Syst. lcosandria Polygynia.
Identification, Lindl. in Bot. Reg., t. 404. ; Nees Nov. Act. Nat. Cur. Bonn., 11. p. 107. ; Dec. Prod.,

3. p. 2.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 652.
Synonymes. Calycanthi sp. Lin., Lam., Willd.; Bütenèria Du Ham. Arb., 1. p. 114., not of Lin.;

Beurreria Ehret. Pict., t. 13.; Bastèria Adans. Fam., 2. p. 294. ; Pompadoúra Buchoz; Calycante,

Fr. ; Kelch Blume, Ger. Derivation. From kalut, a calyx, and anthos, a flower; the calyx is coloured, and resembles a corolla. The name allspice was given to it by the inhabitants of Carolina, from the strong aromatic smell of the bark.

Description. Deciduous shrubs, natives of North America; propagated, in England, by layers. De Candolle states that the removal of the terminal leaf bud of a shoot causes the production of two new flower buds; and that by this practice a succession of flowers during the whole summer may be obtained. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 2.) The price of the common kinds, in the London nurseries, is 758. per hundred, or 9d. each; at Bollwyller, l} franc; and at New York, from 372 cents to half a dollar.

1. C. FLO ́Ridus L. The flowery Calycanthus, or Carolina Allspice. Identification. Lin. Sp., 718. ; Nutt. Gen. Amer., 1. p.312.; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 2. ; Don's Mill., 2. Synonymes. C. stérilis Walt. Car., 15l. ; sweet-scented Shrub, in Carolina ; common American

Allspice.
Engravings. Bot. Mag., t. 503. ; Du Ham. Arb., 1. t. 45.; Lam. In., t. 145. f. 1. ; Guimp. Abb. Holz.,

t. 4. ; and our fig. 659.
Spec. Char., &c. Wood of the trunk, and especially of the root, intensely

camphor-scented. Branches spreading; branchlets tomentose. Leaves oval, tomentose beneath. Flowers mostly abortive. Fruit top-shaped. A native of

the shaded banks of rivulets in Carolina. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 2.) Varieties. De Candolle gives two forms of this species.

& C. f. 1 oblongus, leaves oblong (Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2., 3. p. 282.); and

C.F. 2 ovàtus, leaves roundishly ovate (Ait. H. Kew., ed. 2., 3. p. 282.). The following varieties are in Loddiges's Catalogue for 1836; and plants of most of them are in their arboretum, and in that of the Horticultural Society:-

C. f. 3 asplenifolius has cut leaves.

C. f. 4 fërax has fertile flowers. * C. f. 5 glaúcus has leaves somewhat glaucous. & C. f. 6 inodorus has flowers nearly scentless. . C. F. 7 longifolius has elongated leaves.

de C. f. 8 variegatus has variegated leaves. Description, &c. A shrub, growing to the height of 6 ft. or 8 ft., and forming a dense orbiculate bush; the shoots covered with brown bark, and the leaves opposite on short footstalks. The flowers grow singly on short peduncles at the extremity of the branches; they have two series of narrow thick sepals, which spread open, and turn inward at the top, like those of the anemone or clematis. They are of a dusky purple colour, and have a powerful aromatic scent. The plant is a native of Carolina, and was introduced by Mark Catesby in 1726. It was not common in British gardens till about 1757; when, according to Miller, many plants were brought from Carolina, it having been greatly increased in the gardens about Charleston. It thrives best in a light, rich, sandy soil, kept

659

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rather moist, and in a shady situation. It fowers freely from May to August but seldom produces fruit in England. The varieties differ very slightly from each other. The largest plants of this species in the neighbourhood of London are at Purser's Cross, and at Syon, where there are bushes from 6 ft. to 8 ft. high. . 2. C. (F.) GLAU'cus Willd. The glaucous-leaved Calycanthus, or fertile

flowered American Allspice. Identification. Willd. Enum., 559.; Pursh FI. Sept. Amer., p. 357. ;

Dec. Prod., 3. p. 2.
Synonymes. c. fértilis Walt. Car., 151. ; Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 404.,

Guimp. Abb. Holz., t. 5. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 652.
Engravings. Bot. Reg., t. 404.; Guimp. Abb. Holz., t. 5.; and our

fig. 660.
Spec. Char., &c. Branches spreading. Leaves ovate-
lanceolate, acuminate, glaucous beneath, pubescent.
Flowers less odorous than those of C. Alóridus.
(Dec. Prod., iii. p. 2.). A native of Carolina, on
mountains. This species, or, as we believe, variety,
which was introduced at the same time as C. flóri-
dus, closely resembles it in general appearance ; and
requires the same soil and culture. According to

660 Pursh, the flowers are of a lurid purple, like those of C. flóridus; but their scent is not so agreeable, and is more faint. Whether there is much difference between this sort and C. f. 5 glaucus we have not had an opportunity of ascertaining; the plant in Messrs. Loddiges's arboretum not having flowered. We have therefore retained the description of this kind as a species, in deference to Pursh, De Candolle, and G. Don, though we

strongly suspect that they are identical. Variety. &c.g. 2 oblongifolius Nutt. Gen. Amer., i. p. 312., Dec. Prod., iii. p. 2.; C.

oblongifolius Hort. Brit. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, elongated. A

native of North Carolina, on mountains. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 2.) 3. C. LÆVIGA'TUS Willd. The glabrous-leaved Calycanthus, or American

Allspice. Identification. Willd. Enum., 559. ; Willd. Hort. Berol., t. 80.; Pursh Fl. Sept. Amer., p. 358.;

Nutt. Gen. Amer., 1. p. 512. Guimp. Abb. Holz., t. 6. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 2. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 652 Synonymes. DC. fèrax Nicht. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 305. ; C. penn. sylvánicus Lodd. Cat.

661 Engravings. Willd. Hort. Berol., t. 80.; Guimp. Abb. Holz., t.

6.; Bot. Reg., t. 481.; and our fig. 661. Spec. Char., fc. Branches strictly upright. Leaves

oblong or ovate, and gradually acuminated, slightly wrinkled; the upper surface rough to the touch, the under one glabrous and green. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 2.) A native of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Carolina, on mountains; introduced into Britain in 1806, and resembling the two preceding sorts in appearance and culture, but with the leaves more pointed. Very probably the C. f. 4 fèrox of the preceding page.

GENUS II.

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CHIMONA'NTHUS Lindl. THE CHIMONANTHUS, or WINTER FLOWER.
Identification. Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 404. and 451. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 2.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 652.
Synonymes. Meratia Nees Act. Soc. Nat, Bonn., 11. p. 107. ; Calycanthi sp. Linn.
Derivation. From cheimôn, winter, and anthos, a flower ; in allusion to the season of its flowering.

Description, &c. A deciduous shrub, a native of Japan ; remarkable for the fragrance of its Aowers, which are produced from December till March, even

a

in the open garden, in the neighbourhood of London, and more especially if the plant is trained against a wall. The blossoms are produced singly, in the axils of the leaves, on the shoots of the preceding year, and also on spurs proceeding from the old wood. The soil, culture, &c., are the same as for Calycanthus.

. 1. C. FRA'GRANS Lindl. The fragrant-flowered Chimonanthus. Identification. Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 404. 451. ; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 2.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 652. Synonymes. Calycanthus præ cox Lin. Sp., 1718., Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 1. vol. 2. p. 220. t. 10., Curt.

Bot. Mag., t. 466., Lam. II., t. 445. t. 2.; Meràtia fràgrans Nees Act. Soc. Nat. Bonn., 11. p. 107. ; O'bai, or Robai Kæmpf. Amæn., 879. ic. ; the Winter Flower ; Calycante de Japon, Fr.; Japa. nische Kelch Blume, Ger. Engravings. Kæmpf. Amen. ic.; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 1. vol. 2. t. 10.; Bot. Mag., t. 466.; Lam. III.,

t. 445. t. 2. ; and our fig. 662. Spec. Char., &c. Bark and leaves scentless. Flowers protruded before the leaves, solitary in the old axils of leaves, extremely odorous, yellowish, and purple within. Fruit flask-shaped, or thicker above the base, and in the

upper part tapered into a cylindraceous neck. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 2.) Varieties.

C. f. 2 grandiflòrus Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 451.; and our fig. 663.-Flowers

larger, and more spreading. Fruit oblong, tapered at the base.

(Dec. Prod., iii. p. 2.) . C. f. 3 lùteus Hort. has the flowers yellow both inside and outside. Description., fc. Deciduous shrubs, growing to the height of 6 ft. or 8 ft., as bushes, in the open ground, in sheltered situations in the neighbourhood of

London, and much higher
when trained against a wall

.
The bark is whitish, and the
leaves of a smooth, shining,
light green. The flowers,
which are produced in the
greatest abundance, from
November till March (as
the name, winter flower im-

plies), and which are de662 lightfully and refreshingly

fragrant, scent the air to a 663 considerable distance round the tree. This species was introduced in 1776, and was generally treated as a conservatory shrub, till within the last 15 years; when it was found to be quite hardy, more especially when trained against a wall. It is now grown in most choice gardens for its flowers; a few of which are gathered daily, and placed in the drawingroom, or bou. doir, in the same manner as violets, The plant is generally propagated by layers ; but it frequently produces seeds, from which many plants have been raised. The variety c. f. grandiflorus has the flowers rather less fragrant than the species, but they are much more ornamental. This is so very desirable a shrub, on account of the fragrance of its flowers, and their being produced through the whole of the winter, that no garden whatever ought to be without it. In the small plots in the front of suburban street houses, it may be planted against the house, and trained up so as to form a border to one or more of the windows. In all gardens north of London, it deserves a wall as much as any fruit tree; at least judging from the measure of enjoyment which it is calculated to afford : and, south of London, it may also be planted as a standard bush on the open lawn, or in the shrubbery. There are remarkably fine specimens of the species and varieties in the garden of the London Horticultural Society, in the Botanic Garden at Twickenham, at Messrs. Loddiges's; and, as standards, in the nursery of Messrs. Rollisson, at Tooting. The price of plants of the species, in the London nurseries, was, till lately, from 58. to 7s. each; at present, the species, and C. f. lùteus, are 3s, 6d. each; and C. f. grandifòrus is 78. 6d. Ai Bollwyller, the species is 5 francs; and at New York, 2 dollars, and the yellow-flowering variety 1 dollar,

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CHAP. XLIV.

OF THE HARDY LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF THE ORDER GRANATA'CEÆ.

The genus Pùnica was separated from Myrtaceæ, and formed into this order, by Professor Don, in the Edin. Phil. Journ. of July, 1826, p. 134. It contains only one genus, and the characteristics of the order will be found included in the generic character.

GENUS I.

PU'NICA Tourn. The POMEGRANATE TREE. Identification. Tourn. Inst., t. 401. ; Lin. Gen., No. 618. ; Gærtn. Fruct, 1. t. 38.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 3. ; Don's Mill.,

2. p. 653. Synonymes. The Carthaginian Apple; Grenadier, Fr. ; Granate, Ger. ; Melograno, Ital.; Granados,

Span. Derivation. Punica is said, in the Nouveau Du Hamel, to be derived either from puniceus, scarlet in allusion to the scarlet colour of the flowers; or from the same word, or punicus, both signify

ing "of Carthage;” near which city, Pliny tells us, it was first found. Gen. Char. Calyx with its tube top-shaped; its limb with 5—7 lobes ;

their æstivation valvate. Petals 5—7. Stamens numerous, with distinct filaments, which bear the anthers on their inner side. Style 1. Stigma 1. Fruit spherical, crowned

with the upper part of the calyx, whose lower part forms the fruit's rind. The fruit does not open, and is divided into two portions by a horizontal diaphragm. The upper portion consists of 5—9 cells ; the lower one is smaller, and consists of 3 cells only: in both, the cells are separated by membranous partitions : in the upper, fleshy placentæ extend from the sides of the fruit to the centre; in the lower, irregular processes arise from the bottom. Seeds very numerous, surrounded by a transparent shining pulp. Embryo oblong; its radicle short, straight; its cotyledons leafy, spirally convolute.-Small trees, or shrubs, with branchlets imperfectly square, and becoming spiny. Leaves deciduous, opposite, more rarely whorled or alternate; in many instances in groups in the axils ; oblong, entire. Flowers scarlet, 2–5 together, almost sessile, and almost terminal upon the branchlets. (Der. Prod., iii. p. 3.) The characters of the fruit and cotyledons, and the circumstance of the leaves being without the dots and the intramarginal vein, possessed by the leaves of the Myrtàceæ, have been deemed sufficient by Don, De Candolle, and Martius, to distinguish Pùnica as of an order distinct from Myrtaceæ. Lindley, in his Introduction to the Natural System of Botany, under Myrtàceæ, has argued that they are not so; and his arguments are interesting to the botanical student. "We have, according to our general plan, followed Don's Miller.

Description, fc. Low deciduous trees, or shrubs, indigenous to Africa, and naturalised in the south of Europe.

* l. P. GRANA'TUM L. The common Pomegranate Tree. Identification. Lin. Sp., 676.; Dec. Prod., 3. p. 3. ; Don's Mill., 2 p. 653. Spec. Char., &c. Stem arboreous. Leaf lanceolate. (Dec. Prod., iii. p. 3.)

A native of Mauritania, whence it may have migrated into the south of

Europe, where it is now perfectly indigenous. Varieties. * P. G. 1 rubrum Dec. (Prod., iii. p. 3.; Trew Ehret, t. 71. f. 1.; Poil. et

Turp. Arbr. Fr., 22.; Schkuhr Handb., t. 131. b.; Sims Bot. Mag.,

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