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fruit; the fruit of C. frígida and C. affinis, in particular, being produced in great abundance, and, being of an intense scarlet colour, have a very splendid appearance, and remain on the trees the greater part of the winter. The cotoneasters are all readily propagated by seeds, cuttings, layers, or grafting on C. vulgàris, on the common quince, or on the hawthorn. Though the greater part of the species are natives of Asia, yet in Britain they are found to be as hardy as if they were indigenous to the north of Europe, most especially those of them that are true evergreens.

This is a fact well worthy of being noticed, as proving the positive advantages likely to accrue to any one country from introducing into it the productions of every other country, however different some of these countries may be in civil and geographical circumstances. It affords a fine illustration of that law of Providence, by which man is enabled, by labour, knowledge, and research, to add greatly to his stock of enjoyment and happiness.

§ i. Leaves deciduous. Shrubs.

1. C. VULGA'ris Lindl. The common Cotoneaster. Identification. Lindl in Lin. Soc. Trans., 13. p. 101. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 632. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 603. Synonymes. Méspilus Cotoneaster Lin. Sp., 686., (Ed. Fl. Dan., t. 112. ; Nélier cotonneux, Fr.;

Quitten-Mispel, Ger.
Engravings. Ed. Fl. Dan., t. 112. ; Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2713. ; and our fig. 620.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves ovate, rounded at the base. Pe-

duncles and calyxes glabrous. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 632.)
A native of sunny parts of subalpine hills of Europe
and of Siberia. It has been in cultivation in British
gardens since 1656, and was always considered a foreign
plant, till it was lately found, in a wild state, at Orme's
Head, in Caernarvonshire. (See Smith's Eng. Flora,
vol. iv. p. 268.; and Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. vi. p. 55, 56.)
In its wild state, this species forms a shrub from 2 ft. to
3 ft. high ; but in cultivation it attains the height of 4 ft.
or 5 ft.; and, grafted standard high on the hawthorn or
the mountain ash, it forms a very curious, round-headed, pendent-branched
tree, as may be seen in the Garden of the Horticultural Society, and in the
Hammersmith Nursery. It flowers in April and May, and ripens its fruit

in July and August. Varieties. The following three forms of this species are to be met with, both in a wild state, and in gardens : # C. v. 1 erythrocárpu Led. Fl. Alt., ii. p. 219., has the fruit red when

ripe. * C. v. 2 melanocárpa Led. ; Méspilus Cotoneaster Pall. Fl. Ross., i. p. 30.

t. 14.; M. melanocárpa Fisch.; C. melanocarpa Lod. Cat.; has the

fruit black when ripe. s C.v. 3 depressa Fries Nov. Suec., p. 9., Dec. Prod., ii. p. 632., is rather

spiny, with lanceolate acutish leaves, and fruit including 4 carpels.

It is a native of the rocks of Sweden near Warberg. $ 2. C. (v.) TOMENTO'sa Lindl. The tomentose, or woolly, Cotoneaster. Identification. Lindl. in Lin. Soc. Trans., 13. p. 101. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 632. ; Don's Mill, 2. p. 603. Synonymes. Méspilus tomentùsa Wild, Sp., 2. p. 1012., not Lam.; M. eriocárpa Dec. Fl.' Fr. Synops.

and Suppl., No. 3691. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves elliptical, obtuse at both ends. Peduncles and calyxes woolly. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 632.)

. A shrub, like the preceding species, of which it appears to us to be only a variety, found wild on the rocks of Jura, and in other parts of the Alps of Switzerland; and in cultivation in British gardens since 1759.

\ 3. C. (v.) LAXIFLO'RA Jacq. The loose-flowered Cotoneaster. Identification. Jacq. ex Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 1305, ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 604. Engravings. Bot. Reg., k. 1305. ; and our figs. 621. and 622,

622

Spec. Char., fc. Leaves oblong, obtuse at both

ends, smooth above, and woolly beneath.
Cymes panicled, pilose. Calyxes quite
smooth.' Flowers pink. (Don's Mill., ii.
p. 604.) Branches brownish purple, with
an ash-coloured cuticle, which peels off. A
shrub, flowering in April, and having the
same general appearance and habit as C.
vulgaris, but differing from it in having large
loose racemes, and in the colour of its flow-
ers, and their greater number. It was raised
in the Garden of the Horticultural Society,
from seeds sent by Professor Jacquin of
Vienna, in 1826. Its native country is un-
known. Plants, in the London nurseries,
are 2s. 6d. each.

621

§ ii. Subevergreen or deciduous. Tall Shrubs, or low Trees.

1 4. C. FRIGIDA Wall. The frigid Cotoneaster. Identification. Wall. ex Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 1229. ; and Don's Mill., 2. p. 604. Synonyme. Pğrus Vússia Ham, in Prod. Fl. Nep., p. 237., Dec. Prod., 2. p. 634. Engravings. Bot. Reg., t. 1229.; and the plate of this species in our Second Volume. Spec. Char., &c. Branchlets woolly. Leaves elliptical, mucronate, coriaceous,

crenulated, glabrous, woolly beneath when young. Corymbs paniculate, terminal, white and woolly. Pomes spherical. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 634.) A native of the higher mountains of the northern region of Nepal, at Gossainthan; and introduced into England in 1824. It is a remarkably robustgrowing, subevergreen, low tree, producing shoots 3 ft. or 4 ft. long every season, when young; and, in 3 or 4 years from the seed, becoming very prolific in flowers and fruit. “ Snow white with blossoms,” Dr. Lindley says, * during April and May, and crimsoned with bunches of bright red haws in September and October.” (Bot. Reg., t. 1229.) As the fruit, with the greater part of the leaves, remain on all the winter, the tree makes a splendid appearance at that season; and, in sheltered situations, in the neighbourhood of London, it may be considered as an evergreen. It is very hardy; the specific name of trígida being given to it on account of the coldness of the locality in which it was found. It is propagated by grafting on the common hawthorn, Plants, in the London nurseries, cost, at present, 2s. 6d. each ; but, from the facility with which they may be raised from seeds, or by grafting, whenever there is a demand for them, they will, no doubt, fall to the usual price of grafted Rosàceæ, \ Pòmeæ.

1 1 5. C. (F.) Affi'nis Lindl. The related to C. frígida) Cotoneaster. Identification. Lindl. in Lin. Soc. Trans., 13. p. 101.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 632. ; and Don's Mill., 2. Synonymes. Méspilus integerrima Hamilt. MSS.; M. affinis D. Don Prod. Fl. Nep., 238. Engraving. Our plate in Vol. II. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves ovate, with a small mucro at the tip, and tapered at the base. Peduncles and calyxes woolly. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 632.) A native of Chittong, a town of Lower Nepal; introduced in 1828, and forming a robust shrub, or low tree, in general habit and appearance so like the preceding sort, as to induce us to think that they are only different forms of the same species. They are, however, different in foliage, and on that account worth keeping distinct. In the arboretum of the Messrs. Loddiges there is a plant under the name of C. kumàna, which, from the shape of the leaf, and general appearance of the plant, may possibly be a variety of this species. As, however, it has not yet flowered in this country, we are unable to state anything certain respecting it.

p. 603

* I 6. C. ACUMINA'T A Lindl. The acuminated-leaved Cotoneaster. Identification. Lindi, in Lin. Soc. Trans., 13. p. 101.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 632. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 603. Synonyme. Méspilus acuminata Lodd. Bot. Cob., t. 919. Engravings. Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 919. ; Lin. Soc. Trans., 13. t. 9.; and the plate of this species in

Vol. II, Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves ovate, acuininated, rather pilose on both surfaces.

Peduncles glabrous, 1-2, rather reflexed, shorter than those of C. vulgàris, C. tomentosa, or of C. affi 'nis. Calyxes glabrous. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 632.) A native of Nepal ; introduced in 1820, and forming a vigorous-growing, fastigiate, leathery-leaved shrub, or very handsome subevergreen low tree. It flowers in April and May, and the flowers are succeeded by abundance of scarlet fruit, which remain on all the winter. It is a very distinct, and a most desirable, species. Plants, in the London nurseries, are ls. 6d. each; and at Bollwyller, 1 franc and 50 cents.

* 7. C. NUMMULA'ria Lindl. The money-like-leaved Cotoneaster. Identification. Lindl. in Hort. Trans., 6. p. 396. Derivation. Probably from the roundness of the leaf, resembling the general form of coins. Engraving. Our plate in Vol. II. Spec. Char., &c. Disk of leaf flat, orbicular, or elliptical, ending in a mucro,

in some instances emarginate. Petiole of about the length of the stipules, which are linear-lanceolate, membranous, and soon fall off. Bark, buds, flower buds, stipules, petiole, the under surface of the disk of the leaf and part of the upper surface of the midrib, tomentosely hairy, while in a young state; the bark, petioles, midrib on its upper surface, and calyx, become glabrous when old. Flowers in axillary cymes, few in a cyme. Style and carpel, which has a bony shell, mostly solitary. Erect, branched in a spreading manner; branchlets straight, slender. An elegant low tree, a native of the mountain region of Nepal, introduced in 1824, growing about 15 ft. high, and producing its white flowers in April and May.

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Leaves evergreen, leathery. Low Shrubs, with prostrate

Branches; Trailers, but not properly Creepers.

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8. C. ROTUNDIFO'LIA Wall. The round-leaved Cotoneaster. Identification. Wall. Cat. ; Lindl. Bot. Reg., 1229. Synonymes. C. microphylla B U'va-úrsi Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 1187. ; C. U'va-úrsi Hort. ; the Bear.

berry-leaved Nepal Cotoneaster. Engravings. Bot. Reg., t. 1187. ; and our figs. 623. and 624.

Spec. Char., fc. Leaves roundish, pi

lose beneath, evergreen. Peduncles
1-flowered. Producing its white flow-
ers in April and May. (Don's Mill.,
ii. p. 604.) A shrub, growing to the
height of 3 ft. or 4 ft.; a native
of Gossainthan; and introduced in
1825. Dr. Lindley says that "
tive specimens have convinced him
that this is a distinct species from

C. microphylla" (Bot. Reg., t. 1229.); from which differs, he says, “ in being a plant of more vigorous growth; in having somewhat larger and fatter leaves ; and in bearing flowers more frequently in twos and threes than singly. (Ibid., t. 1187.) The shoots are rigid, and thickly clothed with leathery evergreen leaves; and the flowers, which are numerous, are succeeded by bright scarlet fruit, which remain on the plant all the year. It is a most desirable shrub for a small garden, for clothing a naked wall, covering rockwork, or grafting standard high, so as to form a pendent evergreen tree. Dwarf plants, in the London nurseries, are 2s. 6d. each ; standards, from 5s. to 7s. The specific name of rotundifolia is rather unfortunate for this species, C. nummulària hav

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ing leaves more decidedly round: microphýlla is better ; but U'va-úrsi, we think, would be best, both because it resembles Arctostaphylos U'va-úrsi in appearance and habit, and because, though a native of Asia, it is equally hardy with that plant. It might be grafted standard high in every hawthorn hedge in the north of Scotland.

. 9. C. (R.) MICROPHY'LLA Wall. The small-leaved Cotoneaster.
Identification. Wall. ex Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 1114. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 604.
Engravings. Bot. Reg., t. 1114.; and our fig. 625.
Spec. Char., fc. Leaves oblong, obtuse, pubescent

beneath, evergreen. Peduncles usually 1-flowered.
(Don's Mill., ii. p. 604.) Flowers white, and pro-
duced in May and June. Introduced in 1824. Not-
withstanding the high authority of Dr. Lindley, we
cannot help considering this only a variety of the
preceding species. It is exceedingly hardy, and
forms a fine plant on rockwork, or on a lawn, where
it has room to extend itself. “ Its deep glossy fo-
liage, which no cold will impair, is, when the plant
is in blossom, strewed with snow-white flowers, which, reposing on a rich
couch of green, have so brilliant an appearance, that a poet would compare
them to diamonds lying on a bed of emeralds.” (Lindl.) “ It is deserving of
notice, that the peculiar flavour, which, in Rosàceæ, is attributed to the pre-
sence of prussic acid, is so strong in this plant, that, before flowering, it would
be taken for a Prùnus; a remarkable fact in a tribe of plants which are re-
puted to possess, exclusively, malic instead of prussic acid.(Idem.) A
plant of C. microphylla, at High Clere, of about 10 years growth, was, in
1835, 6 ft. high, and formed a dense bush, covering a space 21 ft. in dia-
meter. Its branches are strong and rigid; its foliage of an intense green,
lucid, with scarcely any veins, and of leathery texture; and it is never
without a profusion of scarlet berries. Grafted standard high on the thorn,
or any of its congeners, this shrub forms a singular and beautiful evergreen
drooping tree: or it will cover a naked wall nearly as rapidly as ivy; and it
possesses a decided advantage over that plant, and particularly over the
variety called the giant ivy, in its shoots, which may be prevented from extend-
ing many inches from the face of the wall, and, consequently, being not likely
to injure the plants growing near it. Were the practice of training trees
and shrubs in architectural or sculptural shapes again to come into fashion,
there are few plants better adapted for the purpose than this and the pre-
ceding sort of Cotoneaster. To some, it may appear in bad taste to revive
the idea of verdant sculptures; but such is the ardent desire of the human
mind for novelty, that we have no doubt clipped trees and shrubs will, at
no distant period, be occasionally reintroduced in gardens. The contrast
produced by beauties of this kind, in the midst of a profusion of natural and
natural-like scenery, is delightful.

. 10. C. (R.) BUXIFO‘lia Wall. The Box-leaved Cotoneaster. Identification. Wall. ex Lindl. Bot. Reg , t. 1229. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 604. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves ovate, woolly beneath, evergreen. Peduncles 3

flowered, woolly. Flowers white. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 604.) A native of Neelgherry; introduced in 1824; and apparently a variety of C. rotundifolia, from which it differs in having the peduncles 2 and 3-flowered, but scarcely in any thing else.

App. i. Species of Cotoneaster not yet introduced. C. bacillàris Wall, ined. Lindl. in Bot. Reg., t. 1229., has obovate leaves and many-flowered cymes. It is a native of Kamaon.

C. obtusa Wall. ined. Lindl, in Bot. Reg., t. 1929., is a native of the mountains of Nepal and Kamaon, with many-flowered, crowded, glabrous cymes.

As there is every probability that all the cotoncasters, even though natives of Asia, are quite hardy, the introduction of new species or varieties is ardently to be desired by every lover of ligneous plants.

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GENUS XVI.

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AMELANCHIER Med. THE AMELANCHIER. Lin. Syst. Icosandria

Di-Pentagynia. Identification. Med. Gesch., 1793.; Lindl. in Lin. Soc. Trans., 13. p. 100.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 632. ;

Don's Mill, 2. p. 604. Synonymes. Méspilus L.; Pyrus W.; Ardnia Pers. Derivation. According to Clusius, Amelancier is the old Savoy name for A. vulgaris. (E. Rf Pl.) Amelanchier is the Savoy name for the medlar.

Description, 8c. Small trees, natives of Europe and North America, with simple, serrated, deciduous leaves, white flowers in racemes, and linearlanceolate deciduous bracteas. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 632.) In British gardens, they are cultivated for their flowers, which are white, abundant, showy, and produced early in the season ; for their fruit, which ripens in June; and for the deep red, or rich yellow hue, which their foliage assumes in autumn. They are propagated by grafting on the hawthorn or the quince; or the weaker on the stronger-growing species of the genus.

* 1. A. VULGA'RIS Mænch. The common Amelanchier. Identification. Mænch Meth., 682.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 632. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 604. Synonymes. Mespilus Amelanchier Lin. Sp., 685., Jacq. Fl. Austr., t. 300.; Pyrus Amelanchier

Wilid. Sp., 2. p. 1015. ; Ardnia rotundifolia Pers. Syn., 2. p. 39. ; Cratægus rotundifolia Lam.; Sorbus Amelanchier Crantz; Alisier Amelanchier, Amelanchier des Bois, Néflier à Feuilles rondes, Fr. ; Felsenbirne, Ger.

Engravings. Jacq. Fl. Austr., t. 300.; Bot. Mag., t. 2430. ; our fig. 626.; and the plate in Vol. II. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves roundish-oval,

bluntish, downy beneath, afterwards glabrous. Fruit dark blue. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 632.) A native of mountainous woods, among rocks, in different parts of + the Continent of Europe; the Alps, the Pyrenees, and at Fontainbleau ; and in cultivation in England since 1596. It forms a most desirable low tree, on account of its early and numerous flowers, which cover the tree like a white sheet, about the middle of April, and, in very mild seasons, even in March. The fruit is round, soft, and eatable: it ripens in July, and soon drops off, or is eaten by the birds. There are trees of this species at Syon, from 15 ft. to 20 ft. in height. * 2. A. (v.) BOTRYA'PIUM Dec. The Grape-Pear, or Snowy-blossomed

Amelanchier.
Identification. Dec. Prod., 2. p. 632. ; Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 202.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 604.
Synonymes. Méspilus canádénsis Lin. Sp., 185.; M. arbdrea Micht. Arb., 9. t. 66.; Cratægus race

mdsa Lam. Dict., 1. p. 84. ; Pyrus
Botryàpium Lin. fil. Suppl., p. 255.;
Ardnia Botryàpium Pers. Syn., 2.

p. 39.; the Canadian Medlar, Snowy
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Mespilus, June Berry, wild Pear
Tree; Alisier de Choisy, Amelan-
chier de Choisy, Alisier à Grappes,
Fr. ; Traubenbirne, Ger.
Engravings. Schm. Arb., t. 81. ;

Wild. Abbild., t. 79. ; Krause, t. 56.;
the plates of this species, in a young
and an old state, in Vol. II.; our
fig. 629., from a specimen taken

628
from the tree in the Horticultural
Society's Garden, with the leaves

and flowers fully expanded; and figs. 627. and 628., copied from Michaux's North American Sylva ; fig. 627. showing the plant in spring before the flowers are fully opened ; and fig. 628. showing the plant in fruit. Both differ in some respects

from fig. 6292 See Sir W.'J. Hooker's remarks under A. ovális, No. 4. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves oblong-elliptical, cuspidate, somewhat villous when

young, afterwards glabrous. Native of Virginia and Canada. (Dec. Prod.,

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