Page images

a genus that would afford him so many resources as that of Cratæ'gus? The most complete collection of thorns in England is that in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, where we examined, on June 18th, 1836, plants of nearly 80 sorts, all of which appeared to us to be distinct. There are only two or three kinds, that we know of, in England, not included in this col. lection, viz. C. orientalis var. Leeàna, some varieties of C. Oxyacantha, and, perhaps, a few Nepal seedlings in the Horticultural Society's Garden, which may, probably, prove to belong to this genus. We shall give Messrs. Loddiges's list, together with our synonymes, in an Appendix, for the use of intended collectors or purchasers. There is a collection at Somerford Hall, in Staffordshire, nearly as complete as that of Messrs. Loddiges, which was made by General Monckton, who, like ourselves, is an enthusiastic admirer of this genus. The best collections in Scotland are in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, and in Lawson's Nursery. At Terenure, near Dublin, the seat of Frederick Bourne, Esq., also an enthusiastic admirer of the genus, there is a collection almost as numerous as that of Messrs. Loddiges, selected by Mr. Bourne, personally, from almost all the principal nurseries in Europe. The best collection of full-grown trees of this genus, in England, is at White Knights; and of full-grown trees, in France, at Courset. The greatest number of species in one garden, in France, is, or was in 1828, in the Pepinière de Luxembourg. There are, also, good collections in the nurseries of MM. Audibert, at Tarascon; and of MM. Baumann, at Bollwyller. The best collection in Belgium is at Humbeque, near Brussels; and the best in Germany are those in the Floetbeck Nurseries at Hamburgh, and in the Göttingen Botanic Garden. In Poland there was formerly a tolerably good collection in the Botanic Garden at Warsaw; and there is still a considerable number of species in the arboretum of Count Wodzicki, at Niezdsvicdz, in the neighbourhood of Cracow, of which some account will be found in the supplement to the present volume. In Russia, in the Government Garden of Odessa, now under the care of M. le Chevalier Descemet, conseiller de cour, who was formerly a nurseryman at St. Denis, near Paris, there is a collection of 45 sorts, chiefly planted since 1820. In America, judging from the nurserymen's catalogues, the greatest number of sorts appears to be in Prince's Nursery, near New York; but the finest specimens are in Bartram's Botanic Garden, and at the Woodlands, and other places in the neighbourhood of Philadelphia.

The genus Cratægus did not excite much attention till the commencement of the present century; since which period the number of sorts has been more than doubled, chiefly through the exertions of Messrs. Loddiges. From the excellent collection in the arboretum at Hackney, and from the duplicates of it in the Horticultural Society's Garden, almost all the species having fruited, we have been enabled to study the different sorts of this genus much more satisfactorily than those of most of the other genera we have treated on in this work; and we give the following enumeration, perfectly satisfied that the different kinds we have named are distinct; though we are by no means certain of what are entitled to be considered species, and of what are only varieties. Neither have we pretended to give strict definitions of either species or varieties ; deeming such definitions, even when more correct than we could make them, of comparatively little use in practice. If definitions fully answered the end intended by them, there would not have been the confusion of names which now exists in every genus, except in those, all the species of which have been seen in a living state together, by one or by several botanists.

In classing the species of this genus, as in the case of most others, there are two modes which may be adopted. By one, the different sorts may be arranged in sections, according to some technical distinction, such as the size of the fruit, or that of the leaves; the entireness, or degree of incision, of the latter, &c.; and by the other mode the kinds may be thrown into natural groups, according to the majority of their points of resemblance. We have

adopted the latter mode, though, perhaps, not always the easiest for discovering the name of a single species; because, when once the species are known which form the types of the different groups, it will be found preferable to the other mode, both for ascertaining the names, and for studying the plants, and impressing their characters and images on the memory. In order, however, that our readers may have the benefit of both modes, we shall give, as an appendix to this genus, a technical classification of the species and varieties as drawn up for us by Mr. Gordon (a descendant of the brother of the celebrated Mile End nurseryman of that name), the foreman of the arboricultural department in the London Horticultural Society's Garden.

The price of dwarf plants of almost all the species (except C. Oxyacántha), in the London nurseries, is ls. 6d. each; and of standards, 28. 6d. : at Bollwyller, 1 franc, or 1 franc and 50 cents; and standards, 2 or 3 francs : at New York, the price varies from 25 to 50 cents. If there were such a demand for the plants as we think there ought to be, seedlings of most of the species might be sold at about treble the price of the seedlings of the common thorn used in hedgemaking. (See C. Oxyacántha.)

ģi. Coccineæ. Sect. Char., fc. Leaves cordate, lobed, acutely serrated. Flowers and fruit large. The plants also large, and of free and vigorous growth.

* 1. C. cocci'NEA L. The scarlet-fruited Thorn. Identification. Lin. Sp., 682.; Pursh Amer. Sept., 1. p. 337.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 627. ; Don's Mill.,

9. p. 599. Synonymes. C. æstivàlis Booth ; Méspilus æstivalis Walt. Fl. Car.;. M. coccinea Mill., Nouv. Du

Ham.; thornless American Azarole; Néfier écarlate, Fr.; scharlachrothe Mispel, Ger. Engravings. Pluk., t 46. f. 4.; Dend. Brit, t. 62. ; Bot. Mag., t. 3432.; our fig. 564. in p. 851.; and

the plate in our Second Volume. Spec. Char., &c. Disks of leaves cordate-ovate, angled with lobes, acutely

serrated, glabrous. Petioles and calyxes pubescent, glanded. Petals orbiculate. Styles 5. Fruit scarlet, eatable. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 627, 628.) A tree growing to the height of 15 ft. or 20 ft.; a native of North America, from Canada to Carolina, in hedges and woods; and, in May and June, producing its white flowers, which are succeeded by large scarlet haws, round, or somewhat pear-shaped, which ripen in September. In Britain, into which country this tree was introduced in 1683, it grows rapidly to the height of 20 ft. (or, in good soils, and sheltered situations, to 30 ft. or upwards), with a large upright trunk, dividing into many strong, irregular, smooth branches, so as to form a head of greater breadth than the entire height of the tree, in most varieties; though in others the head is more compact and fastigiate. Some of the plants are entirely without spines ; and, in most, they disappear with age: among a number of seedlings, however, some will be found with spines of extraordinary dimensions, of which there is a remarkable example in a specimen plant, 10 ft. high, in the Fulham Nursery. The leaves are often 4 in. or 5 in. long, and 3 in. or 4 in. broad, particularly in the variety called C. c. máxima; of a pale green, and cut in the edges in a sharp shreddy manner, which gives them somewhat the appearance of being fringed. Both the leaves and fruit vary exceedingly in size, in plants raised from seed. The seedling plant before referred to, in the Fulham Nursery, has leaves twice as large as those of the grafted

plant in the Horticultural Society's collection. Varieties. It would be easy to procure as many varieties of this species as

there are of the common hawthorn, by raising some thousands of plants every year from seed, and selecting from the seed-beds plants indicating any peculiarity of leaf, or of habit ; but as, in the nurseries, the most rapid way of producing saleable plants of this, and all the other species and varieties of Cratægus, is found to be by grafting on the common bawthorn, very few seedlings are raised, and the varieties in cultivation are only the three or four following:

[ocr errors]


* C. c. 2 corallina. C. corallina Lodd. Cat.; the C. pyriformis of some col

lections. (fig.565. in p. 852.)-The leaves, and the entire plant, are, perhaps, rather smaller than in the species; the habit of the tree is decidedly more upright and fastigiate; and the fruit is smaller, long, and of a fine coral red; whence the name is probably derived, though, in the first edition of the Horticultural Society's Catalogue, it is called the red-branched hawthorn. The plants at Messrs. Loddiges's, however, exhibit only a slight degree of redness in the

branches of the young wood. * C.c. 3 indentàta. C. indentàta Lodd. Cat. (fig. 566. in p.852.)-The

leaves are smaller, and less lobed, than those of the species; the
the plant is, also, weaker, of upright habit, and with a smooth clear

* C. c. 4 máxima Lodd. Cat.

C. c. spindsa Godefroy; C. ? flabellàta Hort.- The leaves are larger than those of any other variety; and the fruit is also large. As we have not seen living plants of C. Aabellàta, but only dried specimens sent from Terenure and the Humbeque Nursery, we are not absolutely certain that C. flabellàta and C. c. máxima are the same ; but we feel quite certain that they both belong to C. c. coccinea. We are informed that the C. flabellàta of some nurseries is C. tanacetifòlia; which certainly has its leaves

more flabellate, or fan-like, than any variety of C. coccinea. Statistics. The general rate of growth of C. coccinea, in the environs of London, is 10 ft. in 5 years, or 20 ft. in 10 years. There are old trees, between 20 ft. and 30 ft. high, at Syon, at Purser's Cross, fat Kew, and at Ham House. In Kensington Gardens, a little to the right of the north entrance, there is a tree 20 ft. high, with diameter of the head 30 ft., and of the trunk 14 in. In Gloucestershire, at Doddington, 30 years planted, the tree is 20 ft, high, the diameter of the trunk being 16 in., and of the head 20 ft. In Lancashire, at Latham House, 14 years planted, it is 19 ft. high. In Worcestershire, at Croome, 25 years planted, it is 25 ft. high; at Hagley, 12 years planted, and 20 ft. high. At Yorkshire, at Grimston, 14 years 'planted, and 25 ft. high. In Scotland, in Ross-shire, at Brahan Castle, 26 ft. high. In Ireland, in the neighbourhood of Dublin, at Tere. nure, 25 ft. high; and at Oriel Temple, 23 ft. high. In France, in the Jardin des Plantes, it is 30 ft high ; at Nantes, in the nursery of M. De Nerrières, 20 ft. high. In Saxony, at Wör. litz, 56 years planted, and 30 ft. high. In Austria, at Vienna, in the University Botanic Gar. den, oft, high. In Prussia, in the Pfauen Insel, 20 years planted, and 10 ft. high. In Bavaria, at Munich, in the Botanic Garden, 24 years planted, and 20 it. high. In Hanover, at Göttingen, in the Botanic Garden, 20 years planted, and 16 ft. high. In Italy, at Monza, 24 years planted, and 20 ithigh.

* 2. C. GLANDULO'SA W. The glandular Thorn. Identification. Willd. Sp., 2. p. 1002., not of Michx.; Pursh Amer. Sept., 1. p. 337.; Dec. Prod., 2.

p. 127. ; Don's Mill., 2 p. 599. Synonymes. ? C. sanguinea Pall. Fl. Ross., 1. t. 11. ; ? Méspilus rotundifolia Ehrh. Beitr., 3. p. 20. ;

Pýrus glandulosa Manch; C. rotundifolia Booth.
Engravings. ? Pall. Fl. Ross., 1. t. 11.; Lod. Bot. Cab., t. 1012.; Dend. Brit., t. 58.; our fig. 567.

in p. 853. ; and the plate of this species in our Second Volume. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves with the disk obovate-wedge-shaped, angled, glabrous,

glossy. Petioles, stipules, and sepals glanded. Fruit oval, scarlet ; nuts 4-5; flesh hard and dry. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 627.) A tree, a native of North America, in Canada and on the Alleghany Mountains, and also found on the Rocky Mountains. It was introduced into England in 1750, and forms a low, compact, bushy-headed tree, seldom exceeding 12 ft. or 15 ft. in height. It differs from the preceding sort in the stipules and calyxes being glandular, and in the head of the tree forming a dense mass of small twigs. This last circumstance, taken together with the size of the leaves and fruit, induces us to think that it may be only a stunted variety of C. coccinea. This might be tested by sowing its seeds, which are ripened about the same time as those of C.coccinea, and observing what kind of plants were produced. If several of these turned out to be Č. coccinea, our conjecture would be confirmed. This sort of Cratægus being a small compact tree, of rather a fastigiate habit, and of comparatively slow growth, and yet being very prolific in its flowers and fruit, is well adapted for small gardens ; and, if it comes true from seed, it would form the next best hedge plant to C. Oxyacantha. There are specimens of this tree at White Knights, which, in 25 years, have attained the height of 14 ft.; and at Croome, which, in 30 years, have attained the height of 25 ft.

Varieties. * C. g. 2 succulenta Fisch., Méspilus succulenta Booth, has the fruit larger

than that of the species, and succulent, juicy, and eatable. We have seen only one plant of this variety; but we are assured by our friend M. Fischer of Göttingen, that there are

several in the botanic garden under his
care, and in various other collections in
Germany. The name is in the cata-

logue of Messrs. Booth of Hamburg.
* C. g. 3 subvillosa, C. subvillosa Fisch., (fig.

550., and fig. 568. in p. 853.) is ap-
parently another variety of the preced-
ing sort, or, perhaps more properly, of
C. coccinea. It is very distinct in ap-
pearance, from its villous twisted leaves,
and stunted tortuous shoots; but, from
its having been only three or four years
in the country, very little is known of
its habit of growth, which seems to be
rather more loose than that of C. glan-
dulosa. There is a plant of this species,
in the Horticultural Society's Garden,
5 ft. high, which last year ripened haws;
and there is one, also, in Messrs. Lod-
diges's arboretum.

ii. Punctata. Sect. Char. Leaves not lobed, large, with many nerves. Bark white, or ashcoloured. Fruit large, or small.

* 3. C. PUNCTA'Ta Ait. The dotted-fruited Thorn. Identification. Ait. Hort. Kew., 2. p. 169.; Jacq. Hort. Vind., 1. and 28. ; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1.

p. 338. ; Deo. Prod., 2. p. 627. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 598.
Synonymes. C. Crus-galli Du Roi; Méspilus cuneifdlia Ehrh. Beitr., 3. p.21.; M. punctata Link

Enum. ; M. cornifolia Lam. Encyc., 4. p. 444.
Engravings. Jac. Hort., 1. t. 28. ; our figs. 569. and 570. in p. 854. ; and the plate in Vol. II.
Spec. Char., fc. Leaves obovate-wedge-shaped, glabrous, serrated. Calyx a

little villose; its sepals awl-shaped, entire. Fruit usually dotted. (Dec. Prod., p. 627.). A tree, a native of North America, in the woods and swamps of Virginia and Carolina ; where, according to Pursh, it grows to a handsome size, particularly the variety having yellow fruit. It was introduced into England in 1746; and, having been very generally planted, is now frequent in collections. The wood is so hard that the Indians of the west coast of America make wedges of it for splitting trees. The flowers are white, and appear in May and June; and the fruit, which, in general, is larger than that of C. coccínea, ripens in September, and drops,

with the leaves, in November or December. Varieties. There are three forms of this species in British gardens. + C. p. 1 rübra Pursh, C. edulis Ronalds, (fig. 569. in p.854.) is the most

common, and is a spreading tree, growing to the height of from 15 ft.

to 30 ft., with red fruit, and, when old, with few thorns. * C. p. 2 rùbra stricta Hort., C. p. stricta Ronalds, has the fruit red, like

the preceding sort; but the general habit of the plant is fastigiate,

like that of the following sort. 1 C. p. 3 aúrea Pursh; C. p. fàva Hort., C. dulcis Ronalds, C. edulis,

Lodd. Cat., C. pentágyna fàva Godefroy, ( fig. 570. in p. 854.) is a fastigiate-growing tree, with yellow fruit, and also, when old, with

few thorns. Statistics. In the environs of London, at Syon, this tree is 31 ft. high; and at Ham House it is 34 ft. high In Berkshire, at White Knights, 28 years planted, it is 20 ft. high. In Worcestershire,

[ocr errors]

at Croome, 25 years planted, it is 18 ft. high. In Ireland, at Orlel Temple, 40 years planted, it is 30 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 1 ft. 4 in., and of the head 34 ft. In France, in the Jardin des Plantes, 35 years planted, and 25 ft. high. In Saxony, at Wörlitz, 35 years planted, and 20 ft. high. "In Italy, at Monza, 24 years planted, and 20 ft. high.

* 4. C. PYRIFO'LIA Ait. The Pear-tree-leaved Thorn. Identification. Ait. Hort. Kew., 2. p. 168. ; Pursh Fl. Amer, Sept., 1. p. 337. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 627. ;

Don's Mill., 2. p. 599. Synonymes. C. leucophlæ os (white-barked) Mænch Weiss., p. 31. t. 2. ; C. radiata Lodd. Cat. edit. 1836; C. tomentosa Du Roi Harbk., 1. p. 183. ; Méspilus latifdlia Lam. Encyc.,:4. P. 144. ; M. Cal. podendron Ehrh. Beitr. ; M. pyrif dlia Link Enum.; M. cornifdlia Poir. ; C. latifolia Ronalds ;

C. cornifolia Booth. Engravings. Mench Weiss., p. 31. t. 2.; Wats. Dend. Brit., t. 61. ; Bot. Reg., t. 1877. ; our fig. 571.

in p. 854.; and the plate of the species in our Second Volume. Spec. Char., &c. In some instances spiny, in some without spines. Leaves

ovate-elliptical, incisely serrated, obscurely plaited, a little hairy. Flowers 3-styled." Calyx slightly_villose; its sepals linear-lanceolate, serrated. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 627.) The leaves of young trees are larger, and the fruit smaller, than those of most other species ; the leaves are also more strongly plaited, having the appearance of being furrowed from the midrib to the margin. A native of woods and

rocky places in North America, from Pennsylvania to Carolina. In Britain, this species forms a low tree, generally spineless, and of less compact growth than most other species, about 20 ft

. or 25 ft. high: it is rather later in flowering than the preceding species; but it is very prolific in flowers; and these are succeeded by fruit, small, and of a yellowish red, which ripen early in September, and are more eagerly sought after by birds than those of any other species. When the fruit, which is of an orange colour, is not eaten by birds, it shrivels, turns black, and remains on the tree throughout the winter. It was introduced into England in 1765; and flowers in June. Statistics. In Kensington Gardens, to the right of the Bayswater gate, there is a tree, upwards of 20 ft. high, which is profusely covered with flowers every year; in Somersetshire, at Hinton House, 18 years planted, it is 20 ft. high; in Surrey, at Bagshot Park, 20 years_planted, it is 12 ft. high; in Lancashire, at Latham House, 12 years planted, it is 18 ft. high; in Pembrokeshire, at Golden Grove, 30 years planted, it is 20 ft. high ; in Worcestershire, at Hagley, 14 years planted, it is 22 ft. high, diameter of trunk 9in., and of the head 18 ft. ; in Yorkshire, at Grimston, 14 years planted, it is 22 ft. bigh. In Scotland, at Edinburgh, in the Botanic Garden, 10 years planted, it is 18 ft. high ; in Perthshire, at Kinfauns Castle, 15 years planted, it is 12 ft. high. In France, in the Jardin des Plantes, 35 years planted, and 25 ft. high. In Saxony, at Wörlitz, 35 years planted, it is 16 ft. high. In Italy, ai Monza, 24 years planted, it is 18 ft. high.

iii. Macracanthæ. Sect. Char. Leaves large, ovate-oblong, slightly lobed and serrated, with

numerous nerves, and subplicate. Fruit small. Spines very long. Tree vigorous and spreading.

1 5. C. MACRACA'NTHA Lodd. Cat. The long-spined Thorn. Synonyme. C. spina longissima in the Hammersmith Nursery. Engravings. Fig. 572. in p. 855. ; and the plate of this species in our Second Volume. Spec. Char., &c. Spines long and numerous. Leaves ovate-oblong, some

what acuminate, slightly lobed and bluntly serrated, nerved, and subplicate. Fruit small, or middle-sized, of a shining red, and very succulent when ripe. Tree spreading, and of very vigorous growth. The shoots straight, and tending upwards at an angle of 45°. A native of North America ; and, in Britain, raised from seed, in 1819, in the nursery of_Messrs. Falla, at Gateshead, near Newcastle; whence it was sent to the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, under the name of the large American azarole. It was sent, by Mr. Macnab, to the Garden of the London Horticultural Society, about 1825. This species promises to become a large and vigorous tree; and it seems to be distinct from any of the other large-leaved kinds; though,

from the appearance of its spines, it may possibly belong to C. Crús-gálli. Variety. * C. m. 2 mìnor (fig. 573. in p. 855.) only differs from the species in having smaller fruit. There are plants at Somerford Hall.

« PreviousContinue »