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kind of wild rose for stocks, as already observed, is the R. canina; and the age of the plants, or the thickness of their stems, is of much less consequence than their being healthy, straight, and free from knots. For dwarfs, they need not exceed i ft. or 18 in. in height; but for standards they may vary from 3 ft. to 6 ft. and upwards. A very convenient height for displaying the rose to the human eye, is 4 ft., the head being pruned so as to rise about 18 in. higher. For a truly grand effect, however, and for forming avenues of roses along the walks in flower-gardens, between which the beds of flowers are to be seen, the stocks ought never to be less than 6 ft. high, and 7 ft. or 8 ft. would be better. Before planting the stock, cut it over at an angle of 50°, the upper part of the cut, or section, ending a quarter of an inch above a bud; or, if there are two buds nearly about the same height at the top 542 of the stock, cut across from the one to the other, as in fig. 542., leaving about a quarter of an inch of wood above each bud. If the slope of the section is much greater than an angle of 50°, the wound will not become covered with bark, at least in most cases; and on its being completely covered depends the durability of the plant. Immediately after cutting the stock across, cover the wound with grafting clay, enveloping it with live moss, tied on with water-proof bast; or, as the practice is on the Continent, cover it with a composition made of the following ingredients: five eighths pitch, one eighth rosin, one eighth tallow, and one eighth bees' wax, all thoroughly incorporated; or, one half bees' wax, and one half pitch, which is the composition commonly used in France; or i lb. of white Burgundy pitch, 1 lb. black pitch, 1 lb. rosin, ţ lb. bees' wax, 2 oz. of tallow, 1 oz. pounded mastic, and 1 oz. saltpetre, which is the mixture used in Belgium. Equal parts of bees' wax and pitch, with a very little tallow added, we have found the simplest and best mixture for covering wounds in ligneous plants of every kind; and, for covering grafts, it has only to be mixed with a very little sand. Put any of these mixtures into a pipkin, and keep it warın enough to melt for three quarters of an hour: When cooled a little, dip the extreme point of each stock in it, so as to leave a portion of mixture, equal to the thickness of two or three sheets of paper, over the section; or, if you have neglected to perform this essential operation till after the stocks are planted, the mixture may be applied warm with a small brush. In England, this process is too generally neglected; and the section is neither covered with grafting clay, nor grafting

The consequence of this neglect is, that the rains and the frost rot the wood during winter, and the drought cracks it during summer : it decays, and leaves the stock hollow; and, after being budded, and forming a head, the plant is only of three or four years' duration, instead of lasting seven or eight years. The nurserymen say that the price given will not repay them for taking so much trouble; but it would be much better for a purchaser to pay a higher price for plants so treated, than almost any prices for those in which this precaution has been neglected. When the stocks begin to push in March, rub off all the buds, except such as may be close to the margin of the section, which will generally be two, but never less than one, or more than four. The shoots produced from these buds are intended to be budded; and, therefore, on the 1st of July, the prickles should be removed from them on the places where the buds should be inserted, which ought to be not farther than l in. from their junction with the stock. The operation of budding may be performed from the end of July to the end of August; supplying the stock with abundance of water in dry seasons, as has been already recommended, to facilitate the rising of the bark. Mornings and evenings are the best times of the day for budding; and, when a northerly or easterly wind prevails, the operation ought not to be attempted, on account of the drying influence of these winds on the bark of the stock, as well as on the bud. In general, only one sort of rose ought to be put on one stock, for reasons already given. (p. 803.)

By Seed. The common single sweet briar is always raised from seed; and sometimes, also, the dog rose, for stocks. The other sorts of roses are only


raised from seed when it is thought desirable to procure new varieties. The seeds, in either case, are separated from the hips when the latter are fully ripe; and are either sown immediately, or mixed with sand and preserved till the following spring. They are then sown, and thinly covered with soil. The plants will come up the first season, and, with careful treatment, they will Aower, in most cases, in the th or fifth year; but the varieties of R. semperflòrens will frequently flower the second year, and sometimes even the first year.

Culture. The rose, in an artificial state, may be considered in the light of an herbaceous plant; in so far that it requires to be frequently taken up and replanted, that this may be done at almost any season, and, also, that it should have its old wood cut out every year, or every second or third year.

Planting roses should, in general, be performed in the autumn; but, with the more delicate varieties of China roses, and with R, multifòra, R. moschàta, and their varieties, it may be deferred till spring. As roses have but few fibrous roots, the operation of planting them may be easily and rapidly performed; the chief point being to put some fresh soil in the hole along with the roots, and to press the earth firmly to them. In cold clayey soils, Mr. Rivers recommends, as the best compost for roses, rotten dung and pit sand; and in warm dry soils, rotten dung and cool loams. When standard roses are to be planted in a broad border, it is almost unnecessary to observe, that those nearest the walk should be the lowest, and those at the greatest distance from it the highest. A border 15 ft. or 20 ft. wide, planted in this manner, with five or six parallel rows, quincunx in the plan, and rising one above another in the elevation, has a very splendid effect when the plants are in flower.

Taking up and Replanting. The rose, whether grown as a standard or a dwarf, ought to be taken up every five or six years, even in good soils, and have its roots shortened and trimmed; a portion of the soil in which it grew should also be removed, and replaced by rich fresh loam. In unfavourable soils, Mr. Rivers remarks, this process ought to be performed every third or fourth year. Dr. Van Mons says that the practice in Belgiam, even in the best soils, is to take up the plants at the end of eight years, and either replace them in fresh soil, or throw them away, and substitute young plants. In common flower-borders, where dwarf roses are not grafted, and where, of course, they produce suckers freely, they should be taken up every other year, and replanted; the digging and manuring of the border occasioning a change in the position of the soil relatively to that of the plant, and thus producing nearly the same effect as the partial renewal of the soil.

Planting to retard the Flowering of Roses. The rose may be taken up and replanted at any season, provided the shoots are shortened, and deprived of all their leaves; and the soil in which they are planted liberally supplied with water. Hence roses, taken up just before they are coming into flower, and properly pruned and replanted, will produce their flowers in November; or, by planting them in pots, and placing them in a shady situation, and then putting them under glass on the first appearance of frost, they may be made to produce their flowers about Christmas. Practices of this kind were formerly common among the Aorists of Paris, but have been, in a great measure, relinquished since the introduction of the sweet-scented China roses; which, placed in a moderate heat, under glass, in autumn, continue flowering all the winter. Roses may also be made to flower in the autumn by pruning them back in the spring, as soon as the flower buds are discoverable. The plant, in this case, as in that of taking up and replanting, makes a second effort to produce flowers, which effort is not attended with success till late in the season.

The Rose des Quatre Saisons is a good sort for employing in these operations; and Dumont observes that this rose, when pruned immediately after it has bloomed for the first time, may be made to produce its flowers during winter ; being, of course, protected by a hand-glass, and covered with mats during very severe weather. In all experiments for forcing roses in the open air, it must be remarked, that it is essential for the soil to be fresh and rich, and the situation favourable,

Pruning. The rose requires to be pruned every year; the strong-growing hardy kinds in the autumn, or the beginning of winter, and the more tender kinds early in spring. Dumont recommends pruning the early-flowering sorts in autumn, and the late sorts during spring; but neither during winter. Rivers observes that pruning should always be performed in October or March ; but October pruning, he says, will be found decidedly the most advantageous, as, the plant having less wood and fewer buds to nourish during the winter, the buds left will have acquired extra vigour for pushing in the spring. This is a valuable remark, and will apply to all ligneous plants whatever. In the operation of pruning three objects ought to be kept in view: the removal of the old wood, because, in most varieties, it is only the young wood that produces large and finely formed flowers; the thinning out and shortening of the young wood, that the flowers produced may be fewer, and consequently have more nourishment, and more light and air, and thus become stronger; and the forming of the head, or bush, into some symmetrical shape. Some varieties require much less pruning than others; and climbers, and most of the varieties of the Scotch rose, should, in general, only have their shoots thinned out, and should be but seldom, if ever, shortened. In shortening young shoots, not more than from two to three, or, at most, four buds, should be left on each. The cuts should be made close above the bud, about the thickness of a sixpence from it, and sloping away from it at an angle of about 45°. A standard rose, properly pruned, will, in general, present a head, in the winter season, not more than 1 ft. in diameter; nevertheless, some of the vigorous-growing kinds will


544 flower very well with heads of twice or thrice that size. (See figs. 543, 544, and 545.) The peculiarities in treatment which different varieties require, whether as regards pruning, or other points of culture, will be found noticed under their respective names in preceding pages ; and in Mr. Rivers's observations on the

5+5 different sorts grown in his nursery : see p. 780. to p. 783.

Summer Pruning. By cutting out wood at different times during summer, a succession of roses may be produced, more especially in the Noisettes, and other China varieties, and in the rose des quatre saisons : but this practice should never be adopted as a general one; because, by occasioning extraordinary exertion in one season, it weakens the plants for the year following. The only kinds of summer pruning that we think generally applicable and unobjectionable are, thinning out with the finger and thumb the flower buds as soon as they are discernible, so as to leave no more than what the plant can bring to perfection; and, after these buds have expanded and begun to decay, cutting them off close to the floral leaf. In performing this last operation, none of the leaves ought to be cut off; because the effect of that would, with many varieties, be to occasion the production of a second shoot, and thus to weaken the plant, as well as to render it unsightly. There are some roses which have handsome calyxes, and others which produce large and showy coloured hips, such as the apple-bearing rose : in both these cases, instead of cutting off the decayed flower, the decayed petals only should be picked out; and this, also, should be done in the case of those roses which, when the stalks of the decayed flowers are cut off, are apt to produce summer shoots. In the case of single roses, the cutting off of the decayed flowers is not so necessary as in the double sorts; as it is the multiplicity of petals in a state of incipient decay which gives that slovenly appearance, so contrary to the spirit of what we call the gardenesque, and what our enlightened and elegant contemporary and friend, M. Soulange-Bodin, calls la belle culture, as being in gardening what the belles lettres are in literature, or the beaux arts in the arts.

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Staking and Training Standard Roses. All standard roses above 2 ft. high require to be supported by stakes; otherwise, when the head is loaded with leaves and flowers, it is very apt to be blown to one side, and either to become unsightly, or, probably, to be broken off. In country places, where wood is abundant, the stakes may be formed of poles or rods cut out of coppicewood, or the thinnings of young plantations; and, of the former, those of the larch, the oak, and the ash will commonly be found to be the most durable. Where the thinnings of young plantations are employed for stakes, the most durable will be those of the larch ; and, where roses are grown extensively in the country, the most economical mode of staking them would be, to make plantations of larches from time to time, planted close together, and to cut them down, as wanted, when of the proper size. Where neatness and permanence are desirable objects, however, nothing can equal the stakes of cast and wrought iron, manufactured by Cottam and Hallen of London, and R. Mallet of Dublin. These stakes will be found described and figured, and their weight and prices given, in the Gardener's Magazine, vol. viii. p. 556.; and it will be sufficient here to mention, that, in lengths of 7 ft., a dozen of them will weigh 108 lb., and cost 13s., if the stakes are formed wholly of cast iron; while, if formed of wrought-iron rods let into cast-iron sockets, and varying in size from 2 ft. to 6 ft. 6 in., they will cost from 2s. to 10s. 6d. per dozen. A considerable saving in the material used in these stakes is made by casting the sockets with Aanches, or fins, fig. 532. b, and also by casting the entire rod with fins, as in fig. 532. a. These stakes are calculated for roses which are to have their heads closely cut in: but the Noisettes, and various kinds of China roses, produce most effect when the shoots are allowed to grow to the length of 2 ft. or 3 ft., or more, from the stem. To train these shoots into a regular head, stakes with ring or parasol tops, such as fig. 533. or fig. 534., are useful. In general, these stakes should not be fixed till after the roses have been planted two or three years, and have acquired strength sufficient to form a handsome head the first year the stake is placed beside them. When such a stake as fig. 533. is fixed in the ground, the ring at the

top should stand about 1 in. or 2 in. higher than the top of the stock. This ring is fastened to the two iron limbs of the standard by nuts, and is unscrewed, and hung on one of the limbs while the standard is being fixed; it is then raised to its place under the branches of the tree, which, as already observed, should be sufficient in number and length to extend over the ring. Mr. Lawrence, of the Querns near Cirencester, who appears first to have adopted this mode of training, selects six or eight of the strongest shoots in spring, and ties them to the ring with tow twine; and if, from their length, this be not sufficient to prevent the shoots from blowing about, he ties strings to the ring, and extends them to pegs stuck in the ground. All the other shoots of the head are cut back in the usual manner. Fig. 546. is an accurate sketch, taken in 1831, from a bizarre de la Chine rose, which was at that time six years planted. It is needless to say, that it formed a truly splendid object. Those who dislike the appearance of the strings may adopt, as a substitute for them, the parasol stake. (fig. 534.) In the gardens at Gunnersbury, climbing roses of the more choice kinds are trained on wire domes, or demi-globes, or demi-ovals, 4 ft. or 5 ft. in height, and are found to produce an excellent effect. The wire rods are about a quarter of an inch in thickness.

Removing Suckers and Side Buds from the Stocks on which Roses are worked is an operation which should not be neglected. It has been remarked by Dumont, that suckers, when at a distance from the stem of the rose, do not appear to injure the plant; which, indeed, is the case with the suckers of all trees or shrubs that come up at a distance from the stem; this being one of the modes of propagation which nature has supplied to a considerable number of plants, both ligneous and herbaceous : but suckers from the base of the stem, and shoots from the stem itself, are less injurious in the case of the grafted rose, than in that of most other grafted plants. The reason is, or


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seems to be, that the rose stocks are always of much more robust habit, with reference to the scions grafted on them, than the stocks of any other grafted tree or shrub whatever.

Watering. All plants in a state of high culture require watering in the summer season, otherwise they will not develope their parts to a sufficient extent. The rose bush best produces its flowers in the three hottest months, June, July, and August; and neither in Britain, nor on the Continent, will roses expand their blossoms fully, or have strength to resist the attacks of insects, unless they are liberally supplied with water. Before they come into flower, the leaves should be syringed every evening in dry weather, and the root abundantly supplied either with common water, or liquid manure. Dwarf roses require less water than standards; because the nearness of the bush to the ground, by covering the soil, prevents evaporation. Lime water (that is, lime held in solution in water, and not such a mixture of lime and water as will leave a coating of lime on the plants) may be used, both with the syringe and at the root; and, though it will not entirely destroy the aphides, those great enemies of roses, yet it will check their increase, and it will totally destroy caterpillars of every kind. To destroy the aphides, after syringing with pure water or lime water, the plants should be sprinkled with the powdered leaves of tobacco, or refuse snuff, as directed under the head of Insects, and the syringing left off for a few days; after which they should be well washed with clean water.

Growing in Pots and Forcing. The dwarf-growing roses, and, indeed, most sorts as dwarfs, may be grown in pots ; care being taken to turn them out of the pots once a year, and, after trimming their roots and shoots, to repot them in fresh soil. So complete is the command of the cultivator over a rose in a pot, that, with the aid of glass, a choice of sorts, and the power of applying a very little heat in the winter months, he may have roses in abun

а dance all the year. Cabbage and moss roses, when they are to be forced, should be taken up out of the free ground as soon as they have done flowering,


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