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more hardy than the European species. In Britain, it is propagated by imported seeds, and is considered more tender than C. Siliquastrum ; but it would probably be rendered more hardy by being grafted on that species.
Statistics. In the environs of London, it is seldom found higher than 10 ft. or 12 ft. ; and then it has more the character of a bush than of a tree; but on the Continent there are some good speci.
In France, at Paris, in the Jardin des Plantes, 55 years planted, it is 36 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk, 10 in., and of the head 20 ft. ; in the Rue Grenelle, in Paris, in the garden of the house No. 122., as we are informed by Mr. Blaikie, there is a tree 40 ft. high, with a trunk if ft. in diameter. In Saxony, at Wörlitz, 25 years planted, it is 10 ft. high. In Austria, at Vienna, in the University Botanic Garden, 9 years planted, it is 16 ft. high. In Italy, at Monza, 24 years planted, it is 13 ft. high.
Commercial Statistics. Plants, in the London nurseries, are ls. 6d. each, and seeds 1s. 6d. per ounce; at Bollwyller, plants are 1 franc each ; and at New York, the plants of the species are from 25 to 374 cents each, and of “ Foreman's new variety,” 37 cents each.
App. I. Half-hardy Species of the Tribe Cassièa. Casalpinia Ait, is a genus of beautiful flowering trees and shrubs, most of the species of which are natives of tropical countries, and which, in England, are generally kept in stoves; but there is one species, C. Lebbekördes Dec., a native of China, which, if once introduced, would probably be a valu. able addition to a conservative wall,
Cadia vària L'Hérit. (Don's Mill., 2. p. 435.) is a shrub, a native of Arabia Felix, with impari.pin, nate leaves; and flowers, at first white, but, as they fade, becoming rose-coloured. It was introduced in 1777, and might be tried against a wall,
Zuccágnia Cav. is a Chilian genus, of which the species are probably half-hardy. 2. punctàta Cav.
the south of Europe, particularly Spain; it is also found in Mau
ritania and the Levant. The leaves are abruptly pinnate; the 365
leaflets oval, obtuse, flat, coriaceous, and of a shining dark green. The flowers are polygamous or diæcious, and without petals. The tree grows to the height of from 30 ft. to 50 ft. In the south of Europe, when the fruit is perfectly ripe, the pulp contained in the pods is eaten by men, the seeds by horses, and the 366 husks by swine; hence, probably, the popular English name of sow's bread. When unripe, the fruit is considered very unwhole. some, and even dangerous, to the cattle that feed on it. The Egyptians make a kind of honey of the pulp, which serves the Arabs instead of sugar; they also make a preserve like that made with tamarinds of the pods, which is a gentle laxative. This fruit was anciently supposed to be what St. John fed on in the wilderness ; hence its name of St. John's bread; the seeds being said to be meant by the word translated “ locusts;" and the pulp by the term “ wild honey. The husks are thought to have been the dry
and wretched food that the Prodigal Son was driven to long for, in the last stage of his misery and starvation. The plant has been British green-houses since 1570; and the male plant, has flowered every autumn, for many years past, in the Mile End Nursery. This tree will very nearly stand the open air in the vicinity of Paris; and, if planted against a wall in the neighbourhood of London, it would probably stand with very little protection. Its fine large coriaceous dark green foliage ought to be a strong inducement for every one who has an opportunity to give it a trial. As a fruit tree, it may merit introduction into Australia, for which purpose the seeds can be readily procured from Spain. It is remarked in the Nouveau Du Hamel, 1. p. 255., that, when the ripe fruit has been eaten by oxen or mules, the seeds which have passed through them without digestion vegetate much sooner than when they are sown in the natural manner. The tree is of slow growth, and the wood is extremely hard and durable. Its roots attach themselves so firmly to the soil, that, in Spain, even in the most exposed situations, in the gullies of mountains for example, the tree has never been known to be blown down by the wind, so as to be torn up by the roots, though large branches have been broken off it by storms.
Castanospermum austràle Cunningham (Hook. Bot. Misc., 1. p. 241. t. 5). and t. 52.) is a New Holland tree, growing to the height of 40 it. or 60 ft., the legumes of which are produced from two years old wood; and they contain seeds as large as Spanish chestnuts, which are eaten roasted by the natives about Botany Bay. As one of the few New Holland trees which produce edible fruit, it is highly interesting, and well deserves a place against the conservative wall, adjoining Ceratònia.
Cássia L. is a genus consisting chiefly of tropical shrubs or herbs, with abruptly pinnate leaves, and yellow flowers, most of which require to be kept in the stove; but c. Barclayana Swt. (Fl. Austr., t. 32., and our fig. 367.) and C. australis Hook. (Bot. Mag., t. 2676., and our fig. 368.)
307 are natives of New Holland, growing to the height of 3 ft. or 4 it., and producing their fine showy yellow blossoms from June to August. The senna of the druggists is produced from the leaves of two species of this genus, C. lanceolata and C
obovata, both stove plants, and natives of Egypt; though the latter, which is called Italian senna, is found about Rome.
Chamaf (stula (from chamai, ground, and fistula, a pipe; on account of the species being comparatively dwarf, and of its cylindrical pods) Don's Mill., ii. p. 451., is a genus separated from Cássia, and consists of 27 species. C. corymbosa G. Don, Cássia corymbosa Lam. (Dict., i. p. 644., Bot. Mag., t. 63, and our fig. 570.), affords a very good example of the genus. It is a native of Buenos Ayres, where it grows to the height of 8 ft. or 10 ft.; and it would form a very handsome plant against a conservative wall.
Scholia stipulata Ait. and S. alata Thunb. are Cape shrubs, with crim. son flowers, now kept in stoves and green-houses, but well deserving trial against a conservative wall. s. latifolia Jacq. (Fragm., 23. t. 15. f. 4., and our fig. 369.) which was introduced in 1816, and grows to the height of 6 ft.,
give an idea of the general appearance of plants of this genus. In their
ive country, the species of this genus are of slow growth, and they form bushes rather than trees. Mr. Bowie observes that planting them under the shade of taller-growing shrubs, or of trees, will draw them up, and, at the same time, not injure them, or preclude them from display. ing their beautiful flowers. These flowers, in all the varied species of Schotia, are produced occasionally on the old wood, though chiefly at the extremity of the young spring and summer shoots; a habit which ought always to be kept in view in pruning the plants.
Other half-hardy ligneous Species of the Order
Leguminàceæ. There being no truly hardy species belonging to the tribes Dalbergièæ, Mimoseæ, and Geoffrea of this order, we are necessarily obliged to devote a separate appendix to them.
fi. Dalbergièæ. Sect. Char. The species are for the most part climbing shrubs, with impari-pinnate leaves, rarely,
but sometimes, pinnately-trifoliolate, or simple. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 373.) Dérris sericea G. Don is a Nepal shrub, with small yellow flowers, and leaves covered with a silky pubescence. D. trifoliata Lour, is a climbing shrub, a native of China, not yet introduced.
Pterocarpus peltárius Dec. Leg. Mém., 10. 6. 57. f. 2., is a tree, a native of the Cape of Good Hope , not yet introduced.
ii. Mimosea. Sect. Char. Flowers regular, usually polygamous, rarely all hermaphrodite. Stamens inserted with
the petals, free or monadelphous, equal in number to the petals, or forming a multiple of that number. Leaves abruptly pínnate, or abruptly bipinnate. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 381.)
Prosdpis L. is a genus of Indian or American trees, of which scarcely any species have been introduced; but P. glanduldsa Torrey (Ann. Lyc., 2. p. 192. t. 2.) is a native of North America, on the Canadian river, where it is called the algaroba tree. There is a plant belonging to this genus, a native of Chili, and, possibly, hardy, P. Siliquastrum Dec. (Don's Miu., ii. p. 400.), which has stood against the wall in the Horticultural Society's Garden, with very little protection, since the year 1832.
Lagonychium Stephaniànum Bieb. Supp., Acacia Stephanidna Bieb. Fl. Taur., Mimosa micrántha Vahl, (Breyn. Cent., 1. t. 56. f. 4.) is a small shrub, with scattered prickles, and bipinnate leaves, a native of the arid plains between Caucasus and the Caspian Sea, and of Persia, between Mossul and Bagdad. It was introduced in 1816, grows to the height of 2 ft., and flowers in July and August.
It will grow in a warm situation in the open border, and requires only a slight protection during the most severe winter.
Acacia Neck. This is a very extensive genus of shrubs or trees, with beautiful foliage and flowers, and of intense interest to the British gardener, because, in mild winters, they are found to live in the open air, as standards, attain a tree-like size in 2 or 3 years, and flower profusely, very early in the spring. They are all of easy propagation, either by cuttings or from seeds, either imported or produced in this country and their
growth is so rapid, that plants 2 years established have been known to make shoots 16 ft. long in one season. In dry sandy soils, and in sheltered situations, the greater number of the species of Acacia might be grown together as a wood or thicket, by which means the plants would protect one another; and though their tops might be annually killed down for 2 ft. or 3 ft. by the frost, yet, the dead portions being cut off annually in May, the plants would grow again with vigour. An Australian forest might not be realised in this way in England, but some al. lusion might be created to an Australian coppice wood. The genus Acacia, which, as G. Don observes, is a very polymorphous one, and may probably hereafter be separated into several genera, when the species are more perfectly known, is divided into numerous sections, from which we shall select a few species, and refer the reader for the rest to our Hortus Britannicus.
1. Phyllodineæ. Sect. Char. Leaves of two forms: those in seedling plants are bipinnate; but in adult plants the
leaflets are abortive, and there only remains the dilated petiole, which is called a phyllodium. The species are mostly natives of New Holland. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 401.) A. Capitata. Flowers collected into globular Heads; Heads solitary on
a. Stipules aculeate. A. alála R. Br. (Bot. Reg., 396., and our fig. 371.). Stem bifariously winged; dilated petiole decurrent, 1-nerved, ending in a spine at the apex. Heads of flowers solitary, or in pairs. A native of New Holland, on the western coast. Introduced in 1803, and flowering from April to July. It grows to the height of 6 ft. or 10 ft. A. armata R. Br. (Bot. Mag., 1653., and our fig. 572.) has the phyllodia, or dilated petioles, ob371
liquely ovate-oblong; the heads of flowers solitary, and the legumes velvety. This is a well-known inhabitant of our green-houses, in which it flowers from April to June, and frequently ripens seeds. It is a native of the southern coast of New Holland, and was introduced in 1803. It grows to the height of 8 st. or 10ft in pots, and in a cold-pit, or against a wall : it requires only to have the frost excluded. There is a plant 10 ft. high, against a wall, in the Chelsea Botanic Garden; and there is one at Cuffnells, in Hampshire, which has stood against a wall with a north aspect since 1832, protected with a mat during frosty weather; and flower. ing freely in February, March, and April. In the Upway Nursery, near Dorchester, plants have stood in the open border for 5 years, and have ripened seeds, which have dropped, and produced young plants. At Airthrey Castle, Stirlingshire, a plant of A. armata stood out against a wall, without the slightest protec. tion, during the winters of 1893 and 1834 ; and, in 1835, was 4 ft. high.
A. junipérina Willd., Mimdsa junipérina Vent. II., M. ulicifolia Wendl., A. verticillata Sieb. (Bot. Cab., t. 398., and our fig. 373.) is a native of the eastern coast of New Holland; which was introduced in 1790; and grows to the height of 8 ft. or 10ft. It flowers from March to July; and sometimes, in fine seasons, ripens seed.
b. Stipules not aculeate, and either very small or wanting. A. diffusa Ker (Bot. Reg., t. 634.), A. prostrata Lodd. (Bot. Cab., t. 631., and our figs. 374, 375.), has the dilated petioles linear, and the branches diffusely procumbent. It is a native of New South Wales, on the Blue Mountains; was introduced in 1818; and Aowers from April to June.
A. stricta Willd., Mimdsa stricta Bot. Mag., t. 1121., and our figs. 376, 377., is an upright-growing shrub, from the eastern coast of New Holland, flowering from February to May. It was introduced in 1690, and grows to the hcight of 6 ft.
A. laurifolia Willd. (Labill. Noo. Cal., p. 68. t. 68.), Mimosa sirnplicifolia L., has the dilated petioles obliquely ovate-oblong. It is a native of the Friendly Islands and the New Hebrides, as well as of New Caledonia, where it forms a tree from 20 ft. to 25 ft in height. It was introduced in 1775; but, though a most desirable species for a conservative wall, it is not common in collections.
B. Capitàto-racemosa. Flowers collected in globose Heads ; the Heads disposed
in Racemes along the axillary Peduncles. Stipules of all the Species nearly obsolete, or, when present, not aculeate. (Don's Mill., i. p. 404.)
A. melanoxylon R. Br. (Bot. Mag., t. 1659., figs. 378, 379.) has the dilated petiole lanceo. late-oblong, rather falcate, obtuse, quite en. tire, and many-nerved. The flowers are few, and disposed as in the figure. This is a native of New Holland, and also of Van Diemen's Land; and, in mild winters, it will grow in the open air, in the neighbourhood of London, as a standard, attaining the height of 10 ft. or 12 ft., after being 2 or 3 years planted out. A
fine tree of this species stood out three winters, 378
in the garden of the Horticultural Society, as a
379 severe frost of January, 1836. A plant against
the wall in the same garden, which had stood out since 1831, with no other protection than a projecting coping, was also much injured at the same time. Had there been a protection in front, and had the standard been covered with a mat, both would have escaped uninjured. In the Norwich Nursery, this acacia stands the winter.
A. keterophợua Willd., Mimdsa heterophylla Lam. Dilated petioles, linear, attenuated at both ends, rather falcate, many-nerved; there are also, some. times, bipinnate leaves at the tops of the branches. Heads of flowers disposed in a kind of raceme; 2–3 heads to each raceme, Introduced, in 1824, and, probably, tolerably hardy; as, in the garden of the palace at Caserta, near Naples, It was 60 ft. high in
A. myrtifolia Willd.,
A. suaveolens Willd.,
the Mimosa suaveolens of
Smith (Lodd. Bot. Cab.,
hasthe dilated petioles linear; tapering a little at the base, acute, mucronulate, 1-nerved, quite entire; the heads of flowers racemose, and the legumes glaucous from grey powder. The
flowers are fragrant, and appear from February to June. This species was introduced in 1790, and grows to the height of 8 ft. or 10ft.
C. Spicatæ. Flowers disposed in cylindrical Spikes. Stipules usually wanting,
or, when present, small and not aculeate. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 406.) A. Orýcedrus Sieb. (Bot. Mag., t. 2928.), A. taxifolia Lodd. (Bot. Cab., t. 1225., and our figs. 382, 383 ), has the stipules spinose; the dilated petioles scattered, or somewhat verticillate, lanceolate linear, and
ending in a pungent point. It is
standard, with very little protec
+tion, from 1832 till January, 1836; 382
when it was killed, or much in.
the same garden, against the wall, was also much injured; but it had no protection in front. A. v. 3 latifolia Dec. has stood out against a wall in the Horticultural Society's Garden since 1831.
2. Conjugato-pinnatæ. Sect. Char. Leaves with one pair of pinnæ, each pinna bearing few or many pairs of leaflets.
This is an artificial section, composed of a heterogeneous assemblage of species, the most part of which are not well known. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 408.) A. gummifera Willd. has the pinnæ bearing 6 pairs of linear obtuse leaflets. It is a native of the north of Africa, near Mogador, where it forms a tree of the middle size, and yields the gum Arabic, in common with several other species. It was introduced in 1823. A. coronillafolia Desf. is a tree from the same country, introduced in 1817.
A. pulchella R. Br. (Bot. Cab., t. 212. and our figs. 385, 386.) is a smooth shrub, with the pinnæ bear. ing 5–7 pairs of oblong-obovate obtuse leaflets, and having its heads of flowers solitary. It is a native of New Holland; was introduced in 1803; and grows to the height of 5 ft. or 6 ft.
A. detinens Burch. (Don's Mill., 2. p. 408.) and A. viridiràmis Burch. (ibid.) are natives of the Cape of Good Hope, which have been some years in British
386 green-houses. They both grow to the height of from 3 ft. to 6 ft., and continue flowering from April to July.
3. Spiciflòre. Sect. Char. Leaves bipinnate, with few or many pairs of pinnæ, each pinna bearing many pairs of leaflets. Flowers disposed in spikes. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 409.)
A. Unarmed Trees or Shrubs.
grow to the height of 6 ft. or 8 ft.
B. Prickly or spiny Trees or Shrubs. A. cafra Willd., Mimosa cafra Thunb., has leaves with 5–10 pairs of pinnæ, each pinna bearing 20—30 pairs of lanceolate-linear leaflets. It is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, introduced in 1800; and forms a tree from 12 ft. to 20 ft. high.
A. álbida Delil. (FL. Ægypt. 143., t. 52. f. 3.), the Egyptian thorn, has straight stipular prickles, and leaves with
3-4 pairs of pinnæ, each pinna bearing 9–10 pairs of oblong-linear glaucous leaflets. It is a native of Upper Egypt, where it grows to the height of 20 ft.