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C. stipuldris Lam., the C. valentina of Lin., and Bot. Mag., t. 185., the C. hispánica of Mill., and our fig. 349., is a native of the south of Italy, and has deep yellow flowers, very fragrant at night, which are produced from March to November. It has been in cultivation since 1536, and grows to the height of 3 ft. in British gardens.
350 C. pentaphylla Desf. is a native of Algiers, where it grows to the height of 4 ft. It was introduced in 1700, and flowers in June and July.
C. glauca L (Bot. Mag., t. 13., and our fig. 350.) is a native of France, about Narbonne. It was in. troduced in 1722, and grows to the height of 4 ft., producing its beautiful yellow flowers, which are fragrant in the day-time, but scentless at night, from May to September.
C. argéntea L. is a native of Candia, said to have been introduced in 1664; "a very doubtful plant." (Don's Mill., 2. p. 274.)
C. multiflora Dec. Prod., 2. p. 310., is a native of Spain, with pale yellow fowers, and is, perhaps, only a variety of some of the other species.
App. I. Hardy suffruticose Species of Hedysàreæ. Hedysarum fruticosum L. (Gmel. Sib., 4. t. 22.) is an erect plant, with somewhat shrubby branches, very handsome when in flower, and extremely useful in the deserts of Siberia, in fixing the sand. It has been in cultivation since 1792, and grows to the height of 3 ft. or 4 ft.
App. II. Half-hardy ligneous Species of Hedysàreæ.
The half.hardy species of
Hippocrèpis balearica Jacq.
cold-pits, from May to July. Adésmia Dec. is a genus of South American plants, some of which are shrubby: the appearance of several of them resembles that of Genista ; and they are all of remarkably easy culture.
A. microphylla Hook. (Bot. Cab., t. 1691., and our figs. 353, 354.) is a dichotomous plant, resembling furze, a native of Valparaiso, introduced in 1776, quite hardy, and flowering throughout the sum
354 A. Loudònia Hook. (Bot. Reg., 1720., and our
figs. 355, 356) is a native of Valparaiso, where it 353
grows to the height of 2 ft., with upright branches,
A. viscosa Gill. et Hook. (Swt. Fl. Gard., 2d ser.
growth, with elegant leaves, having sometimes as many as
14 pairs of crenated leaflets. It appears to be as hariy as Edwardsia microphylla, or more so; for a plant in the Exotic Nursery, King's Road, has stood out against a wall with a western exposure, and attained the height of 10 ft.
A. uspallaténsis Gill (Sw. Brit. Fl. Gard., 2d ser. t. 222., is a slender, thorny, diminutive shrub, a native of Chili, introduced by Mr. Cuming in 1832. Its blossoms are of a rich yellow, streaked with red; and its legumes, when full grown, are adorned with long feathery hairs.
Urària Desv. is a tropical geaus, one species of which, U. arbòrca G. Don, Hedýsarum arboreum Hamilt., is a native of Nepal, where it grows to a tree 19 ft. in height.
Desmodium Dec. is a tropical genus, of which several species are natives of Nepal, and may probably be found half-hardy. The only ligneous species which is already introduced is D. reisum
X X 4
G.Don, Hedysarum retusum Hamilt., which is a shrub growing to the height of 2 ft., with large pinnate leaves, and leaflets nearly 2 in. long, and half an inch broad
Dicérma élegans Dec., Hedýsarum élegans Lour., Zórnia elegans Pers., is an erect shrub, growing to the height of 3 ft., with trifoliolate leaves; a native of China, near Canton. It was introduced in 1819, and produces its yellow flowers in July and August.
Tavernièra Dec. is a genus of shrubs, natives of Persia and Ara. bia, with simple and trifoliolate leaves, and rose-coloured or yellow flowers. T. nummulària Dec. (Lég. Mém., 7. t. 52.), Hedýsarum Olivèri Spreng., produces its rose-co. loured flowers in June and July. It
was introduced in 1826, and grows 355
10 the height of 2 ft.
356 plants, chiefly natives of Siberia and of North America, several of which are suffruticose; but none of them have been introduced except L. frutescens Pers. (Jac. Vin., 3. 89.), which is a native of Carolina, where it grows 2 ft. or 3ft. high, and produces its purplish flowers in July and August.
Flemingia semialata Roxb. Cor., 3. t. 249., is a deciduous shrub, a native of Nepal, introduced in 1805. It grows 3 it. or
357 4 ft. high, and produces its pale red flowers in July and August.
E'benus crética L., Anthyllis crética Lam., (Bot. Mag., t. 1092.) is a shrub, a native of Candia, with large reddish or purple flowers, having the staminiferous tube elegantly striated, which was introduced in 1737. It grows to the height of 2 ft., and flowers in June and July.
Alhagi Maurorum Tourn., Hedýsarum Alhàgi L., Alhàgi mannifera Desf., Ondnis spinosa Hasselq., Mánna hebraica Ď. Don, (Prod. Fl. Nep., 247. ; Rauw. Itin., 1. p. 94., icon.) is a native of the deserts of Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, and other eastern countries. It was introduced in 1714, but is seldom met with in green-houses. In its native country, it grows 2 ft. or 3 ft. high, and produces its purplish flowers, which are reddish about their edges, in July and August. The manna of the Jews is generally considered to have been produced from this plant; and the Arabians have a tradition, that it fell from the clouds upon it, to feed the Israelites in the desert. This, however, is contrary to what is recorded in the Scriptures ; viz. that the miraculous manna appeared only on the rocks, and on the sand, and hence the surprise of the Israelites, who would not have been astonished if they had seen small portions of it on the plants; but who, finding it in such immense quantities on the ground, where they had never seen it before, could hardly believe it to be the same thing, and exclaimed in Hebrew, "Man ?” that is to say What is it? whence, possibly, the name. The manna produced by the alhagi is a natural exudation fromthe leaves and branches, which takes place only in very hot weather. At first, it resembles drops of honey: but it granulates with the atmosphere into particles of different sizes, but seldom larger than a coriander seed. It is collected by the natives, more especially about Taurus, where the shrub grows plentifully ; but it is not known in this country as an article of foreign commerce; the manna of the druggists being the concrete juice of the Oʻrnus europæ'a. The Äthàgi Mauròrum ought to be in all extensive collections, as a plant of historical interest. A. cameldrum, a herbaceous species, introduced in 1816, produces a similar exudation, which is called Caspian manna. The plant is a native of the deserts of Tartary and Siberia, where it forms a food for camels; whence its name. (Burnet's Outlines, 2. p. 659.)
Cliánthus puniceus Soland., the Dònia punícea of G. and D. Don, (Bot. Reg., t. 1775., and our fig. 358.) is a New Zealand shrub, introduced in 1832, or
358 earlier. It was originally discovered by Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Solander, in 1769, but was not noticed in any scientific work till a description of it was published in Don's Miller, in 1832. It appears to have been first grown in England by Wm. Leveson Gower, Esq., in his garden at Titsey Place, near Godstone, where it flowered in the summer of 1834. It was figured in the Bot. Reg., in July, 1835; and in the Hort. Trans., 2d series, vol. i. t. 22., in the same year. The seeds were sent home by the missionaries in New Zealand, where it is called kowain-gutukaka, or the parrot's bill; and where it is said to grow to the size of a large tree, though the specimens in Britain appear quite suffruticose, and have not reached a greater height than 4 ft.“ From the trials that have been made of the proper mode of managing it, both by Mr. Gower and the Rev. John Coleman, by whom it was given to the former gentleman, it would appear that it succeeds best when treated as a hardy plant, and turned out into a peat border; for in such a situation it has now been two years in Mr. Gower's garden, and the plants continue to look very healthy, with a profusion of blossoms forming for next year. Kept in the green-house, it was sickly, and did not flower in the hands of Mr. Gower's gardener ; but Mr. Coleman succeeded in blossoming it in a large pot in a greenhouse, and in inducing it to ripen its pods. Considering the climate of New Zealand is, in some places, so much like that of England, that some species, such as Edwardsia microphylla, will bear the rigour of our winters, it is not improbable that this may also prove a bardy plant: if so, its extraordinary
a beauty will render it one of the most valuable species that has been introduced of late years; and, even if it should be no hardier than Sutherlandia frutéscens, it will still form one of the most important and welcome of all the modern additions to our flower-gardens.” (Hort. Trans., 2d ser. i. p. 521.)
Sect. IV. PHASEO'LEA.
WISTA'RIA Nutt. The Wistaria. Lin. Syst. Diadelphia Decándria.
Pennsylvania. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 348.) Nuttall first characterised and named this genus, from the
Description, fc. Leaves impari-pinnate, without stipules. Flowers in terminal racemes, blue lilac; when young, attended by bracteas, which afterwards fall off. (Dec. Prod., č. p. 390.) Deciduous twining shrubs, natives of North America, and China; of vigorous growth, and forming, when in flower, some of the most splendid ornaments of British gardens. They are quite hardy, will grow in any soil, and are generally propagated by layers of the young shoots, which will root at every joint if laid down during summer as they grow. They may also be propagated by cuttings of the roots; or by seeds.
$1. W. FRUTE'SCENS Dec. The shrubby Wistaria. Identification. Dec. Prod., 2. p. 390.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 348.
359 Synonymes. Glycine frutescens Lin. Sp., 1067.; Apios frutescens Ph. Fl. Am. Sept., 2. p. 474.; Anonymos frutéscens Walt. Fl. Car., 186.; Wistaria speciðsa Nutt. Gen. Amer., 2. p. 115. ; Thyrsánthus frutescens Elliot Journ. Acad. Sci. Philad. ; Phaseolöldes Hort. Angl., 55. ; the Kidneybean Tree. Engravings. Bot. Mag., t. 2103. ; and our fig. 359. Spec. Char., &c. Wings of the corolla each with two auricles. Ovary glabrous. Flowers odorous. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 390.) An elegant deciduous climber, a native of Virginia, Carolina, and the Illinois, in boggy places. Introduced in 1724, and flowering from July to September. The flowers are of a bluish purple, and sweet-scented, the standard having a greenish yellow spot at the base. The plant is a free grower; and,
in 3 or 4 years, if planted in good soil, and in a favourable exposure it will attain the height of 20 ft. or 30 ft. It is readily propagated by cuttings of the root and by layers. Plants, in the London nurseries, are is. 6d. each ; at Bollwyller, 1 franc 15 cents; and at New York 372 cents.
32. W. CHINE'NSIS Dec. The Chinese Wistaria. Identification. Dec. Prod., 2. p. 390.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 348. Synonymes. Glycine chinensis
Sims Bot. Mag., t. 2083.; G. sinensis Ker Bot. Reg., t. 650. ; Wistària Consequana Loudon Gard. Mag., vol. ii. p. 422., vol. xi. p. 111., and in Hort. Brit. Engravings. Swt. Brit. Fl.-Gard., t. 211.; Bot. Mag., t. 2083.; Bot. Reg., t. 650. ; Lodd. Bot. Cab.,
t. 773.; Gard. Mag., vol. ii. p. 422. ; and our fig. 360. Spec. Char., &c. Wings of the corolla each
with one auricle. Ovary villose. Flowers larger. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 390.) A vigorousgrowing deciduous twiner ; a native of China, introduced in 1816; flowering in British gardens in May and June, and sometimes producing a second crop of flowers in August. The flowers are larger than those of W. frutéscens: they are disposed in longer and looser racemes, and are somewhat paler in colour. On established plants they are produced in great abundance; but they have not yet been succeeded by seeds in England. This plant may truly be considered the most magnificent of all our hardy deciduous climbIt will grow wherever the common
360 laburnum will Äourish; but, as its flowers are somewhat more tender than those of that tree, they are more liable to be injured by frosts in very late springs. It was first brought to England by Capt. Robert Welbanke, in May, 1816; and in the same month, but a few days later, another plant was introduced by Capt. Richard Rawes. Both were obtained from the garden of Consequa, a generous, but unfortunate, merchant of Canton, of whom a biography will be found in the Gard. Mag., vol. xi. p. 111. One of the imported plants is in a pit in the garden of Rook's Nest, near Godstone in Surrey; but it is small when compared with one raised from it, which every one, who has ever entered the garden of the London Horticultural Society in May or June, for some years past, must have been struck with seeing against the wall. That plant has now (March, 1835) a stem the height of the wall (11 ft.), from which branches proceed on one side to the distance of 90 ft., and on the other to the distance of 70 ft. So vigorous is this plant, that there is no reason to suppose it will not, if allowed, extend to double or treble that distance. There can be no doubt but it is the most vigorous-growing, and abundantflowering climber in British gardens. Plants, which were originally sold at six guineas, now cost, in the London nurseries, from Is. 6d, to 2s.6d, each ; at Bollwyller, they are 3 francs; and at New York, 3 dollars.
Other Species of Wistària. W. floribunda Dec. Prod., 2. p. 390.; Dolichos polystachyus Thun. Jap., 281. ; Houtt. PA. Syst., 8. p. 563. t. 64. fig. 2.; Glycine foribunda Willd. ; Dólichos japonicus Spreng. ; Fúdsi Kæmpf.; has the stems and leaves glabrous, the racemes of Aowers very long, and the corolla purple and white mixed. This species has not been introduced, though it was conjectured by Mr. Sweet that the shoots from the roots of an imported plant in the Fulham Nursery might be of this species, because the leaves were quite different from those of the upper part of the plant, being hairy, while the others were smooth. Mr. Sweet thought it likely that one species had been grafted on another; but it has since been observed, that all the root-shoots from vigorous plants bare hairy leaves. On these grounds it was that w. floribunda was recorded into our Hortus Britannicus as having been introduced in 1820, and described there as a trailer, with shoots 10 ft. in length. On similarly slight foundations, we have no doubt, many species have been recorded both at home and abroad. In the year 1829, we brought over some plants, and a packet of seeds, from Carlsruhe, the produce of a plant growing there against the end of a hot-house, flowering freely, and producing seeds every year. This plant had been received by M. Hartweg, the director of the garden, as the Glycine chinensis of Bot. Mag., t. 2083.; and, as when we saw it in November, 1828, it was without leaves, it appeared to us uncertain whether it was correctly named or not. Some of the plants raised from the seeds which we brought over, and gave to the Clapton Nursery, have since Aowered and ripened seeds in the garden of F. Ber. nasconi, Esq., near Pinner ( See Gard. Mag., vol. xii. p. 75. and p. 215.): but we received this in.
formation too late in the autumn of 1835, to be able to examine the plant, so as to determine any thing certain respecting its species. Possibly, it may be a new species; but we think it more probable, from the leaves of a plant in our own garden, also raised from the seeds we brought from Carlsruhe, which has not yet flowered, that it is nothing more than Wistària frutéscens. App. I. Suffruticose hardy or half-hardy Species of Phaseòlea.
Lupinus arbòreus Sims (Bot. Mag., t. 628, and our fig. 361.), the tree lupine, is somewhat shrubby, and, as
a standard, will grow to the height
known; but it has been in cultiva.
L. multiflorus Desrous., with azure
fig. 362. ;L canalicu. latus Śwt. FL-Gard., 1st ser. t. 283. ; L. versicolor Swt. Fl.-Gard, 2d. ser. t. 12.; L. pulchellus Swt. Fl.-Gard., 2d. ser., t. 67. ; are all technically considered somewhat suffruticose, and will grow to the height of from
3 ft. to 6 ft. when trained against a wall, lasting 2 or 3 years, if not destroyed during winter by severe frost. There are also several other species described in Don's Miller, bearing the same general character, but most of which have not yet been introduced.
App. II. Half-hurdy Species of Phaseòlea. Dolichos lignosus L. (Smith Spic., t. 21.) is a ligneous climber, with rose-coloured flowers, having a purplish keel, which is tolerably hardy: it has been an inhabitant of our green-houses since 1776, and flowers in July and August.
Pachyrhizus trilobus Dec., Dólichos trilobus Lour., is a twining shrub, a native of China and Cochin-China, where it is cultivated for the tubers of its roots, which are cylindrical, heing
about 2 ft. long, and are boiled and eaten by the natives, in the
same manner as yams are in the West Indies. The'lowers are of a bright purple, with a yellow spot in the centre of the standard. This species has not yet been introduced.
Mucuna macrocarpa Wall. (Pl. As. Rar., 1. p. 41. t. 47., and our fig. 363.) is a twining shrub, a native of Nepal, on the mountains. The flowers are party-coloured, the standard green, the wings purple, and the keelbrown. The legumes are very Jarge, as are the racernes of flowers. Fet been introduced, but, when it is, it will probably be found half-hardy or hardy. Erythrina Crista-gálli L. (Smith Exot. Bot., 2. p. 95. ; Swt. Fl.-Gard., p. 214.), the coral tree, is a splendid plant, a native of Brazil, where it grows to the height of 20 ft. In British gardens, it will grow at the base of a wall, with a little protection dur. ing winter, and produce its bright deep scarlet flowers from May to July. E. laurifolia Jacq., the E. Crista-gáíli of Bot. Reg., t. $13., is considered by some as a species; and by others as a variety of E. Crista-gálli. duces its rich but dull crimson flowers from July to September. No conservative wall ought to be without these plants, since they may be easily protected at the root by a little straw; and, even if killed down every year, they will produce shoots, which will terminate in long spikes of coral-like flowers every season. They require a deep sandy soil, somewhat rich; and are propagated by cuttings of the shoots, or division of the root. There are some other green-house species, not yet introduced, which are probably equally hardy with the above; and, probably, many of the tove species would stand out with some protection.
It has not