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growing branches. The flowers are axillary, one on a pedicel; the pods are oblong-taper, and each contains 3 or 4 seeds. The wood is hard, compact, and very tough; yellow on the outside; and within, waved and striped with red, and with reddish brown. The bark is also very tough, and it is used as a substitute for ropes or cords, as the twigs are for withs. The seeds are stated by Pallas to be good food for poultry, and the leaves excellent fodder for cattle; they are also said to contain a blue colouring matter, like indigo. The species was introduced into Britain in 1752, and is not uncommon in British collections. The largest plant in the neighbourhood of London is at Syon, where it is 18 ft. high.

In Ireland, in the Glasnevin Botanic Garden, is one, 20 years planted, which is 24 ft. high ; the diameter of the trunk, at 1 ft. from the ground, is 7 in., and of the head, which is roundish and compact, 12 ft. In British nurseries, it is generally propagated by seeds, which are produced freely. The price of plants, in the London nurseries, is 50s. a hundred, or Is. each; at Bollwyller, 50 cents each. #2. C. (A.) ALTAGA'NA Poir. The Altagana Caragana, or Siberian Pea Tree. Identification. Poir. Suppl., 2. p. 89. ; Dec Prod., 2. p. 268. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 243. Synonymes.

Robinia Altagåna Pali Fi. Ross., t.'42, L'Herit. Stirp., t. 76. ; Caragana microphylla Lam. Dict., 1. p. 615. Derivation. Altagana is the name of the shrub in Siberia. Engravings. Pall. Fl. Ross., t. 42., under the name of Robinia Altagàna ; L'Hérit. Stirp., t. 76. ; and our

fig. 308. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves having 6 or 8 pairs of

glabrous, obovate-roundish, retuse leaflets. Petiole unarmed. Stipules spinescent. Pedicels solitary. Legumes rather compressed. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 243.) A shrub, growing to the height of 3 ft. or 4 ft. in arid plains in Siberia, and probably only a variety of C. arboréscens. It was so considered by Pallas; and by others it has been confounded with C, microphylla, also, as we think, only a variety. It was introduced into England in 1789, and is not uncommon in British collections. It is usually propagated by grafting on C. arboréscens. Price of plants, in the London nur.

308 series, 2s. 6d. each ; and at Bollwyller, 1 franc. 3. C. (A.) MICROPHY'llA Dec. The small-leaved Caragana, or Siberian

Pea Tree. Identification. Dec. Prod., 2. p. 268.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 243. Synonymes. Robinia microphylla Pall. Fl. Ross., t. 42., f. 1 2.; Caragina Altagana var., Poir.

Suppl., 2. p. 89. Engraving. Pall. Fl. Ross., t. 32., f. 1, 2., under the name of Robinia microphylla. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves with 6—7 pairs of hoary retuse leaflets. Petioles

and stipules rather spinescent at the apex. Root creeping. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 243.) A native of Siberia, and found in the desert of Baraba, and in other arid places. It was introduced into England in 1819, and differs

little from C. Altagana; it, like that plant, being doubtless only a variety of C. arborescens. * 4. C. (A) REDO'Wski Dec. Redowski's Caragana, or Siberian Pea Tree. Identification. Dec. Légum., t. 11.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 243. Engraving. Dec. Légum., t. 11., f. 45. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves with two pairs of ovate, acute, smooth leaflets.

Stipules spinose. Flowers yellow. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 243.) A shrub, of which there are several specimens in the Horticultural Society's Garden, of the height of 4 ft. or 5 ft. It is a native of Siberia; and the plants referred to were raised from seeds received from Dr. Fischer of Petersburg, about 1820.

In general appearance and habit of growth, it resembles C. Altagana, of which it is probably only a variety.

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Variety.
*C.(A.) R.2 præ'cox Fisch. only differs from C. Redówski in coming into

hower earlier. The specimen in the Horticultural Society's Garden
was in full leaf, and in flower, on April 30. 1836, when C. frutescens
and C. arboréscens had not a single leaf expanded.

5. C. (A.) ARENA'ria Donn and Sims. The Sand Caragana.
Identification. Donn Hort. Cant. ; Sims Bot. Mag., t. 1886.
Engravings. Sims Bot. Mag., t. 1886. ; and our fig. 309.
Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves with, usually, 4 or more

pairs of obcordate leaflets. Pedicels usually twin,
and shorter than the flowers. Stipules subulate.
Flowers yellow. (Don's Mill., ii

. p. 243.) A low shrub, a native of Siberia; introduced in 1802; flowering in April and May; and, as we think, only another_variety of C. arboréscens. It ripens seeds in England, but is generally propagated by grafting; and the price, in the

309 London nurseries, is the same as for C. Altagàna.

6. C. FRUTE'SCENS Dec. The shrubby Caragana. Identification. Dec, Prod., 2. p. 268.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 843. Synonymes. Robinia frutéscens Lin. Spec., 1044, Pall. Fl. Ross., t. 43. ; C. digitàta Lam. Dict.,

1. p. 616. Engravings. Swt. Fl.-Gard., t. 227.; Pall, Fl. Ross., t. 43., as Robinia frutéscens ; and our fig. 310. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves having 2 pairs of leaflets, which

approximate near the top of the petiole : they are obovate-cuneated. Stipules membranous. Petiole furnished with a short spine at the apex. Pedicels solitary, twice the length of the calyx. Flowers yellow, resupinate.

Leaves with a yellow hue. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 243.) Varieties. De Candolle mentions two forms of this species viz. :

C.f. 1 latifolia, which has glabrous broadly obovate 310

leaflets, and is frequent in gardens; there being
a subvariety, with 2-flowered peduncles; and
C. f. 2 angustifolia, which has glabrous oblong

cuneated leaflets, and is found near Odessa

(Dec. Prod., ii. p. 268.) Description, &c. The species is a shrub, a native of Russia, on the banks of the Wolga and other rivers. In open situations, according to Pallas, it does not exceed 5 ft. in height; but in woods and gardens it grows as high as 9 ft. or 10 ft., flowering in May, along with Cýtisus purpureus. In British gardens, it is generally raised from layers, or by grafting, and is frequently found as high as 6 ft. or 8 ft. It was introduced in 1752, and is frequent in European gardens. Price of plants, in the London nurseries, 2s. 6d. each ; at Bollwyller, 1 franc 50 cents. su 7. C. (F.) mo'llis Bess.

The 'soft Caragana. Identification. Bess. Enum. Pl. Volh., p. 29. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 243. Synonymes. Robinia móllis Bieb. Fl. Taur. Suppl., 477. ; Robinia tomentosa Fisch. Hort. Gorenk.,

1818; Caragàna frutéscens var, móllis Dec Prod., 2. p. 268. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves with 2 pairs of oblong, cuneated, approximate leaflets, near the tip of the

petiole, clothed with soft hair.' Petiole ending in a short spine. Pedicels solitary. Flowers yellow. Dec. Prod., ii. p. 268.) A shrub, a native of Tauria and Podolia, where it grows to the height of

ft. or 3 ft., and produces its yellow flowers in April and May. "It was introduced in 1818, but is not common in collections.

# 8. C. PYGMÆ's Dec. The pygmy Caragana. Identification. Dec. Prod., 2. p. 268.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 243. Synonyme. Robinia pygmæ'a Lin. Sp., 1044., Pau. Fi. Ross., 1. t. 45., Amm. Ruth., t. 35. Engravings. Pall. F1, Ross., 1. 6. 45.; Amm. Ruth., t. 35., as Robinia pygmæ's ; and our fg. 311

311

Spec. Char., fc. Leaves with 2 pairs of linear, glabrous, approximate leaflets near the tip of the petiole, which is very short. Stipules and petioles spinescent. Pedicels solitary, and nearly the length of the calyx. Calyx nearly equal at the base. Leaflets acute, crowded, usually in the axils of trifid spines. Flowers yellow. (Dec. Prod, ii.

p. 268.)

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Variety.
* C. p. 2 arenària Fisch. in Litt. has linear-

cuneate leaflets, and pedicels rather longer

than the calyx. Description, &c. A low shrub, scarcely a span high, on the Altaic Mountains, but growing much higher in favourable situations. It has large trifid spines, slender leaves, and small flowers. The leaflets are remarkable for being in fours, disposed in the form of a star, in the axils of the spines. The young shoots are of a fine yellow, very tough, and fit for being used as withs. Pallas says that, in favourable situations, this shrub attains the height of 6 ft.; but, in British gardens, it is seldom seen above 4 ft. high, except when grafted as a standard on °C. arboréscens, when it forms a small tree of very singular appearance. It was cultivated by Miller in 1751, and is not unfrequent in British gardens. It is generally propagated by suckers, or by grafting. Plants, in the London nurseries, are 2s. 6d., or, grafted standard high, 7s. each ; and at Bollwyller, 1 franc 50 cents.

9. C. spino'sa Dec. The spiny Caragana. Identification. Dec. Prod., 2. p. 269.; Lindl. Bot. Reg., 1021.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 243. Synonymes. Robinia spinosa Lin. Mant., 269.; Robinia ferox Pau. Fl. Ross., I. t. 44., Itin., t. E. e. f. 2. and 3. ; Robinia spinosissima Larm. Nov. Act. Pet., 15. t. 30. f. 4. ; Caragdna fèrox Lam.

Dict., 1. p. 315. Engravings. Lindl

. Bot. Reg., t. 1021. į Pall. Fl. Ross., 1. t. 44.; Itin., t. E. e. f. 2. and 3., as Robinia fêrox. ; Laxm. Nov. Act. Pet., 15. t. 3. f. 4., as Robinia spinosissima ; and our figs. 312 and 313. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves with 2-4 pairs of cuneatelinear glabrous leaflets. Stipules small, spinose. Adult petioles permanent, strong, and spinose, twice

313 the length of the leaflets. Flowers solitary, almost sessile, and of a bright yellow. Legume rather compressed. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 243.) A spiny shrub, abounding in gravelly arid situations in Siberia, and also said to be plentiful in China, about Pekin, where branches of it are stuck in clay upon the tops of the walls, in order that its spines may prevent persons from getting over them. (Pall. Fi. Ross., i. f. 44.) In British gardens, into

which it was introduced in 1755, this species 312

grows to the height of 3ft. or 4 ft.; and flowers in April and May. It is propagated by seeds, cuttings, or grafting; and plants, in London, are from 1s. 6d. to 28. 6d. each. * 10. C. TRAGACANTHÖL'DES Poir. The Goat's-thorn-like Caragana. Identification. Poir. Suppl., 2. p. 90. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 269.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 244. Synonymes. Robinia tragacantholdes Pall. Nov. Act. Pet., 13. t. 7., Astr., 115. t. 86. ; Robinia maEngravings. Pall. Nov. Act. Pet., 10. t. 7.; Astr., 115. t. 86. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves with 2–4 pairs of oblong-lanceolate silky leaflets, ending in a little spine. Stipules spinescent. Adult petioles permanent, strong, and spinose, twice the length of the leaflets. Pedicels solitary, short. Legume hoary-villous. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 244.) A low spiny shrub, a native of Siberia, among granite rocks. Introduced in 1816, and producing its yellow drooping flowers in April and May. When grafted

cracántha Lodd. Cat.

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;

P.

243.

standard high, it forms a very singular object. Plants, in the London nurseries, 28. 6d. each, or, grafted standard high, 7s.; and at Bollwyller, 3 francs.

11. C. JUBA'TA Poir. The crested Caragana. Identification. Poir. Suppl., 2. p. 89. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 269. ; Don's Mill, 2. p. 244. Synonyme. Robinia jubàta Pall. in Act. Pet., 10 t. 6., Astr., p. 113. t. 85., Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 522. Engravings. Pall. in Act. Pet., 10. t. 6.; Astr., p. 113. t. 15. ; Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 522, as 'Robinia

jubàta. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves with 4 or 5 pairs of oblong-lanceolate lanuginously ciliated leaflets. Stipules setaceous. Petioles somewhat spinose; adult ones deflexed, filiform, permanent. Pedicels solitary, very short. Legume glabrous. Flowers few and white, suffused with red. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 244.) A low shrub, seldom exceeding 18 in. in height, of a curious shaggy appearance, occasioned by the footstalks of the leaves being bristly or thorny, and remaining on long after the leaflets have dropped off. It is a native of Siberia, near Lake Baikal; and was introduced into England, by Mr. Busch, in 1796. It produces its white flowers, tinged with red, in April and May, and is increased by grafting on Caragàna arboréscens. When grafted standard high, it forms a very singular-looking object.

. 12. C. GRANDIFLO‘ra Dec. The great-flowered Caragana. Identification. Dec. Prod., 2. p. 268. ; Don's Mill., 2. Synonymes. Robinia grandiflora Bieb, Fl. Taur., 1. p. 168. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves with 2 pairs of oblong-cuneated approximate leaflets,

near the tip of the petiole, which is very short. Stipules and petioles spinose. Pedicels solitary, almost the length of the calyx, which is gibbose at the base. Legume terete, acute, brown, glabrous. Flowers 1 in. long, yellow. (Don's Mill., ii

. p. 243.). A shrub, a native of Georgia, near Teflis, producing yellow flowers, which are 1 in. long in June and July. It was introduced in 1823, and is in the Horticultural Society's Garden.

13. C. CHAMLA'GU Lam. The Chamlagu, or Chinese Caragana. Identification. Lam. Dict., 1. p. 616.; Dec. Prod., 2 p. 268.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 243. Synonyme. Robinia Chamlagu L'Hérit. Stirp., N. Du Ham. Engravings. L'Hérit. Stirp., č. 77. ; N. Du Ham. Arb., 2. t. 21., as Robinia Chamidgu; and our

fig. $14. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves with 2 pairs

31+ of distant, oval, or obovate, glabrous leaflets. Stipules spreading, and, as well as the petioles, spinose. Pedicels solitary. Flowers pendulous, large, and yellow, at length becoming reddish. Root smelling like liquorice. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 243.) A diffuse smooth shrub, a native of China, growing to the height of 4ft., with a thick root and branching stem, with grey bark. The branches are alternate; at first upright, and then decumbent. The whole plant has a singular appearance, more especially when just going out of flower. It was introduced in 1773, and is not uncommon in collections. It is generally propagated by separating the offsets, or by seeds, or it may be grafted on C. arboréscens. Grafted on this species, especially when the stock is 10 ft. or 12 ft. high, it forms a singularly picturesque pendulous tree; beautiful not only when it is in leaf or in flower, but from the graceful lines formed by its branches, even in the midst of winter, when they are completely stripped of their leaves. Plants, in the London nurseries, are from Is. 6d. to 2s. 6d. each, and grafted standard high, 7s. 6d.; at Bollwyller, 1 franc; and at New York, 1 dollar.

GENUS XIV.

HALIMODE'NDRON Fisch. The HALIMODENDRON, or SALT TREE.

Lin. Syst. Diadelphia Decandria. Identification. Fisch. in Litt.; Dec. Légum. Mém., 6. ; Prod., 2. p. 269. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 244. Synonyme. Halodendron Dec. Mém, ined. in Soc. Phys. Gen., March, 1824, but not of Petit Thouars. Derivation. Fom halimos, maritime, and dendron, a tree; in reference to the habitat of the shrubs,

which grow in dry naked salt fields by the river Irtis, in Siberia. Description, fc. Deciduous shrubs, with silky leaves, and purplish Aowers. There are only two species, one of which is probably only a variety. They are propagated by seeds, by cuttings of the roots, or by grafting on the common laburnum, or on the Caragana arborescens. 1. H. ARGE'NTEUM Dec. The silvery-leaved Halimodendron, or

Salt Tree.
Identification. Dec. Prod., 2. p. 269.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 244.
Synonymes. Robinia Halodendron Lin. Fil. Suppl., 330., Pall. Fl. Ross., t. 56. ; Caragana argéntea

Lam, in Pall. Itin, ed. Gall., App. ii. 360, t. 83, f. 1.
Engravings. Pall. Fl. Ross., t. 36.; and our fig. 315.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves hoary. Peduncles 2-fowered. (Don's Mill., ii.

p. 244.)
Varieties. De Candolle mentions two forms of this species.

H. a. 1 vulgare Dec. Prod., ii. p. 269. – Leaves hoary or silvery.

Standard the same length as the keel. (Sims Bot. Mag., t. 1016.)
H. a. 2 brachysèma Dec. Prod. ii. p. 269.- Leaves hoary or silvery.

Standard one half shorter than the wings and keel. Style short. Description, fc. An irregular, much branched, rigid shrub, with a strigose grey bark, and leaves clothed with a whitish silky down. The flowers are numerous, re

315 sembling those of Láthyrus tuberosus, both in colour and size; and they smell sweet. It is a native of Siberia, in saline steppes, near the river Irtis ; and, according to Pallas, it is much frequented by insects, especially of the genus Méloe L., many species of which are peculiar to that region. It was introduced into Britain in 1779, by Dr. Pitcairn ; and, according to Martyn's Miller, though it flourished in British gardens, it seldom, if ever, flowered there, “probably for want of the saline principle in the soil.” It has been argued by some, that the halimodendron, and other trees which grow naturally in saline soils, should be supplied with sea salt in a state of culture : but, though this may be useful in some cases, experience proves that it is altogether unnecessary in others; and this is confirmed by the success with which the species before us is cultivated in British gardens. At present, it flowers freely from May to July, and, in moist seasons, later; and, when grafted standard high on the common laburnum, it forms one of the inost graceful drooping trees that can adorn a lawn. There is a fine specimen of this tree in the Hammersmith Nursery, as there are of most species of Caragàna, and of Calophaca wol. gárica. Price, in the London nurseries, from 1s. to 2s. 6d., grafted standard high, 78. 6d.; at Bollwyller, 1 franc 50 cents; and at New York, 1 dollar,

2. H. (A.) SUBVIRE'scENs Don. The greenish Halimodendron, or Salt Tree. Identification. Don's Mill., 2. p. 244. Synonymes. Robinia trifidra L'Héril. Stirp. Nov., 162.; H. argénteum ß subvirescens Dec. Prod.,

2. p. 169. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves greenish. The standard of the same length as that

of the keel. Pedicels 3-flowered. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 244.) A shrub, like the preceding one, of which it is, without doubt, only a variety.

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