Page images
[ocr errors]

Spec. Char., fc. Stems decumbent. Branches round and twiggy; when

young, hairy, but smooth when old. Leaflets ovate, hairy beneath. Flowers lateral on very short pedicels, aggregate. Calyxes and pods hairy. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 156). Found in rugged places from Genoa to Hungary. Introduced in 1739, and flowering from June to August.

21. C. CAPITA'Tus Jacq. The headed-flowered Cytisus. Identification. Jacq. Fl. Austr., t. 33. ; Dec. Prod. 2. p. 156.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 156. Synonymes. C. hirsùtus Lam. Dict., 2. p. 250. ; C, supinus Lin. Sp., 1040. Engraving. Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 497. Spec. Char., &c. Stems and branches erect, the latter hispid. Leaflets ovateelliptic, hairy. Flowers numerous, and forming heads at the points of the branches; but sometimes lateral in the autumn. Calyxes and pods covered with short hairs. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 156.) An upright-growing shrub, from 2 ft. to 4 ft. high. Found wild on the edges of woods in Burgundy, Italy, and Austria. Întroduced in 1774, and flowering in June and July. Plants, in London, are ls. each.

s4 22. C. cilia'tus Wahlenb. The ciliated-podded Cytisus. Identification. Wahlenb. Fl. Carp., 219. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 156. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 156. Spec. Char., &c. Stems upright. Branches smooth when old, but when

young, hispid. Leaflets obovate, clothed beneath with closely pressed hairs. Flowers approximate in threes, at length lateral. Pods glabrous and ciliated. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 156.) A shrub, from 2 ft. to 4 ft. high, a native of the Carpathian Mountains; flowering in June and July; and introduced in 1817.

# 23. C. POLY'TRICHUS Bieb. The many-haired Cytisus. Identification. Bieb. Fl. Taur. Suppl., 477. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 156.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 156. Spec. Char., &c. Stems declinate. Branches hispid. Leaflets obovate-ellip

tic. Flowers lateral, usually in pairs, pedicellate. Calyxes and pods hairy. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 156.) This shrub is found in pine forests, on high mountains, in Tauria; and De Candolle observes of it, that it has the hairiness of C. capitàtus, the disposition of the flowers of C. hirsàtus, and the habit of C. supinus. It was introduced in 1818. It grows from 2 ft. to 3 ft. high, and flowers in June and July.



g v. Lotöides Dec.

Derivation. From lotos, the lotus, and eidos, appearance; from the general resemblance of the spe

cies to the genus Lotus.
Spec. Char., 8c. Tube of the calyx short, obconical; the upper lip 2-parted,
the lower 3-toothed. Corolla hardly longer than the calyx. Many-stemmed
decumbent shrubs, deciduous, with few flowers, generally capitate and ter-
minal, and all yellow. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 156.)

* 24. C. ARGE'NTEUS L. The silvery Cytisus.
Identification, Lin. Sp., 1043.; Desf. Atl., 2. p. 139.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 156. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 157.
Synonyme. Lotus argénteus Brot. Fl. Lus., 2. p. 119.
Engraving. Lob. Icon., 2. p. 41. f. 2.
Spec. Char., fc. Stems decumbent. Leaves, calyxes, corollas, and pods

clothed with a closely pressed silky down. Leaves petiolate, trifoliolate;
leaflets oblong-lanceolate. Flowers 3—4, produced at the points of the
shoots. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 156.) A decumbent shrub, a native of Carniola,
the south of France, and Mauritania. Introduced in 1739, and flowering
in August. A silky silvery-looking shrub, from the prevalence of closely
pressed silky down over all its parts ; noticed in the specific character, and
whence it derives its specific name. Plants, in the London nurseries, are
Is. 6d. each.

[ocr errors]

* 25. C. CALYCI'NUs Bieb. The large-calyxed Cytisus.
Identification. Bieb. F1. Taur., 2. p. 166. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 157.; Don's Mill, 2. p. 157.
Synonyme. C. paucifldrus Willd. Sp., 3. p. 1126.
Engraving. Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 673.
Spec. Char., &c. Stems ascending. Leaves, calyxes, and pods somewhat
hairy from spreading down. Leaves trifoliolate and petiolate. Leaflets
roundish, obovate. Flowers terminal, from 2 to 8 together. (Dec. Prod., ii.
p. 157.) A prostrate shrub, with trailing branches, the ends of which grow
upright; found in stony places on Mount Caucasus. Introduced in 1820,
and flowering in August.

* 26. C. na'nus Willd. The dwarf Cytisus.
Identification. Willd. Enum., 769 ; Don's Mill., 2. p.157.
Engravings. Wats. Dend. Brit., t. 81. ; and our fig. 293.
Spec. Char., fc. Stems cylindrical. Leaves tri.

foliolate, obovate, clothed with strigose pubes-
cence beneath, and smooth above. Raceme
terminal, secund, usually 4-flowered. Calyx
deeply 3-parted; hairs on the stems and pe-
duncles adpressed. (Don's Mill., ji. p. 157.)
A procumbent shrub, a native of the Levant ; 293
flowering in June and July. Introduced in
1816. This is a beautiful little shrub for rock-
work; and if planted in dry sandy soil, covered
with broad flat stones to retain the moisture
during the hot weather of July, it will continue
flowering during the whole of that month, and
produce abundance of seeds; which may be
sent to any distance in the pods.


vi. Chronánthus Dec.
Derivation. From chronos, a year, and anthos, a flower; applied to this section because the petals

remain attached to the calyxes all the year.
Sect. Char. Calyx with the upper lip bifid, and the lower one trifid; lobes

acute, of the same length as the tube. Petals permanent. Legume oval,
much compressed, 2-seeded. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 157).

27. C. ORIENTA'Lis Lois. The Oriental Cytisus.
Identification. Lois. in N. Du Ham., 5. p. 156. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 157.
Synonyme. C. orientàlis, &c. Gerard and Vail. Herb.
Engraving. Pluk. Phyt., t. 31. f. 3.
Spec. Char., &c. Stems erect, hairy. Leaves almost sessile, trifoliolate, bairy ; leaflets linear, acute.

Flowers large and yellow, subterminal, on short pedicels, and few. The dowers and pods are both
glabrous. Calyx hairy, more 5-cleft than bilabiate. Dec. Prod., ii. p. 157.) A shrub, from 2 ft.
to 3 ft. high, a native of the Levant. Introduced in 1918, and producing its large persistent yellow
flowers in June and July.

App. i. Hardy Species of Cytisus not yet introduced. Though we believe that by far the greater number of the cytisuses described by botanists are mere varieties, and that some of the sorts are mere names copied by one botanist after another, an unavoidable practice in the progress of science; yet, we deem it advisable to add the following descriptions, that the plants may, if possible, be brought together, and studied in the same garden.

C. arboreus Dec. ; Spártium arboreum Desf. Atl., 2. p. 131. t. 177. ; Genista péndula Poir. Voy., 2. p. 208. Branches striated and glabro Leaves petiolated ; leaflets obovate, clothed with fine pubescence beneath. Flowers axillary, aggregate, pedicelate, and nodding. Pods clothed with closely pressed silky down. A shrub, 8 ft. to lont. high, with a trunk about the thickness of a man's arm. (Dec. Prod. , ii. p. 154.) Found in valleys near Algiers, by Desfontaines.

C. Wéldeni Visiani, Pl. Dalm. ex Bot. Zeit., Jan. 1830, p. 52. Upright. Leaves stalked, and dis. posed in threes; leaflets elliptic, entire, wedge-shaped at the base, and obtuse at the apex, smooth. Flowers in terminal racemes, stalked, pyramidal, and straigot. Pedicels hairy. Calyxes cam. panulate, S-lobed ; lobes edged with down. Corolla glabrous, but the keel clothed with silky hairs. Pod glabrous and pointed. An upright-growing shrub, from 2 ft. to 4 ft. high ; a native of Dalmatia, in woods and on mounts. The flowers are yellow and fragrant. (Don's Mill., il. p. 155., adapted.)

C. álbidus Dec. Stems erect. Branches round, spreading, and rather glabrous. Leaflets oblong, pubescent beneath, as well as the calyxes. Flowers white, axillary, usually in threes, footstalked. Calyx with both lips entire. Ovary pubescent. A native of the south of Europe and north of Africa. (Dec. Prod., ii. 155.)

C. bifldrus L'Hérít. Stirp., 184., Ait Hort. Kew., 3. p. 52., Waldst. et Kit. Hung., 2. p. 166. N. Du Ham., 5. t. 45. f. 2.; C. supìnus Jacq. Fl. Austr., 1. t. 20.; C. hirsutus Gmel. Sib., 4. p. 17. t. 6. f. 2.; C. hirsutus and C. supinus Bieb. Fl. Taur. ex Stev, in Litt.; C. macrospérmus Bess in Litt. Stems diffuse. Branches round, and, as well as the leaves, rather downy. Leaflets oblong-lanceolate. Flowers on short peduncles, axillary, and usually in pairs. Calyxes and pods clothed with close silky down. A native of Austria, Pannonia, Podolia, Tauria, and Siberia. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 155.) The names of C. hirsutus and C. supinus appear to have been confused together, and both applied by botanists, not only to this plant, but to others. (See p. 599.) Varieties. C. 6. 2 glaber Lin. Fil. Suppl., 325., has the branches and leaves glabrous; and the leaflets

obovate. (Ibid.). C. 6. 3 subspiné scens Dec. has the branches rather hoary, more diffuse, somewhat spinescent

at the apex. Native of Naples and Hungary. (Ibid.) C. serótinus Kit. in Litt. Stems ascending. Branches round, hairy. Leaflets obovate, glabrous above, and rather hairy beneath. Flowers axillary, 2—3, pedicellate. Calyxes hairy. Native of Hungary. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 155.)

C. pygmæ'us Willd. Spec., 3. p. 1127 Stem procumbent, suffruticose. Leaves petiolate, 3-leafleted; leaflets oblong-lanceolate, silky. Flowers usually at the ends of the branches. Pods oblong, and hairy. A native of Galicia (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 156.).

C. ponticus Willd. Spec., 3. p. 1120., exclusive of the synonyme of Tourn. ; C. ponticus humifùsus magno fibre Tourn. Cor., 44.; has ascending furrowed branches, which are, like the leaves, pubescent. Leaves with three elliptic obtuse leaflets. Racemes of flowers erect and terminal. Calyxes villous, A shrub, a native of Pontus, as is implied by the specific name. Willdenow, however, gives quite a dif. ferent description of C. ponticus, which, according to him., is allied to Adenocarpus hispánicus, and has round branches, not furrowed;

and obovate leaflets, not elliptic. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 157.) C. canescens Lois in N. Du Ham., 5. p. 151. The whole plant is clothed with silky hoary pubescence. Leaves trifoliolate ; leaflets linear-oblong. Racemes few-flowered and terminal. Calyxes short, campanulate, canescent, 5-toothed. Country and legumes unknown. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 157.) There are several plants bearing this name at Syon, but they do not appear to be the same as the species here described.

C. africànus Lois, in N. Du Ham., 5. p. 154.; C. africanus hirsutus angustifolius Tourn. Inst., 648. Branches erect, hairy. Leaves trifoliolate, with petioles ; leaflets linear and pilose. Flowers stalked, in terminal umbels. Calyx hairy, hardly shorter than the corolla. A native of the north of Africa. This plant is said to be allied to Adenocarpus. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 157.)

C. procerus Link Enum., 2. p. 241. ; Spártium procerum Willd. Enum., 712. Branches round and striated Leaves lanceolate and downy. Flowers solitary and axillary. Pods hairy. A shrub, a native of Portugal. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 157.)

c. ? pérsicus Burm. Fl. Ind., p. 163. t. 51. f. 1. ; Spártium pérsicum Willd. Sp., 3. p. 931. ; has the branches upright and spreading: both the branches and the leaves are finely pubescent. Leaves trifoliolate, with footstalks ; leaflets linear, those in the middle being twice the length of the others. Racemes elongated and loose flowered, opposite the leaves. Ovary villous. A shrub, a native of Persia, with nearly the habit of Indigófera psoraleöides ; and, if the stamens, as is suspected, are diadelphous, it is certainly referable to Indigófera. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 157.)

App. ii. Half-hardy Species of Cytisus. C. proliferus L., Dec. Prod., 2. p. 155. Don's Mill.,

2. p. 155., Bot. Reg., t. 121. Bot. Cab., 6. 761. and our fig. 294., is a Teneriffe shrub, with white Aowers, cultivated in green-houses since 1769, and flowering in April and May. It grows to the height of from 4 ft. to 6 ft. ; and, as, in its native coun. try, it is found on mountains, it is probably half-hardy.

Ć. pallidus Poir., Dec. Prod., 2. p. 157., Don's Mill., 2. p. 157., is a native of the Canaries, growing to the height of 2 ft. or 3 ft., and bearing a general resemblance to Genísta linifdlia, of which it is probably only a variety.

C. nubigenus Link. Enum., 2. p. 240. ; Spártium nubigenum Ait. Hort. Kew., 3. p. 13. ; S. supranubium Linn. Fil. Suppl., 319. ; Cytisus fràgrans Lam. Dict.; has the flowers fragrant. It is a native of the Peak of ieneriffe, and was introduced by P. B. Webb, Esq. It is in the nursery of Messrs. Young, at Epsom, and flowered with them in May, 1835.

C. bracteolatus Hort. with racemes of golden yellow powerfully fragrant flowers, c. tetragomócladus Hort. also fragrant, and c. racemosus Hort., are all Canary and Teneriffe species, which have been introduced by Mr. Webb, and have flowered in the nursery of Messrs. Young and Penny, at Milford, near Godalming. The Canary Isles appear to be rich in species of this genus; and as most of the kinds brought from that country are not only very handsome, but fragrant, they will probably prove valuable addi. tions to our green-houses and conservative walls. Whenever a new species of the Cytisus is introduced from the warmer parts of the old world, it ought to be tried first in a green-house, or in a cold-pit or frame. It will soon, in all probability, ripen seeds, from which plants may be raised, and tried either at the base of a conservative wall, or on a bank of dry sandy soil, covered with large stones.



App. iii. Anticipated hardy and half-hardy Species of Cytisus.

The seeds of a number of species of Cytisus have been collected in Teneriffe and the Canary Isles, by Philip Barker Webb, Esq., and sent by him to the Milford Nursery, where plants have been raised from them. Among these there will, no doubt, be some undescribed species, among numbers already known and recorded; but, if care be not taken to identify the latter, it is probable that the whole will, as is usually the case, be described as new; and thus additional names will be introduced into this genus, which, in our opinion, is already sufficiently confused.


ADENOCARPUS Dec. The ADENOCARPUS. Lin. Syst. Monadelphia

Decándria. Identification. Dec. Fl. Fr. Supp., 549. ; Lég. Mém., 6.; Prod , 2. p. 158. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 157. Derivation. From aden, a gland, and karpos, fruit; in reference to the legumes being beset with pedicellate glands.

Description, &c. Shrubs, having very divergent branches; trifoliolate leaves, that have petiolar stipules, folded leaflets, and are usually grouped; and yellow flowers upon bracteolate pedicels, and disposed in terminal racemes. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 158.) Natives, chiefly, of Europe, which require the same culture as Cýtisus; from which genus most of the species have been separated.

1. A. HISPA'Nicus Dec. The Spanish Adenocarpus. Identification. Dec. Fl. Fr. Suppl., 549. į Lég. Mém., 6. ; Prod., 9. p. 158.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 158. Synonymes. Cytisus hispánicus Lam. Dict., 2. p. 248. ; 'C. anagyrius L'Hérit. Stirp., 184., N. Du

Ham., 5. p. 149.
Spec. Char., &c. Calyx glandulose and villose ; lower lip with three equal

segments, that are barely longer than the upper lip. Branchlets hairy. Flowers grouped. Standard rather glabrous. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 158.) A

p shrub, between 2 ft. and 4ft. high, a native of shady and moist places in Spain and Portugal. (Dec.) Introduced in 1816, and producing its yellow flowers in June and July.

. 2. A. INTERME'DiUS Dec. The intermediate Adenocarpus.
Identification. Dec. Prod., 2. p. 158.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 158.
Synonyme, Cytisus complicatus Brot. Fl. Lus., 2. p. 92.
Engravings. Clus. Hist., 1. p. 94. f. 1. ; and our fig. 295.

295 Spec. Char., &c. Calyx pubescent; pubescence glandulated; the middle of the three segments of the lower lip of the calyx longer than the side ones, and than the upper lip. Branchlets rather villose. Flowers rather distant. Standard rather glabrous. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 158.) A native of sunny gravelly places in Portugal and Old Castile, and Mount Scuder, in Sicily, and of Mongiana, in the kingdom of Naples. A shrub, 4 ft. high, in cultivation in British gardens; but the year of its introduction is unknown. It produces yellow flowers from May to July. This is a very handsome species, and one that is much admired for its fine terminal

+ spikes of flowers, which, in favourable seasons, and in a dry soil, ripen abundance of seeds.

4 3. A. PARVIFO‘lius Dec. The small-leaved Adenocarpus. Identification. Dec. Lég. Mém., 6., and Prod, 2. p. 158.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 158. Synonymes. Cytisus parvifolius N. Du Ham , 5. p. 147., Lam. Dict., 2. p. 948., exclusive of the synonymes ; Cgtisus divaricatus L'Hérit. Stirp., 184; Cytisus

complicatus Dec. Él. Fr., No. 3821. ; Spartium complicatum Lois. Fl. Gall., 441 Engravings. N. Du Ham., 5. t. 47. f.' 1 ; and our fig. 296. Spec. Char., &c. Calyx somewhat pubescent, with glandulous

pubescence; the central segment of the lower lip longer than the side segments, and much exceeding the upper lip in length. Branches glabrous, Flowers distant. Standard pubescent. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 158.) A native of sunny heaths in the west of France. A shrub, between 2 ft. and 10 ft. high. Branches whitish. (Dec.)


de 4. A. TELONE'Nsis Dec. The Toulon Adenocarpus. Identification Dec. Fl. Fr. Suppl., 5., Lég. Mém., 6., Prod.,

2. p. 158. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 158.
Synonymes. Cytisus telonensis Lois. Fl. Gall., 146., and in N.
Du Ham., 5. p. 155. ; Spártium complicatum Gouan Hort.

Monsp., 356., exclusive of the synonyme.
Engravings. N. Du Ham., 5. t. 47. f. 2.; and our fig. 297.
Spec. Char., fc. Calyx not glandulose, pubes-

cent; the segments on the lower lip nearly
equal, exceeding a little the upper lip in length.
Branches almost glabrous. Flowers distant.
Standard pubescent. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 158.)
A native of sterile places and heaths in the
Pyrenees, in Cevennes, in Provence, and in
Rome. A shrub, between 2 ft. and 4 ft. high.

297 Introduced in 1800, and flowering in June and July. It well deserves a place in British gardens; where, when judiciously treated, it will, owing to the moisture of our climate, attain double the height that it does in the south of France.

App. i. Half-hardy Species of Adenocárpus. A. frankeniöldes Chois., Dec. Prod., 2. p. 158.; Genísta viscosa Willd. ; is a native of Teneriffe, or declivities 500 ft. above the level of the sea. Introduced in 1815, and flowering from April to July. It is commonly kept in frames; but, in a dry, airy, and yet sheltered situation, it will doubtlesi stand the open air. It is usually confounded in gardens with A. folioldsus; from which it differs in having a glandular calyx.

4. Folioidsus Dec., cýtisus folioldsus Ait., is a native of the Great Canary Island. Introduced in 1629 ; and a very old inhabitant of cold-pits and frames; flowering from May to July.



ONO'NIS L. THE RESTHARROW. Lin. Syst. Monadelphia Decándria. Identification. Lin. Gen., No. 863.; Lam. III., t. 616. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 158. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 158. Synonymes. Andnis and Nàtrix Mænch Meth., 157, and 158. ; Arréte-beuf, or Bugrane, Fr.; Han.

echel, Ger. Derivation. Said to be from onos, an ass ; because only asses would feed upon so prickly a plant. Restharrow is a corruption of arrest, that is, stop, harrow; from the long and deeply seated roots opposing a serious impediment to the plough or harrow.

Description. Suffruticose plants, with, mostly, trifoliolate leaves; and axillary flowers, that in some are pedicelled, and in some sessile; and yellow, purplish, and red, or, rarely, white. The peduncle is, in many instances, furnished with an awn, which is the petiole of an abortive floral leaf. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 158.) Natives of Europe and Africa. Most of the species we have enumerated may be treated as herbaceous plants; but, being technically suffruticose, we considered it proper not to omit them. They are well adapted for rockwork or flower-borders, on account of their lively flowers, some of which are red, or reddish purple; colours not frequently met with in the ligneous Leguminàceæ, by far the greater part of which have yellow flowers.

They are readily propagated by seeds or by division, and will grow in any soil that is tolerably dry. According to Pliny and Dioscorides, the shoots of Onònis are eaten pickled in brine, and the leaves are applied to ulcers. In modern times, it is considered to be slightly aperient and diuretic.

1. O. FRUTICO'sa L. The shrubby Restharrow. Identification. Lin. Sp., 1010.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 167. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 160. Engravings. N. Du Ham., 1. t. 58. ; Mill. Icon., t. 36.; Bot. Mag., t. 317. ; and our fig. 298. Spec. Char., fc. Shrubby. Leaves trifoliolate. Leaflets sessile, lanceolate,

serrated. Stipules connate into one, sheathing, and 4-awned; and, in the uppermost parts of the plant, occupying the places of leaves which are absent. Pedicels 3-Aowered, disposed in a raceme. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 161.)

« PreviousContinue »