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France, and is strikingly exemplified in the remains of the garden at Marbæuf, near the Barrière de Chaillot, in Paris, where some very large sophoras and robinias are growing together. The pendulous variety is well deserving of culture as an object of singularity and beauty; and, where it is desired to cover a surface with intense green foliage during summer, for example, a dry hillock, a plant of this variety, placed on the centre, will accomplish the purpose effectually.

Soil, Propagation, &c. Any free soil will suit this tree; but, in cold climates, it ought to be placed in one rather poor and dry, that it may be compelled to make shorter shoots; which, of course, being less succulent, are more easily ripened. Where it is desired to have trees that will soon come into flower, seedling plants should be grafted with scions. The tree will grow by cuttings, more especially of the roots, and also by layers from a flowering tree.

Statistics. The largest tree in the neighbourhood of London is at Syon, where it is 57 ft. high ; the diameter of the trunk is 3ft., and of the head 80 ft. It flowers beautifully in most years. The oldest tree near London is at Purser's Cross, where it flowered, for the first time in England, in August 1807, as noticed p. 72. In Kensington Gardens, in the north-west corner, is an old tree, about 30 ft. high, which lowers occasionally. At Kew, there is a tree 50 ft. high. In the Mile End Nursery, there is a tree 35 ft. high, the trunk 2 ft. in diameter, and the diameter of the head 30 ft. At Hampstead, at Mount Grove, there is a tree S8 ft. high; and at Kenwood, one, 38 years planted, 32 ft. high. In Buckinghamshire, at Temple House, a tree, 40 years planted, is 18 ft. high. In Cambridgeshire, in the Cambridge Botanic Garden,

there are two handsome trees, both 50 ft. high, which have flowered occasionally. In Cheshire, at Eaton Hall, 13 years planted, and 6 ft. high. In Hertfordshire, at Cheshunt, 6 years planted, and 10 ft. high. In Oxfordshire, in the Oxford Botanic Garden, 20 years planted, and 35 ft. high. În Worcestershire, at Croome, 76 years planted, and 35 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 2 ft. 4 in., and of the head 40 ft. : the soil a dark sandy loam. In Scotland, in Haddingtonshire, at Tyningham, 42 ft. high. In Perthshire, at Kinfauns Castle, 8 years planted, and 6 ft. high. In Ireland, near Dublin, at Castletown, 35 ft. high; at Terenure, 15 years planted, and 10 ft. high. In Louth, at Oriel Temple, 50 years planted, and s5 ft. high. In Munster, at Castle Freke, 13 ft. high. In France, at Paris, in the Jardin des Plantes, 100 years planted, and 64 ft. high, the diameter of the head 40 ft. : in the Rue des Vignes, a tree, which stood in what was formerly the garden of Marbeuf, was 60 ft. high, and lowered and ripened seeds almost every year; but it has lately been cut down, with several others in the same garden, the ground being about to be built on. In the Botanic Garden at Toulon, a tree, 50 years planted, is 60 ft. high. At Nantes, in the nursery of M. Nerrières, a tree, 30 years planted, is 25 ft. high. In Saxony, at Wörlitz, 20 years planted, and 25 ft. high. In Austria, at Laxenburg, 16 years planted, and 18 ft. high ; at Brück on the Leytha, 15 years planted, and 50 nt. high. In Prussia, in the Botanic Garden; at Berlin, 30 years planted, and 25 ft. high ; at Sans Souci, 20 years planted, and 20 ft. high. In Bavaria, at Munich, in the Botanic Garden, 20 years planted, and 25 ft. high.

Commercial Statistics. Price, in London, of 2 years' seedlings, 50s. per 100, of grafted plants 28. 6d., and of the pendulous variety 58.; at Bollwyller, of the species i franc and 50 cents each, and the variegated variety 3 francs ; at New York, the species, and the pendulous variety, i dollar each.

GENUS II.

VIRGI’LIA L. The Virgilia. Lin. Syst. Decandria Monogynia. Identification. Lam. III., t. 346. ; Pers. Ench., 1. p. 453.; R. Brown in Hort. Kew., ed. 2. vol. 3. p. 4.;

Dec. Prod., 2. p. 98.; Don's Mill, 2. p. 111.
Derivation. Named by Lamarck in honour of the poet Virgil, whose Georgics entitle him to botanic
commemoration.
Description, $c. There is only one hardy species, a deciduous low tree.

* 1. V. LU'TEA Michx. The yellow-wooded Virgilia, or Yellow Wood. Identification. Michx. Fil. Arb, Amer., 3. p. 266. t. 3.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 98. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 112. Engravings. Delaun. Herb Amat., t. 197. ; Michx. Fil. Arb. Amer., 3. p. 226. t. 3. ; and the plate

of this tree in our Second Volume. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves pinnate; leaflets 9–11; alternate, ovate, pointed,

smooth. A tree, in its native country rarely exceeding 40 ft. in height, with a trunk 1 ft. in diameter, covered with a greenish bark, having a smooth surface. The leaves, on young trees, are from ift. to 11 ft. in length, and on old trees not above half that size. The flowers form white pendulous racemes, a little larger than those of the Robinia Pseud-Acàcia, but not so odoriferous. The seeds are like those of the robinia, and, in America, ripe about the middle of August. In Britain, the tree is seldom seen in flower, there being but few old specimens. Geography, History, &c. Virgília lùtea is found chiefly in the western part of Tennessee, on gentle declivities, on a loose, deep, and fertile soil ; where it is usually associated with Mòrus rùbra, Gymnocladus canadensis, Gleditschia, Juglans, and other trees which delight in good soil. It was discovered by the younger Michaux; and plants of it were first brought to England by Mr. Lyon, in 1812; and seeds having been since frequently sent over, the plant is now to be met with in most collections. The wood is fine-grained and soft; and remarkable for its deep yellow colour. This colour is given out freely to water, but cannot be fixed by alum, like most other vegetable colours. Very little use is made of the tree in America; and, in Europe, it is planted solely for purposes of ornament and botanical interest. It is rather later in coming into leaf than most of the other pinnate-leaved Leguminàceæ, and its leaves drop very early in autumn, previously becoming of a fine yellow.

Soil, Situation, 8c. An open airy situation is desirable, in order that the tree may ripen its wood ; and, to facilitate the same purpose where the climate is cold, the soil ought to be dry rather than rich. In the London nurseries, it is propagated chiefly by seeds.

Statistics. In the neighbourhood of London, the highest plants are at the Duke of Devonshire's villa at Chiswick; but, as they are crowded among other shrubs, they are not handsome; in the Chelsea Botanic Garden, there is a tree 20 ft. high, which flowers annually; in the London Hor. ticultural Society's Garden, there is one 10 years planted, which, in 1834, was 13 ft. high; in the Mile End Nursery, there is a tree 18 ft. high. In Surrey, at Claremont, there is one 20 ft. high. In Sussex, at West Dean, one, 9 years planted, is 18 ft. high. In Berkshire, at White Knights, one, 25 years planted, is 23 ft . high: the diameter of the trunk is 5 in., and of the

head 20 ft. in Essex, at Hylands, 10 years planted, and 17 ft. high. In Pembrokeshire, at Golden Grove, 35 years planted, and 17 ft. high. In Suffolk, at Ampton Hall, 12 years planted, and 11 ft. high. In Ireland, near Dublin, in the Cullenswood Nursery, 17 years planted, and 25 ft. high.

Commercial Statistics. Plants, in London, are 5s. each ; at Bollwyller 1 franc and 50 cents; and in New York, 50 cents.

GENUS III.

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PIPTA'NTHUS Swt. THE PIPTANTHUS. Lin. Syst. Decándria

Monogynia.
Identification. Swt. Fl.-Gard., 264. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 112.
Derivation. From pipto, to fall, and anthos, a flower; from the flowers falling off very soon.

Description, &c. There is only one species described or introduced, which is a sub-evergreen bush or low tree.

. P. NEPALE'Nsis Swt. The Nepal Piptanthus. Identification. Swt. Fl.. Gard., 264. ; Dec. Prod. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 112. Synonymes. Thermópsis laburnifolia D. Don Prod. Fl. Nep., p. 239. ; Anagyris indica Wall. MSS.;

Baptisia nepalénsis Hook. Exot. Fl., t. 131. Engravings. Hook. Exot. Fl., t. 131.; Swt. Fl.-Gard., t. 264. ; and our fig. 237. to a scale of 9 in. to a foot, and fig. 238. representing a flower of the natural size. 237 Spec. Char., &c. Leaves trifoliolate;

leaflets elliptical-oblong, acute,
broad. Stipules 2, large. The young
leaves are silky; and the flowers
are of a bright yellow, and are
much larger than those of the
common laburnum, to which they
bear a general resemblance. In

239 Nepal, the shrub grows to the

+ height of 8 ft. or 10 ft.; but it sometimes exceeds this height in

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British gardens, in warm sheltered situations. It may be considered
as rather tender, and not of many years' duration : nevertheless, in fine
seasons, it ripens abundance of seeds. It was introduced in 1821, and
flowers in May and June. It may be propagated by cuttings of the
roots, and of the shoots, as well as by seeds or layers. In most of the
counties north of London, the safest situation for it will be against a wall;
and it well deserves a place there, on account of its luxuriant deep green
foliage, and large bright yellow flowers. Price, in the London nurseries,
2s.6d. each; and at Bollwyller, where it is a green-house plant, 3 francs.

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App. i. Half-hardy Species of Sophdreæ.
Sophòra velutina Lindl. (Bot. Reg., t. 1185.) is a Nepal shrub, introduced in 1820, which grows to the
height of from 4 ft. to 6 ft. The flowers are pale purple, in long racemose spikes. Mr. G. Don sug-
gests the idea of grafting it on the S. japónica, by which means, he says, it would be rendered so
hardy as to stand our winters in open shrubberies.

S. tomentosa Hook., the S. occidentalis of Lindl. (Bot. Reg., t. 3390.), is an evergreen Brazilian shrub,
growing to the height of 5ft. There is a variety of this species not yet introduced, the leaves of
which are dark green and shining; and the flowers are in spike-like panicles, in form and colour
much like those of the Spanish broom, but rather paler. (See Gard. Mag., xl. p. 191.)
239

Eduárdsia chilensis
Miers, the Sophora ma-
crocarpa of Smith and
of Don's Mill., (Lodd. 240
Bot. Cab., t. 1125., and
our fig. 239.) is a native
of Chili, introduced by
Messrs. Loddiges in
1822. It was planted
against a wall in the
arboretum at Hackney;
and, after having stood
there 3 years, it flower-
ed there, for the first
time in England, in
April 1826 Its flowers
are large, and ot a rich
yellow; the leaves are
also large; and, what
is rather uncommon in
plants of this order, they

are evergreen. In 1835,
the plant in the arboretum of the Messrs. Loddiges was 5 ft. high (See a description of it in Gard.
Mag., vol xi, p. 584.) It may be considered as one of our most ornamental halt-hardy shrubs, and
may probably prove to be quite hardy. It grows freely in light loamy soil, and is propagated by
cuttings.

Edwardsia grandifora Salisb., the Sophora tetraptera of Ait., (Bot. Mag., t. 167., and our fig. 240.) is
a handsome New Zealand low tree or shrub, introduced in 1772, and producing its large pendulous
bright yellow flowers in April and May. This is a most ornamental plant, and, in the environs of
London, succeeds perfectly when trained against a wall, requiring very little, if any, protection. In the
Chelsea Botanic Garden, there is a tree 12 ft. high; and soine nearly of equal height in the garden of
the Horticultural Society, and in Loddiges's arboretum.

E. microphylla Salisb.,
241

the Sophora microphylla
of Ait., (Lam. IU., t. 325.,

242
and our fig. 241.) is also a
low tree from New Zea-
land, closely resembling E.
grandifidra, but much
smaller in all its parts. It
is equally hardy, if not
more so, and is truly orna-
mental when in flower.
Plants of it in the Botanic
Garden at Kew have stood
against a south wall for
upwards of 20 years. In
the Chelsea Botanic Gar-
den, there are plants of it
7 ft. high; and in Dorsct.

shire, in the Upway Nur-
sery, Dorchester, it has ripened seeds as a standard in the open border. There is a variety in the
Chelsea Botanic Garden, with very narrow leaves, which, in 3 years, has attained the height of 6 ft.

E. myriophýlla Wand. (Don's Mill., 2. p. 111.), E. mínima Lodd. Cat., is a New Zealand shrub,
introduced in 1818, and is, doubtless, as hardy as the other species of the genus.

E. chrysophylla Salisb. (Don's Miú., 2. p. 111., Bot Reg., t. 738.) is a native of the Sandwich Islands,
where it grows to the height of 8 ft. or 10 it., producing fowers rather smaller than those of E. myrio
phylla. It seems as hardy as any other species; for a plant of it has stood in the front of the stove in
the Botanic Garden at Kew since it was first introduced in 1892.

Cyclopía genistördes R. Br; Bot. Mag., t 1959., the Gompholòbium maculatum of Bot. Rep, 492 RY

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is a handsome frame shrub from the Cape of Good Hope, growing to the height of 8 ft., and producing its yellow flowers in July and August. There are several green-house species of Cyclòpia, which might also be kept in a frame, or against a conservative wall."

Podalýria sericea R. Br. Bot. Mag., t. 1293., the Sophòra sericea of Bot. Rep., t.440., and our fig. 242., is a Cape shrub, with pale purple flowers; and there are other species of the same genus, also with purple flowers (as will be seen by our Hortus Britannicus), all of which are suitable for a conseryative wall.

Chorózema Henchmánnii R. Br. (Bot. Reg., t. 986, and our fig. 243.) is a beautiful little New Holland shrub, with hoary leaves and bright scarlet and buff flowers, which, with other species of the genus, well deserves culture in the open air, in fine warm situations, even if they should require to be taken up, and kept in a pot during winter.

247

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Podolòbium trilobatum R. Br. (Sims Bot. Mag., t. 1477.; and our fig 244. representing a branch to a scale of 2 in. to a foot, and fig 245. the flowers of the natural size) is a handsome shrub from New South Wales with coriaceous leaves, and yellow flowers; to which, and to other species of the genus, the same remarks apply as to Chorózema,

Oxylobium arborescens R. Br. (Bot. Cab., t. 163.; and our fig. 246., a showing the habit of the plant, and o representing the flower of the natural size) is a Van Diemen's Land shrub, producing its yellow flowers in May and June, and growing to the height of 6 ft. There are other species from Van Diemen's Land, and several from New Holland and New South Wales, all elegant, and all, doubtless, half-hardy.

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Calistachys ovata Sims (Bot. Mag., t. 1925., and our fig. 248.) is a New Holland shrub, producing fine large spikes of yellow flowers from June to August, and growing to the height of 6 ft.

Brachysèma latifolium R. Br. (Bot. Reg., t. 118. ; Bot. Mag., t. 2008.; and our nig: 247.) is a handcome New Holland climbing shrub, producing large scarlet flowers from April to July, which no conservative wall ought to be without. Gompholdbium grandiforum Smith (Bot. Reg., t. 484.)

is a New Holland shrub, with fine large yel. low flowers, which are produced from March to September. It grows to the height of 3 ft.; and there are several other species from the same part of the world.

Burtònia R. Br. is a genus that includes a few New Holland species ; but they do not exceed 1 ft.
in height.
251

Jacksonia (named by Mr. Brown in honour of George
Jackson, an acute Scotch botanist, once librarian to

252
A. B. Lambert, Esq., and a particular friend of ours)
scoparia R. Br. (Bot. Cab., t. 427.) is a handsome shrub
from New South Wales, with the habit, nearly, of Ge-
nista monosperma. It grows to the height of 6 ft., and
flowers in July and August. There are several other
species.

Viminària denudata Smith (Ex. Bot., t. 27.; Bot.
Mag., t. 1190.; and our fig. 249. to scale of 2 in. to a foot,
and fig. 250. of the natural size) is an elegant New Holland
shrub, growing to the height of 4 ft., and flowering from
June to September.

Spherolòbium vimineum Smith (Bot. Mag., 969.; and our fig. 251. to a scale of 2 in. to a foot, and fig: 252. of the natural size) is a diminutive Australian shrub,

producing yellow Aowers from May to August; and S. médium is another species of the same genus, producing red flowers.

Lotus ericoides Don's Mill., 2. p. 120. (Bot. Mag., t. 949.; and our fig. 253., in which the branch of the natural size is marked (as in all similar cases) with a +) is a very neat little heath-like low

253

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shrub, producing its fine yellow flowers from April to June. There are other species, all with narrow
heath-like, or rosemary-like leaves.
Dillwynia glabérrima Smith (Bot. Mag., t. 944.; Bot.

257
Cab., t. 589. ; and our fig. 256. to a scale of 2 in. to a foot,
and fig. 255. of the natural size) is a handsome New Hol.
land shrub, producing its fine yellow flowers from March
to July, and growing to the height of 4 ft. There are
several other species, all deserving of culture.

Eutária myrtifolia R. Br. (Bot. Mag., t. 1274.; and our
fig. 254. the flower of the natural size being marked with
a +.), and E. púngens Sweet (Fl. Aus., t. 28.), are elegant
evergreen New Holland shrubs, which Mr. Sweet has
shown might easily be kept in pits, or against conservative
walls in the neighbourhood of London; or grown, without
any kind of protection, in the open air, in Devonshire.

Sclerothamnus microphyllus R. Br. is an elegant New 255

Holland shrub, growing to the height of 2ft. The leaves
are stiff, and the whole plant rigid, as the generic name
implies. The flowers are yellow, and are produced from
May to July.

Gastroldbium bilobum Ker (Bot. Reg., t. 411.; Bot. Cab.,
t. 70.) is a pretty little New Holland shrub, producing its
fine yellow flowers from March to May.
Euchulus obcordatus R. Br. (Bot. Reg., t. 403.; Bot. Cab.,

2588 256

t. 60.; our fig. 258. to a scale of 2 in. to a foot, and fig. 257.
of the natural size), is an elegant plant, producing
yellow flowers, which have a purple keel, from March to
June.

Pultenæ'a is a genus of 41 species, which are described
in Don's Miller; and many of them are in cultivation in
our green-houses, pits, or cold-frames. - P. stricta Bot.

Mag., t. 1388. ; (Bot. Cab., t. 274.; and our fig. 259.) will give an idea of these plants. P. stricta is a native of Van Diemen's Land.

Darièsia latifolia R. Br. (Bot. Mag., t. 1757.; and our fig. 261. representing one branch (a) to the scale of 2 in. to the foot, and part of a branch

(marked with a +) of the natural size) is a Van

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