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Pliny, who mentions it as an Apennine shrub, under the name of Coggýgria. In England, it was cultivated by Tradescant, and it is described by Gerard as an excellent and most beautiful plant," with the leaves of the capparis, and the savour of the pistachia.” As an ornamental shrub, it deserves a place in every garden where there is room to allow it to extend itself on every side. A dry foam suits it best; and it is propagated by pegging down the branches flat to the ground, and strewing earth over them, through which young shoots rise up, which root at the base, and may be removed in autumn. There are old plants of it at Syon; and a very fine one at Deepdene, the diameter of the head of which is nearly 20 ft. : but the largest in England is at Enville, in Staffordshire, where it has attained more than double that size. Plants, in the London nurseries, are 50s. a hundred, or 6d. each; at Bollwyller, plants are I franc each.

ii. Samach Dec. Sect. Char. Leaves iinpari-pinnate; leaflets more than 3 in the leaves of

each of the first 6 species of this section. Flowers in panicles, polygamous, diæcious, or hermaphrodite.

* 2. R. 'TYPHI'NA L. The Fever Rhus, or Stag's Horn Sumach. Identification. Lin. Spec., $80.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 67. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 70. Synonymes. R. virginiàna Bauh. Pin., p. 517. ; Virginjan Sumach. Ëngravings. Duh. Arb. Ed. Nov., 2. t. 47.; Wats. Dend. Brit., t. 17 and t. 18.; and our fig. 224. Spec. Char., dc. Leaf of 8–10 pairs of leaflets, and the odd one, that are lanceolate, acuminate, serrated, hairy beneath. Petiole and branches hairy. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 67.) A native of North America. Fruit hairy, purple. De Candolle has characterised two forms of this species as follows: * R. t. 1 arboréscens.-Its form that of a tree; its height between 10 ft.

and 25 ft. high; leaf slightly downy beneath. (Willd. Enum., 323.) * R. t. 2 frutéscens. Its form shrubby; its height between 2 ft. and

10 ft.; and its leaf downy and whitish beneath. Description, &c. Rhúg typhina, in British gardens, is

224 either a large shrub or a low tree, with a woody stem, and a head composed of many irregular branches, generally crooked and deformed. The young shoots are covered with a soft velvet-like down, resembling that of a young stag's horn, both in colour and texture; whence, and probably also from the crookedness of the branches, the common name. The leaves are large, and very conspicuous in autumn, before they drop off, when they change to a purplish or yellowish red. The flowers are produced in close spikes at the ends of the branches; and the female ones are followed by seeds enclosed in woolly, simple, succulent covers, which are very conspicuous in autumn. The plant is found in a wild state in almost every part of North America; particularly in Carolina and Virginia. It was cultivated by Parkinson in 1629, and is now common in British gardens. There are large specimens of it at Syon, where it has attained the height of 15 ft. as a tree; and in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, and in the garden of the London Horticultural Society; in each of which places it has attained the height of 10 ft. or 12 ft. In some parts of North America, the wood is used for tanning leather, and the roots prescribed as a febrifugal medicine. In British gardens it well deserves a place, from its large and beautiful foliage, and its striking colour in autumn; its spikes of dark red fruit; and the singularity of its branches in winter. As the plant is of open irregular growth, and not of long duration, it should never be placed where it is intended to act as a screen. Like all objects the chief beauty of which consists in their singularity, it produces the most striking effect when standing alone on a lawn. If trained to a single stem, either of the forms of this species may be made an interesting small tree, but not one of many years' durability. Price, in the London nurseries, ls, a plant, and seeds 1s. an ounce; at Bollwyller, 50 cents a plant; and in New York, 25 cents a plant, and seeds 1 dollar a quart.


1. 3. R. (? 1.) VIRIDIFLO'RA Poir. The green-flowered Rhus, or Sumach.
Identification. Poir. Dict., 7. p. 504. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 67. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 70.
Synonyme. R. canadense Miu. Dict., No. 5.
Spec. Char., fc. Leaf of 8–10 pairs of leaflets, and the odd one, that are

lanceolate-oblong, serrate, pubescent beneath. Petiole and branches rather hairy. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 66.) A tree, a native of North America. Flowers green, in upright racemes. Probably a variety of R. glàbra. (Ibid.) The plant of R. viridiflora in the garden of the London Horticultural Society was, in 1834, 10 ft. high, after having been 10 years planted.

2 4. R. (? T.) GLA'BRA Lin. The glabrous Rhus, or Scarlet Sumach. Identifications. Lin. Spec., 380.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 67. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 70. Engravings. Wats. Dend. Brit., t. 15.; and our fig. 225. Spec. Char., &c. Leaf glabrous, of 8–10 pairs of leaflets, and an odd one;

leaflets lanceolate-oblong, serrate, whitish beneath. Branches glabrous. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 67.) A native of North America. Fruit covered with silky hairs, red." De Candolle has distinguished three forms of this species ; namely:. R. g. 1 hermaphrodita, with hermaphrodite sexes, and greenish flowers ;

the R. glabra Willd. Spec., i. p. 1478., and figured in Dill. Elth., t. 243. S.R. 2 dióica, with diccious sexes, and greenish flowers, figured in

Lam. Il., t. 207. f. 1. . R. g. ? 3 coccinea, the R. caroliniànum of Mill. Dict., and the R.

élegans of Ait., Loddiges's Catalogue, and of nurseries generally, figured in Dend. Brit., t. 16., has diccious sexes, and red flowers. It is distinguished by a more upright habit of growth, and smoother branches and leaves, than R. glabra. The leaves are glaucous

underneath; and the fruit is of a rich velvety crimson. Description,fc. The general appearance of the species is similar to that of R. typhìna; but the plant is smaller,

225 the branches more spreading and smooth, and the leaflets wider, less serrated, and of a deeper green. There are many varieties of R. typhìna in North America; and, to us, it appears highly probable that R. glabra is only one of these. According to Kalm, the species or variety under notice is exceedingly common in woods throughout great part of North America, both in cultivated and uncultivated districts. In woods, it is found on the margins of open glades; and, in cultivated parts of the country, it less common in low meadows than in corn fields." It is like a weed in some parts of the country; and, if a field be left a few years uncultivated, this shrub overruns it, from berries which are brought by birds; and, when the ground comes again into tillage, the roots stop the plough very much. The fruit remains on the shrub during winter; but the leaves drop. very early in autumn. It seldom grows above 9 ft. high. The wood burns well, without much crackling. On cutting the stem, a yellow juice comes out between the bark and the wood; one or two of the outer circles of the wood are white, but the innermost are of a yellowish green; it contains a pith frequently half an inch in diameter, or more, of a brown colour, and so loose, that it is casily pushed out by a stick. The branches, boiled with the



berries, afford a black ink-like tincture. The berries are eaten by children with impunity, but they are very sour: they are red, and are made use of for dyeing that same colour.” (Martyn's Miller.) Professor Rogers, in Silliman's Journal, vol. xxvii. p. 294., observes that the berries contain a large portion of the malic acid, and are used as a substitute for lemons in various preparations of domestic economy and medicine: the leaves are used in tanning: In British gardens, this sort has been cultivated since 1726. A plant in the garden of the London Horticultural Society was, in 1834, 6 ft. high, after being 10 years planted. The history and culture are the same as those of R. typhìna.

5. R. PU'MILA Michx. The dwarf Rhus, or Sumach. Identification. Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 182.; Pursh Bor. Amer., 1. p. 204.; Dec. Prod., 2.

p. 67. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 70. Spec. Char., &c. Dwarf, downy in every part. Leaf of many pairs of leaflets, and the odd one ; the leaflets are oval, cut in a toothed manner, and tomentose beneath. Fruit silky. (Dec. Prod. 2. P. 68.) A native of Upper Carolina, whence it was introduced in 1800. It grows to the height of 1 ft., and flowers in July, Mr. John Lyon, who discovered this species, when col. lecting the seed, “got poisoned all over his body, and was lamed for a considerable time." (Ph.) The species is not in the garden of the London Horticultural Society, or in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges.

* 6. R. VERNICI'Fera Dec. The varnish-yielding Rhus, or Sumach. Identification. Dec. Prod., 2. p. 68. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 70, Synonymes. Sitz, or Urus, Japanese, according to Kæmpfer Am., 791. t. 792. ; R. vérnix Lin. Mat. Med., 151., and Thun. Jap:, 121., not of other authors; R. juglandifolium Wall. in Lite.

Don. Prod. Fl. Nep., not of Willd. Engraving. Kæmpf. Amen., t. 792. Spec. Char., fc. Leaf of 5–6 pairs of leaflets, and the odd one; all ovate, acuminate, entire, rather glabrous above, beneath bearing velvety pubescence. Petiole and branches softly woolly. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 68.) A tree, a native of Japan and Nepal. The general appearance of this species is that of R. typhìna; but the leaves are much larger, and more like those of some species of Juglans or Càrya. The plant also seems to be of more robust growth ; a specimen in the garden of the London Horticultural Society having, in 6 years, attained the height of 11 ft. Though marked, in some works, as a green-house shrub, it appears to be as hardy as the common species; and it is especially worth culture on account of its magnificent leaves. Thunberg affirms that the very best Japan varnish is made from this species, which is the Rhús vérnix of Lin. Mat. Med., though not of Lin. Sp. Plan.; it grows in abundance in many parts of that country; and is cultivated in several places, on account of the advantage derived from it. The varnish, which oozes out of the tree on its being wounded, is procured from stems that are three years old, and is received into some proper vessel. When first collected, it is of a whitish colour, and of the consistence of cream ; but grows thicker and black on being exposed to the air. It is so transparent, that, when laid, pure and unmixed, upon boxes or furniture, every vein of the wood may be clearly seen through it. For the most part, a dark ground is spread underneath it, which causes it to reflect like a mirror; and for this purpose recourse is frequently had to the fine sludge which is collected in the trough under a grindstone; or to ground charcoal; occasionally, a red substance is mixed with the varnish, and sometimes leaf gold ground very fine. This varnish hardens very much, but will not endure any blows, cracking and flying almost like glass; though, at the same time, it can stand boiling water without receiving any damage. With this the Japanese varnish over the posts of their doors and windows, their drawers, chests, boxes, scimitars, fans, tea-cups, soup-dishes, their portable stools, and most articles of household furniture which are made of wood. (Mart. Mill.)

7. R.VENENA'ta Dec. The poisonous Rhus, Poison Wood, or Swamp Sumach. Identification. Dec. Prod., 2. p. 68. ; Don's Mill., 2. p.71.; Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 126.

R. vérnix Lin. Spec., 380., Big: Med. Bot., 1. p. 96. t. 10. ; Toxicodendron pin. nàtuin Mill. Dict., No. 5.; Poison Sumach, Poison Elder.



Engravings. Dill. Elth., t. 292. ; Wats. Dend. Brit., t. 19.; Big. Med. Bot.,1. 1. 19. ; and our fig. 226 Spec. Char., fc. Leaf rather glabrous than pubescent, of 5—6 pairs of leaflets, and the odd one, which are ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, entire, and beneath reticulately veined. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 68.) A native of North America, from Canada to Carolina, and commonly called there poison sumach, or poison wood. The drupe is white, and the nut furrowed. (Ibid.)

Description, $c. In its native country, this species is a shrub or low tree, growing to the height of 20 ft. ; but it does not grow so vigorously in British gardens, probably from not being sufficiently attended to in regard to soil, which ought to be kept very moist, as the name swamp sumach implies. The leaves are divided like those of R. typhìna and R. glabra; but they are quite different from those of both kinds in being smooth, shining, and having the leaflets very entire, narrow, and pointed, and the veins of a purplish red colour. There is a plant in the garden of the London Horticultural Society, which, in 1834, was 4 ft. high, after being 5 years planted. There are also plants of the same species in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges. The leaves die off of an intense red or purple; and are, in the autumn season, strikingly beautiful. This species is a native of swamps in Virginia, Carolina, Pennsylvania, and New England; and it is also said to be a native of Japan.

The milky juice stains linen a dark brown. The whole shrub is in a high degree poisonous; and the poison is communicated by touching or smelling any part of it. In forty-eight hours, inflammation appears on the skin, in large blotches, principally on the extremities, and on the glandulous parts of the body: soon after, small pustules rise in the inflamed parts, and fill with watery matter, attended with burning and itching. In two or three days, the eruptions suppurate; after which the inflammation subsides. Some persons

226 are incapable of being poisoned with this plant; but those who are of unstable habits are more likely to receive it. According to Kalm, an incision being made, a whitish yellow juice, which has a nauseous smell, comes out between the bark and the wood: it is noxious to some persons, but does not in the least affect others. On Kalm himself it had no effect, except once, on a hot day, when, being in some perspiration, he cut a branch, and carried it in his hand for half an hour, smelling it now and then. It produced a violent itching in his eyelids and the parts thereabouts. During a week, his eyes were very red, and the eyelids very stiff, but the disorder went off by washing the parts in very cold water. (Mart. Mill.) In British gardens, this species is not very common; but it well deserves culture, on account of the beauty of its smooth shining foliage at all seasons, and of its almost unparalleled splendour in the autumn, from the time that the leaves begin to change colour, till they ultimately drop off with the first frost. We would recommend that the plant should always have a label attached to it, indicating the poisonous qualities of the leaves, even when touched or smelled to. Plants, in the London nurseries, are ls. 6d. each, seeds 2s. an ounce; at Bollwyller, 1 franc and 50 cents a plant; and at New York, 50 cents a plant.



8. R. CORIA'RIA Lin. The hide-tanning Rhus, or the Elm-leaved Sumach. Identification. Lin. Spec., 379. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 67.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 70.

The specific name of Coridria was given to this plant from the use made of it by the Turks in tanning leather; and it was also a name of the Rhús among the Romans, from the same quality.


Engravings. N. Du Ham., 2. t. 46.; Wats. Dend. Brit., t. 136.; Blackw., t. 486.; Plenck. Icon., t. 232. ; and our figs. 227. and 228.

Spec. Char., fc. Leaf villose, of

5—7 pairs of leaflets, and the odd

one; leaflets elliptical, and toothed
with large and blunt teeth, The
petiole smooth at the tip, a little
margined. (Dec. Prod., ii. p.67.)
A native of sunny rocky spots in
the south of

Europe, from
Portugal to
Tauria Fruit
villose. (Ibid.)

The general habit
of this plant re-

sembles that of R. typhina; but it is much smaller in all its parts. The leaflets are about 2 in. long, and 4 in. wide, of a pale green, serrated, and in general appearance resembling the leaves of the common elm. The flowers are in large loose panicles, of a whitish green; and they appear in July, but are seldom followed by seeds in England. The seeds are used at Aleppo, ground into powder, as a provocative to appetite, as mustard is in Britain. The plant is a native of the south of Europe and the north of Africa, and it appears to have been introduced into England in 1640. In British gardens, this species is not uncommon. Plants, in London, cost 1s. 6d. each ; at Bollwyller, 1 franc. 9. R. COPALLI'NA Lin. The Gum Copal Rhus, or Mastich-tree-leaved

Sumuch. Identification. Lin. Spec., 380.; Dec. Prod., 5. p. 68.; Don's Mill., 2. p..72. Engravings. Jacq. Hort. Schön., t. 341. ; Pluk. Alm., p. 56. f. 1. ; and our fig. 229. Spec. Char., &c. Leaf glabrous above, a little pilose beneath, of 5—7 pairs of leaflets, and the odd one; leaflets lanceolate and entire. Petiole winged and jointed, Root stoloniferous. Flowers yellow green. Sexes diæcious.

(Dec. Prod., ii. p. 68.) Variety.

R. c. 2 leucántha Jac. Hort. Schön., t. 342, - Root not stoloniferous.

Flowers whitish. Panicles more contracted than in the species. Description, &c. The leaves and general habit of the plant are those of R. typhìna, but it seldom grows to the height of more than 4 ft. or 5 ft. The branches are smooth, and the leaflets entire with acute points ; they are light green on both sides, and in autumn change to a fine purple. The petiole, as in R. Coriària, is somewhat winged towards its tip, 'which, with other circumstances, induces us to think that they may both be varieties of the same species. R. copallina is found in dry fields and woods, particularly in sandy soil, from New Jersey to Carolina. The leaves are used as tobacco by the Indians of the Missouri and the

229 Mississippi. The species was intro

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