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+ on mountains. I. asiática Lin. Spec., 710., is a native of the East Indies. I. Integra Thunb. and I. rotunda Thunb. are Japan shrubs. 1. bumelioides H. B. et Kunth is a tree of Peru. A number of these species are introduced, and occasionally to be found in our green-houses; and the others, if they could be procured, would doubtless thrive in the open air in the warmest parts of Devonshire and Cornwall, and, perhaps, at least half of them in the neighbourhood of London. I. paraguariensis Lamb. Pin., vol. 2., App., t. 2., and our fig. 189., though commonly treated as a stove plant, might possibly succeed in the warmest parts of Devonshire, against a wall, as well as the orange tree. This shrub or tree affords what is called the Paraguay tea, from which the Jesuits of Paraguay derive a large revenue. The leaves are; used in Paraguay, La Plata, Chili, Peru, and Quito, by all classes of persons, and at all hours of the day, by infusion in a pot, called mate, from the spout of which the tea is drunk, with or without a little sugar or lemon juice. The Creoles drink the infusion at every meal, and never eat until they have taken some of it. If the water is suffered to remain long on the leaves, the decoction becomes as black as ink. The pipe to the mate, or teapot, called a bambilla, is perforated with holes at the top, to prevent swallowing the pulverised herb, which swims on the surface. The whole party is supplied by handing the

mate and pipe from one to another, filling up the mate with hot water as fast as it is drunk out. The leaves, when green, taste somewhat like mallow leaves : they are prepared for use by being parched, and almost put verised; after which they are packed up for sale. The aromatic bitterness which the herb possesses when first prepared is partly dissipated by carriage. The principal harvest of the herb is mad he eastern part of Paraguay, and about the mountains of Maracaja; but it is also cultivated in the marshy valleys which intervene between the hills. The people boast of innumerable qualities which this herb possesses : it is certainly aperient and diuretic; but the other qualities attributed to it are rather doubtful. Like opium, it gives sleep to the restless, and spirit to the torpid; and, like that drug, when once a habit is contracted of using it, it is difficult to leave it off; and the effect of it on the constitution is similar to that produced by the immoderate use of spirituous liquor. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 18.; and Mag. Nat. Hist., vol. v. p. 8. and p. 9.) Plants of this species were in. troduced into England in 1828, and are to be found in one or two collections.

Genus III.

PRINOS L. THE PRINos, or WINTER BERRY. Lin. Syst. Hexandria

Monogynia, or Polygàmia Diæ cia. Identification. Lin. Gen., No. 461. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 16. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 20. Synonymes. Agèria Adans. Fam., 3. p. 166.; Apalanche, Fr.; Winterbeere, Ger. Derivation. From prinos, the Greek name for the holly, which the present genus much resembles ;

or, according to others, from prión, a saw, on account of the serrated leaves of the species. The species are deciduous or evergreen shrubs, natives of North America, from 2 to 8 ft. in height, forming compact upright bushes, densely clothed with foliage.

gi. Prinöides Dec.

Sectional Characteristic. Flowers usually 4–5-cleft. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 16.)

. 1. P. DECI'duus Dec. The deciduous Winter Berry. Identification. Dec. Prod., 2. p. 16. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 17. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 20. Synonymes. I'lex prinöides Ait. Hort. Kew., 2. p. 278. ; Ilex decidua Walt. Fl. Carol., 241. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves deciduous, elliptic-lanceolate, tapered to the petiole,

shallowly sawed ; the midrib villous beneath; the peduncles axillary; those of the male flowers several together ; of the female ones, singly. Berries red. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 16.) A deciduous shrub, growing to the height of 4 ft. ; a native of North America, from Virginia to Georgia, on rocky shady banks of rivers; and introduced in 1736. It produces its white flowers in June and July, which are succeeded by large crimson berries. Plants of the

species are in Loddiges's Nursery, under the name of 1. prinöides, Variety. P. d. 2 æstivalis, I'lex æstivàlis Lam. The adult leaves glabrous on both surfaces. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 17.)

. 2. P. AMBI'GUUS Michx. The ambiguous. Winter Berry. Identification. Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 2. p. 236.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 17.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 20. Synonyme. Cassine caroliniana Walt. Fl. Carol., p. 242. Engravings. Wats. Dend. Brit., t. 29.; and our fig. 190. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves deciduous, oval, acuminate to both ends; both adult ones and young ones glabrous in every part. Peduncles of the male #owers crowded together in the lower parts of the branchlets; of the female ones, singly. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 17.) A deciduous shrub, found in sandy wet woods, and on the borders of swamps, from New Jersey to Carolina; growing to the height of 4 ft. or 5 ft., and producing its white flowers from June to August. Introduced in 1812. The leaves are subimbricate-serrated, acute at the apex, and the berries small, round, smooth, and red. There is a handsome plant of this species in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, which, in 1835, was 5 ft. high. It is of easy

190 culture in any free soil, either by seeds, cuttings, or layers. Plants, in London, are ls. 6d. each ; at New York, 37} cents each.

§ ii. Agèria Dec.

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Sectional Characteristics. Flowers usually 6-cleft. Leaves deciduous. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 17.)

. 3. P. VERTICILLA'TUS L. The whorled Winter Berry. Identification. Lin. Spec., 471.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 17.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 20. Synonymes. P. padifolius Wiud. Enum., p. 394. ; P. Grondvii Michx. FI. Bor. Amer., 2. p. 286.; P.

confértus Munch ; P. prunifdlius Lodd. Cat.
Engravings. Wats. Dend. Brit., t. 30.; Duh. Arb., 1. t. 23. ; and our fig. 191.
Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves deciduous, oval, acuminate,

sawed, pubescent beneath. Male flowers in axillary
umbel-shaped fascicles; the female ones aggregate;
the flowers of both sexes 6-parted. (Dec. Prod., ii.
p. 17.) A deciduous shrub, growing to the height of
8 ft.; a native of North America, from Canada to
Virginia, in wet woods, and on the banks of ditches.
Introduced in 1736. The flowers are white, and are
produced from June to August. The berries are red
or crimson, turning purplish when ripe. There are
two handsome plants of this species in Loddiges's
arboretum, 7 ft. high, one of which is under the name
of P. prunifolius. Plants, in the London nurseries,

191 are 1s. 6d. each; at Bollwyller, 1 franc 50 cents; at New York, 25 cents, and seeds 50 cents a quart.

# 4. P. DU'BIUS G. Don. The doubtful Winter Berry. Synonymes. P. ambiguus Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 220. Spec. Char., &e. Leaves deciduous, oval, acuminated at both ends, mucronately serrated, pubes. eent beneath. Flowers, 4–5.cleft; male ones crowded at the bottom of the branches ; female ones solitary. ' Berries red, larger than those of P. verticillatus. (Don's Mill., 11. p. 20.) A deciduous shrub, or low tree, growing to the height of 12 ft., in sandy woods, and on the borders of swamps, from New Jersey to Carolina ; introduced in 1736; producing its white flowers in July

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and August, which are succeeded by red berries, larger than those of P. verticillatus.

192 5. P. LÆVIGATUS Pursh. The smooth-leaved Winter

Berry.
Identification. Pursh Fl. Sept. Amer., 1. p. 220. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 17. ;

Don's Mill., 2. p. 20.
Engravings. Wats. Dend. Brit., t. 28.; and our fig. 192.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves deciduous, lanceolate, sawed,

the teeth directed forwards, acuminate, glabrous on
both surfaces, except on the nerves beneath, where
they are slightly pubescent; upper surface glossy.
Flowers 6-cleft; the male ones scattered; the female
ones axillary, solitary, almost sessile. (Dec. Prod., ii.
p. 17.) A deciduous shrub, growing to the height of
8 ft. on the Alleghany Mountains, from New York to
Virginia ; introduced in 1812. flowers are white;
and the berries large, and of a dark red colour. The
plant of this species in Loddiges's arboretum was 4 ft. high in 1835,

6. P. LANCEOLA'TUS Pursh. The lanceolate-leaved Winter Berry. Identification. Pursh. Fl. Sept. Amer., 2. p. 27.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 17. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 20. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves deciduous, lanceolate, remotely and very slightly ser

rulate, smooth on both surfaces. Male flowers aggregate, triandrous; female ones mostly in pairs, peduncled, and 6-clest. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 17.) A deciduous shrub, growing to the height of 8 ft.; a native of the lower districts of Carolina and Georgia; introduced in 1811. The flowers are white; and the berries are small, and of a scarlet colour. The plant in Loddiges's arboretum is 8 ft. high.

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iii. Wintérlia Mench.

P. 20.

Derivation. Probably from the name of some botanist. Sectional Characteristics. Flowers, for the most part, 6-cleft. Leaves permanent. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 17.)

. 7. P. GLA'BER L. The glabrous Winter Berry. Identification. Lin. Spec., 471; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 17. ; Don's Mill., 2. Engraving. The figure under this name in Wats. Dend., t. 27., is that of P. coriàceus Pursh. Spec. Char., fc. Evergreen. Leaves lanceolate, with wedge-shaped bases,

coriaceous, glabrous, glossy, somewhat toothed at the tip. Flowers mostly three on an axillary peduncle that is usually solitary. Fruit black. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 17.) An evergreen shrub, growing to the height of 3 ft. or 4 ft., in sandy shady woods, from Canada to Florida; introduced in 1759, and producing its small white flowers in July and August. The colour of the berries in this species is black, and in Jersey they are called ink berries. It forms a very handsome shrub, which, in Loddiges's arboretum has attained the height of 4 ft., with a regular ovate shape, densely clothed with shining foliage. Plants, in the London nurseries, are 28. 6d. each ; at Bollwyller, 2 francs; and at New York, 25 cents, and seeds 1 dollar a quart.

. 8. P. ATOMA'Rius Nutt. The atom-bearing Winter Berry. Identification. Nutt. Gen. Amer., 1. p. 213. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 17. : Don's Mill., 2. p. 20. Spec. Char., &c. Evergreen. Leaf oval, with the base wedge-shaped and the tip acute, and some. what sawed, coriaceous, bearing on the under surface minute excrescences; whence the specific

:

name. Younger branches rather clammy. Flowers solitary on lateral peduncles. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 17.) An undershrub, growing to the height of 2 ft., in woods, and on the banks of rivers in Georgia ; producing its white flowers in July and August, which are succeeded by dark-coloured berries. Introduced in 1820); but we have never seen it in British gardens.

. 9. P. CORIA'CEUS Pursh. The coriaceous-leaved Winter Berry. Identification. Pursh Fl. Sept. Amer., 1. p. 221. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 17. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 21. Synonymes. P. glàber Wats. Engraving. Wats. Dend. Brit, t. 27., under the name of P. glàber. Spec. Char., &c. Evergreen. Leaf lanceolate, with a wedge-shaped base, coriaceous, glabrous, glossy, entire. Flowers in short, sessile, axillary corymbs, many in a corymb. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 17.) A handsome, tall, evergreen shrub, having the general aspect of I'lex Dahoon ; found in

sandy woods near the banks of rivers in Georgia, and introduced in 1820. Varieties. This species yaries, with leaves broader, obovate-lanceolate, and acuminate; and

narrower, lanceolate, and acute. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 17.)

App. i. Other Species of Prinos hardy or half-hardy. P. dioicus Vahl is a native of the Island of Montserrat, and considered as hardy, though not yet introduced. P. nitidus Vahl is also a native of Montserrat, and is supposed to require a green-house. There are two stove species described by Swartz natives of the Caribbee Islands, which are trees growing from 20 ft. to 30 ft. high. They are found on mountains in their native countries; and hence may, probably, be hardy enough to be kept in British green-houses, though it is customary to consider natives of the West India Islands as stove plants, whether they are natives of the hills or of the plains.

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OR THE HARDY LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF THE ORDER RHAMNACEÆ.

DISTINCTIVE Characteristics. Calyx 45-cleft; æstivation valvate. Corolla of 45 petals; in some absent. Petals cucullate, or convolute, inserted into the orifice of the calyx. Stamens 4–5, opposite the petals, perigynous. Ovary superior, or half-superior, 2-, 3-, or 4-celled, surrounded by a fleshy disk. Ovules one in a cell, erect, as are the seeds. Fruit fleshy and indehiscent or dry, and separating into 3 divisions. Trees or shrubs, often spiny, and generally deciduous. Leaves simple, alternate, very seldom opposite, with minute stipules. Flowers axillary or terminal. (Lindl. Introd. to N. S.) The species are natives of Europe or North America, and some of them of India; they are ornamental in British gardens and shrubberies, chiefly from the variety of their foliage, and from their berries; but some of them, as Ceanothus, from their flowers. They are all of easy culture. The genera containing hardy ligneous plants are six; which are characterised as follows. Zi'zyphus Tourn. Calyx spreading, 5-cleft; its upper part separating all

round from the lower, in the manner as if cut from it; the lower persistent, situated under the fruit, and adhering to it more or less. Petals 5, upon a glandular disk that is aclnate to the calyx. Stamens inserted in front of the petals. Styles 2—3, simple. Fruit an ovoid drupe; the nut 2-celled, rarely 1–3-celled. Seed suborbicular, compressed. Shrubs or small trees. Leaves alternate, 3-nerved. Stipules spinescent. Flowers axillary. Drupes mucilaginous and eatable. (Dec. Prod., ii.

p. 19.) The species are deciduous shrubs, natives of Europe or Asia, one of them bearing eatable fruit. PALIU'RUS Tourn. The flower like that of Zizyphus, except as follows.

Styles 3. Fruit dry, indehiscent, orbicular, girded with a broad membranaceous wing, 3-celled. Seed ovate. The habit that of Zizyphus.

(Dec. Prod., ii. p. 22.) The species are deciduous shrubs or low trees, • natives of Europe, or Asia, and highly ornamental in gardens, from their

shining leaves, which are nerved ; and their abundance of rich greenish yellow flowers, which are succeeded by fruit of rather a singular form,

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They are easily propagated by seeds, which they produce, in Britain, in

abundance. Berche'mia Necker. Calyx 5-parted, the segments deciduous, the remaining

portion persistent, situate under the fruit, and adhering to it more or less. Petals 5, scale-shaped. Stamens inserted lower than the petals. Style 1. Stigmas 2. tan oblong dry drupe ; the nut 2-celled. A shrub, without spines, somewhat twining. Often, by defect, the sexes are diæcious, and the fruit l-seeded. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 22.) The only hardy species

is a twining deciduous shrub, a native of Carolina. Rhamnus Lam. Calyx 445-cleft; often, with the upper part, after the flow

ering, separating from the lower all round, in the manner as if cut, and the lower part persistent, situate beneath the fruit, and cohering with it. Petals, in some, absent. Stamens inserted in front of the petals. Style 2—4-cleft. Fruit nearly dry, or berried. Cells 2–4; those in the nearly dry fruits separable, and 1-seeded, or very rarely 2-seeded. Seed oblong, having on the outer side a deep furrow, that is broadest at the base. Shrubs or small trees, with the tips of the branches becoming spines, in some instances. The leaves feather-nerved. The stipules never converted into a prickle. Flowers often unisexual. Fruit not eatable. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 23.) The species are evergreen, subevergreen, and deciduous shrubs, chiefly natives

of Europe, but some of them of North America and Asia. COLLE'TIÀ Comm. Calyx pitcher-shaped, 5-cleft, its base scarcely adhering

to the ovary, which it surrounds. Not any corolla. Stamens 5, situated between the lobes of the calyx : anthers with a tendency to be l-celled, kidney-shaped, opening by a horseshoe-shaped furrow. Style ending in 3 teeth. Fruit a 3-celled capsule, surrounded by the base of the calyx. Shrubs. Branches spiny. Leaves small, mostly opposite. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 28.; and Don's Mill.) The species are spinous shrubs, with few small leaves, natives of Peru or Chili, and interesting by their peculiarity of

appearance, and their flowers. Ceanothus L. Calyx 5-cleft, bell-shaped; after the flowering, the upper

part separates from the lower part all round, in the manner as if cut; the lower part is persistent, is situate under the fruit, and adheres to it more or less. Corolla of 5 petals, each with a long claw, and hooded: rarely

Stamens projecting in front of the petals. Styles 2–3, united as high as the middle. Fruit a dry berry, 3-celled, rarely 2—4-celled; the cells pervious at the base; the walls of the consistence of paper. Seed ovate. Shrubs without thorns, with leaves ovate. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 29.) The species are evergreen or deciduous shrubs, from North America, some of them highly ornamental, on account of their flowers. They are readily propagated by cuttings of the young wood; or by seeds, which are generally imported from America, though they are sometimes ripened in England.

none.

Genus I.

ZIZYPHUS Tourn. THE JUJUBE. Lin. Syst. Pentándria Di-Trigýnia. Identification. Tourn. Inst., t. 403. ; Gært. Fruet., 1. p. 43. ; Lam. I., t. 185. ; Dec. Prod., 2.

p. 198. ; Brongn. Mém. Rham., p. 47. Synonymes. Jujubier, Fr. ; Judendorn, Ger. Derivation. From zizouf, the Arabic name of the lotus.

1. 2. vulgA'RIS Lam. The common, or cultivated, Jujube. Identification. Lam. III., 185. f. 1.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 19. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 23. Synonymes. Rhamnus Zizyphus Lin. Spec., 282., Pall. Fl. Ross., 2. t. 59.; 2. sativa Desf.

Arb., 2. p. 373. N. Du Ham., t. 16., but not of Gært. ; 2. Jujuba Mill. Dict.,'No. 1., but not of

Lam. ; Jujubier cultivé, Fr.; Brustbeeren, Ger.; Giuggiol, Ital. Engravinge. Lam. II., 185. f. 1. ; Pall. F1. Řoss., 2. t. 59. ; N. Du Ham. 3. t. 16.; and our fig. 193.

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