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168

edges of swamps ; introduced
in 1686. The flowers appear 169
in June and July: they are
yellow, tinged with red, and
are succeeded by scarlet fruits
which, according to Pursh, re-
semble, at a distance, those of
A'rbutus U`nedo. They are
a great ornament, he says, to
this almost evergreen shrub,
and have given rise, in Ame-
rica, to its common name, the
burning bush. Plants of this
species are in the arboretums

of the London Horticultural
Society and the Messrs. Loddiges, but not in a thriving state, for want
of moisture and shade. Price of plants, at New York, 15 cents, and of
seeds 1 dollar a quart.
7. E. SARMENTO'sus Nutt. The trailing-stemmed Euonymus, or Spindle

Tree. Identification. Nutt. Gen. Amer.,

1. p. 155. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 5. Synonymes. E. scándens Hort.; E. americanus var. sarmentosus Dec. Prod., 2. p. 4 Spec. Char., &c. Chiefly distinguished from the last by its having a trailing stem that is prone to

emit roots into the soil. It inhabits shady woods in Virginia and Carolina (Dec. Prod., i. p. 4.)
Introduced in 1894.
* 8. E. OBOVATUS Nutt. The obovate-leaved Euonymus, or Spindle Tree.
Identification. Nutt. Gen. Amer., 1. p. 155.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 4. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 5.
Spec. Char., 8c. Stem prostrate, rooting. Shoots upright, with 4 blunt

angles. Leaves broadly obovate, obtuse, almost sessile, sawed, with acute
fine teeth. Flowers 3 upon a peduncle. Calyxes inflated. Anthers sessile.
(Dec. Prod., ii. p. 4.) A trailing shrub, a native of Pennsylvania, in marshes,
between Franklin and Waterford ; introduced in 1820, and flowering in
June and July. The plant of this species in the garden of the London
Horticultural Society was, in 1834, 1 ft. in height, and covered a circle of
10 ft. in diameter. We have not observed the name in any nurseryman's
catalogue.
9. E. ANGUSTIFO‘lius Ph. The narrow-leaved Euonymus, or Spindle

Tree.
Identification. Ph. Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 168; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 4.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 5.
Spec. Char., 8c. Branches smooth. Leaves either oblong-elliptical or linear-

elliptical, somewhat falcate, almost entire, almost sessile. Flowers mostly
1 on a peduncle, unequally 5-cleft. Capsules echinately warted. Allied to
E. americànus. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 4.) A deciduous shrub, of 6 ft. or 7ft.
in height; a native of North America, in Georgia, in shady woods. Intro-
duced in 1806. Its flowers and fruit resemble those of E. americànus;
and, though nearly related to it, Lyon, its discoverer, was informed by
Pursh, that, when propagated by seeds, it retains its distinctive character.

Plants, in the London nurseries, are ls. 6d. each; at New York, 1 dollar.
1 10. E. HAMILTONIANUS Wall. Hamilton's Euonymus, or Spindle Tree.
Identification. Wall. Fl. Ind., 2. p. 403. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 4.
Synonyme. E. atropurpureus Wall. Fl. Ind., 2. p. 402.
Spec. Char., &c. Branches smooth, terete. Leaves lanceolate, finely serrated.

Peduncles dichotomous, 6-flowered. Flowers tetrandrous. Petals 4,
lanceolate cordate. Ovary 4-lobed, 4-celled, each cell containing 2 ovules.
(Don's Mill., ii. p. 4.) A shrub or low tree, a native of Nepal, where it grows
to the height of 20 ft., with an erect trunk and spreading branchlets. It was

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introduced in 1825; and there are plants of it in the London Horticultural Society's Garden, and in some nurseries. A standard plant of it, in the garden of the London Horticultural Society, in an open situation, was, in 1834, 4 ft. high, after being 4 years planted. Plants against a wall, in the same garden, are 10 ft. high. The species is striking from the whiteness of its stem, and the largeness of its leaves. The plant above mentioned, which is trained to a wall, flowers pretty freely; but the flowers are small, and the cymes of them do not make a show: they are of a yellowish green colour.

1 11. E. GARCINIÆFOʻLIUS Roxb. The Garcinia-leaved Euonymus, or

Spindle Tree.
Identification. Roxb, in Fl. Ind., 2. p. 403. ; Don's Mill., 1. p.4.
Synonyme. E. lacerus Ham, in D. Don's Prod. Fl. Nep., p. 191.?, Dec. Prod., 2 p.5., Don's Mill.,

2 p. 4.
Spet. Char., &c. Branchlets smooth, terete. Leaves lanceolate, entire. l'etals oblong, with incurved

edges, much longer than the calyx. Peduncles between the leaves, sometimes solitary, 3-dowered
Flowers pentandrous. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 4.) A shrub or tree, growing to the height of 12 ft. ; a
native of Nepal; introduced in 1820. “The Bowers are small, pale vellow; the capsule oblong,
about the size of a small field bean, 1-celled, 2-valved, opening from the base, containing one oval
seed, covered with a thin, succulent, veined, bright scarlet aril. (Ibid.) This appears to be a very
remarkable species; but we have not seen plants of it.
- 12. E. GRANDIFLO'RUS Wall. The large-flowered Euonymus, or Spindle

Tree.
Identification. Wall, in Fl. Ind., 2. p. 404.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 5.
Spec. Char., &c. Branches terete, smooth. Leaves obovate-oblong, obtuse, acutely serrate, with a

tapering entire base. Peduncles slender, flattened, nearly equalling the length of the leaves, 3-
6-Howered. Flowers tetrandrous; petals orbicular, flat, with curled edges. Capsule globular, pen.
dulous, obscurely 4-cornered, with, usually, geminate pendulous seeds. (Don's Mill., 2. p. 5.) A
shrub, growing 10 ft. high, in the forest of Nepal, where it is very ornamental, both when in
hower and when loaded with its yellow pendulous capsules, each of which is furnished with as
many as 6 black pendulous seeds. The flowers are white, very large, scentless, slightly nodding;
capsule very nearly globular, about the size of a cherry, 4-celled, 4-valved. Seeds oval, black, hall
covered by a brilliant red, minutely lobed, warted aril." (Ibid.) This very desirable species has not
yet been introduced

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house plants :

introduced :

App. i. Half-hardy Species of Euonymus, or Species which, according to G. Don, will

, no doubt, turn out to be truly
hardy."
The following are already in the country, and treated as frame or green.

E grossus Wall., a tree of Nepal, growing 12 ft. high, and introduced in
E micránthus D. Don, a Nepal shrub of 8 ft. high, introduced in 1820.

E lucidus D. Don, a Nepal shrub of 6 ft. high, introduced in 1820.
* E. japimicus Thunb., an elegant Japan tree, growing to the height of
20 it, introduced in 1804.
1 Ecchindlus Wall, a climbing and rooting shrub from Nepal, in 1824.
Vig: 170.). Found on mountains, at the height of from 5,000 ft. to 7,000 ft.
The following species, marked in Don's Muller as frame plants, are not yet

Elingens Wall., a tree of Nepal, growing to the height of 16 ft. or
20 it, the yellow bark of which is employed by the Nepalese for the pur:
pose of marking the forehead with their religious symbol, commonly called
licha. This is also found on mountains. In p. 173., under the order Ce.

170
lastraceze, are enumerated two other Nepal species, which will probably
prove hardy; and which will be found described below,

Eglaber Roxb., a tree growing to the height of 15 ft., in Chittagong, in
the East Indies,

1 E. fimbridtus Wall., a tree from the Sewallik Mountains, in India, with
doubly serrated Icaves.

* £. indicus Heyne, an East India shrub 8 ft. high.
1 E. vagans Wall., a most extensive climbing and rambling shrub, in the
mountainous forests of Nepal, resembling

E. echinatus, but never throwing out roots at the joints.
E subtriflorus Blume, and E. Thunbergiànus Blume, are Japan shrubs, of which little appears to
be known.
The following species are those above alluded to, as mentioned in Royle's Illustrations, and not in-
cluded in Don's Miller :

E pendulus Wall., a Nepal tree, considered by some as identical with E. japonicus, and found on
the Himalaya Mountains, at an elevation of about 5,000 ft.
8.000 ft. of elevation.
E. frigidus Wall. is also a Nepal tree, which is generally found with E. fimbriata, at not less than

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CELA'STRUS L. The CELASTRUS, or Staff Tree. Lin. Syst. Pentándria

Monogynia. Identification. Lin. Gen., 270.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 5. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 6. Synonymes. Euonymöldes Mænch. ; Celastre, Fr. ; Celaster, Ger. Derivation. From kēlas, the latter season, the fruit remaining on the tree all the winter. The kēlastros of the Greeks is supposed to be the Euonymus. 3

1. C. SCA'NDENS L. The climbing-stemmed Celastrus, or Staff Tree. Identification. Lin. Sp., 285.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 6.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 9.; Bourreau des Arbres, Fr.;

Baummörder, Ger.
Engravings. Nouv. Du Ham., 1. t. 95. ; Schkuhr Handb., 1. t. 47.; and our fig. 171.
Spec. Char., &c. Thornless, climbing, smooth.

Leaves oval, acuminate, serrate. Flowers dice-
cious. (Dec. Prod., ii. p. 6.) A deciduous twining
shrub; a native of North America, and intro-
duced, by Peter Collinson, in 1736. The flowers 171
are of a pale yellow, and the capsules of an orange
scarlet colour, 3-cornered and 3-seeded. The
stems are woody and flexible, and twist themselves
round trees and shrubs, or round each other, to
the height of 12 ft. or 15 ft. or upwards, girding
trees so closely as, in a few years, to destroy
them ; whence the French and German names, which signify “ tree-
strangler.” The leaves are about 3 in. long, and nearly 2 in. broad, serrated,
of a lively green above, but paler on the under side. We are uncertain
whether both of the sexes are extant in British collections or not; but, as
seed has been produced in the Botanic Garden at Bury St. Edmunds,
it is clear that the female one, at least, is. Miller says the seeds ripen
well in England, and that the plant may be propagated by them, or by
layers. It prefers a strong loamy soil, rather moist than dry. As a freely
growing twiner, with pleasing foliage, and as ligneous twiners are not
numerous, it deserves to be more generally cultivated. Plants, in the
London nurseries, cost ls. 6d. each, and American seeds 6d. an ounce;
at Bollwyller, plants 1 franc each; and at New York, plants 20 cents
each, and seeds 35 cents a quart.

2. C. BULLA'TUS L. The studded-capsuled Celastrus, or Staff Tree.
Identification. Lin. Sp., 285. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 6. ; Don's Mill, 2 p. 7.
Engravings. Pluk. Alm., t. 28. f. 5.
Spec. Char., 8c. Thornless, climbing. Leaves ovate, acute, entire. Flowers
in terminal panicles. Capsules elegant, studded, scarlet. (Dec. Prod., ii.
p. 6.) A low shrub, said to be a native of Virginia, and to have been first
discovered by Banister, and afterwards introduced in 1759; but Pursh,
after diligent research, in the place of its supposed nativity, and also in the
herbariums of Plukenet and Banister, at the British Museum, was not
able to satisfy himself that it was a native of America. Miller says that it
grows, in its native country, to the height of 8 ft. or 10 ft.; but in England it
seldom attains more than half that size. It flowers in July; and, in its
native country, the flowers are succeeded by scarlet capsules ; but it rarely
ripens seeds in England. (Mart. Mill.)

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App. i. Half hardy Species of Celástrus. There are a number of species of Celastrus from the Cape of Good Hope, and some from the East and West Indies, and South America, which might be tried in the open air against a conservative wall; but the family are not of sufficient beauty or interest to render this desirable to any great

extent.

GENUS III.

NEMOPA'NTHES Rafin. The NEMOPANTHES. Lin. Syst. Polygàmia

Dice'cia.
Identification. Rafin. Journ. Phys., 1819, p. 96. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 17. ; Don's Mill, 2. p. 13.
Synonyme. Iliciöldes Dum. Cours., 1. vol. 4. p. 27.
Derivation. From nemos, a grove, and anthos, a flower; it being generally found in groves.

& 1. N. canade'nsis Dec. The Canadian Nemopanthes. Identification. Dec. Mém. Soc. Gen., 1. p. 44.; Pl. Rar. Hort. Gen., t. 3.; Don's Mill, 2. p. 13. Synonymes. C'lex canadensis Michz. Flor. Bor. Amer.,

2 p. 299. ; N. fascicularis Rajin.; l'lex delicatula Bart. Fl. Vir., p. 67. ;? Prinos lucidus Ait. Hort. Kew., 2. p. 478.; Houx du Canade, Fr. Engravings. Dec. Mém. Soc. Gen., 1. t.3.; Michx. FL Bor. Amer., 2. t. 49., as flex canadensis ;

and our fig. 172. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves ovate, quite entire, or serrated at the apex, smooth. Pedicels usually solitary, l-flowered, very long. Flowers white. Berries large, beautiful crimson, very ornamental. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 13.) This is said to be a very 172 hardy, ornamental, deciduous shrub, and to be cultivated at Courset, and in the nursery of M. Cels, at Paris. We have only seen a small plant of it, under the name of Prinos lùcidus, in the garden of the London Horticultural Society, which, in 1834, was 4 ft. high, after having been 8 years planted.

GENUS IV.

MAYTENUS Feuill. The MAYTENUS. Lin. Syst. Polygàmia Diæ cia. Identification. H. B. et Kunth. Nov. Gen. Amer., 7. p. 64. ; Dec. Prod., 2. p.9.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 10.

. 1. M. chile'nsis Dec. The Chili Maytenus. Identification. Dec. Prod., 2. p. 9. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 11.; Lindl. in Bot. Reg., t. 1702. Synonymes. Senácia Maytenus Lam. III., No. 2112. » Celastrus Màytenus Willd. Sp., 1. p. 1127. ; ? M.

boaria Mol. Chil., p. 152. Engravings. Feuill. Obs., 3. p. 39. t. 27.; Bot. Reg., t. 1702. ; and our fig. 173. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves lanceolate serrated. A hand

some evergreen shrub, a native of Chili, at Coquimbo, and introduced in 1829. In its native country, it is

173 said to form a small tree, 12 ft. high ; in the garden of the London Horticultural Society, where it has been planted against a south wall since 1830, it forms a handsome, evergreen, branchy shrub, with twiggy branchlets. It has also been tried there as a standard, and found to be quite hardy. The flowers are in axillary clusters, with a corolla of a yellowish green colour, not showy. (Bot. Reg., t. 1702.) This desirable addition to our hardy evergreen shrubs will, we trust, soon come into general cultivation. It affords one of the numerous examples which are continually occurring of the utility of trying house plants in the open air, since in published lists it is marked as requiring a green-house.

Genus V.
CASSI VE L. The Cassine. Lin. Syst. Pentándria Monogynia.
Identification. Lin. Gen., 371. ; Lam. Ill., t. 310. ; Gært. Fruct., 2. p. 72. t. 92.; Dec. Prod., 2. p. 11. ;

Don's Mill., 2. p. 12.
Derivation. The word Cassine is of American origin, and unknown meaning.

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. 1. C. MAUROCE'Nia L. Mauroceni's Cassine, or the Hottentot Cherry. Identification. Lin. Sp., 385.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 13. Synonyme. Maurocènia frangulària Mill. Dici., No. 1. Derivation. The specific name was given in honour of the Venetian senator, Signor Francisco Mauro. ceni, who had a fine garden at Padua, a catalogue of the plants in which was published by

Antonio Teta. Engraving. Dill. Elth., t. 121. f. 147. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves sessile, obovate, quite entire, convex. Pedicels many, very short. (Don's Mill., ii.

p. 13.) A shrub, a native of Ethiopia, introduced in 1690, and commonly kept in greenhouses, but which deserves trial against a conservative wall. 2. C. CAPE'nsis L. The Cape Cassine, or Phillyrea.

174 Identification. Lin. Mant., 220.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 13. Engravings. Burm. Rar. Plant. Afr., t. 85. ; Dill. Elth., t. 236. ; and our

fig. 174.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves stalked, ovate, retuse, crenate, flat. Panicles
solitary, shorter than the leaves. Flowers small, white. (Don's Mill., ii.
p. 13.) A shrub, a native of the Cape of Good Hope, found in woods
introduced in 1629, and producing its small white flowers in July and

August.
C. excelsa Wall., C. discolor Wall., and C. Colpoón Thun. : the first a native

of Nepal, and introduced in 1820; and the last a native of the Cape of
Good Hope, and introduced in 1791, might be tried against a conservative
wall, with every prospect of success.

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GENUS VI. HARTO'GIA Dec. The HartOGIA. Lin. Syst. Tetra-Pentándria

Monogynia. Identification. Dec. Prod., 2. p. 12.; Don's Mill., 2. p. 13. Derivation. Named in honour of J. Hartog, a Dutch traveller, and naturalist at the Cape of Good Hope.

. 1. H. CAPE'nsis L. The Cape Hartogia. Identification. Lin. Fil. Suppl., 128.; Don's Mill., 1. p. 13. Synonymes

. Schrébera schinoides Thun. Prod., t. 2.; Elæodendron schinoldes Spreng. Syst., 1. Engraving. Thunb. Prod., t. 2. Spec. Char., $c. Leaves opposite, oblong, crenated, smooth, hardly stalked. Pedicels few-flowered,

axillary, drooping. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 13.) A shrub, a native of the Cape of Good Hope, growing to the height of 10 it, and introduced in 1800. It is marked in the catalogues as a green-house plant, but has been found to stand the open air as an evergreen shrub. In the London nurseries, a narrow-leaved variety of the Cérasus Laurocérasus used frequently to be sold for it.

p. 780.

CHAP. XXXIV.

OF THE HARDY AND HALF-HARDY PLANTS OF THE ORDER

AQUIFOLIA CEÆ. Identification. Lindley's Key, p. 63. Synonymes. Celastrineæ, tribe Aquifoliaceæ, in part, Dec. Prod., 2. p. 11.; Ilicineæ, in part,

Lindl. Introd. to N. S., p. 178., Don's Mill., 2. p. 14.

Distinctive Characteristics. Calyx and corolla with an imbricate æstivation. Sepals 4–6. Corolla hypogynous, with 4–6 lobes, and as many stamens inserted into it alternately to its lobes. Ovary 2–6-celled; a pendulous ovule in each cell. Fruit fleshy, indehiscent, with from 2—6 stones, each containing a pendulous seed, which has large fleshy albumen. Flowers small, axillary, solitary, or fascicled. (Lindl. Introd, to N. S.) Myginda is described as having a l-celled fruit. The species of Aquifoliàceæ are evergreen and deciduous shrubs or trees, having alternate or opposite leaves, frequently coriaceous, glabrous, and sometimes feather-nerved. The genera containing hardy species are three, and are thus distinguished :MYGI'NDA Jacq. Sexes hermaphrodite. Calyx 4—5-cleft. Corolla deeply

4-cleft. Stamens 4, inserted into the base of the corolla. Fruit with (very

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