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the largest. 1072
mucronate. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 57.) A tree, a native of North America, where it grows from 30 ft. to 40 ft. high._It flowers in April and May, and was introduced in 1820. The difference between this sort and 0. europæ'a is so very slight, that we have no doubt of their being only one species. There are plants in the Horticultural Society's Garden, in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, and in the arboretum at Kew. The tree at Kew is grafted on the common ash ; and fig. 1071. represents two views of the trunk, to a scale of 1 in. to 12 ft. The point where the scion was inserted in the stock is indicated at g, and the circumstance that the former has enlarged nearly as much as the latter, is a proof that 0. (e.) americàna is a more robust-growing plant than 0. europæ'a ; but by no means that it is a different
19 species. When no other mode can be obtained of rendering a tree gardenesque, that of giving the trunk an architectural base, by grafting a slow-growing on a fast-growing species, may be resorted to with success. Perhaps, also, the application of the art of grafting might be worth adopting for certain ornamental 1071 trees to be planted in exposed situations; for the architectural base is strongly expressive of stability.
* 4. O. FLORIBU'NDA G. Don. The abundant-flowered Flowering Ash. Identification. G. Don in Loud. Hort. Brit., p. 12.; Don's Mill., 4. p. 57. Synonyme. Fraxinus floribunda D. Dor Prod. Fí. Nep., p. 106., Wall. Fl: Ind., 1. p. 150., Pl.
Rar. Asiat., 3. t. 277. Engravings. Wall. Pl. Rar. Asiat., 2. t. 277.; and our fig. 1072. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves with 2—3 pairs of elliptic-oblong, acuminated, serrated, glabrous, stalked leaflets, and an odd one, varying much in figure, the terminal, or odd, one Panicles terminal, compound, thyrsoid. Petals linear, clavate (ex Wall.); oval, oblong, obtuse (ex D. Don). Samara linear, or narrow - spathulate, obtuse, entire. Bark ash-coloured, dotted. Branchlets compressed. Flowers white. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 75.) A tree,
a native of Nepal, where it grows to the height of 30 ft. or 40 ft. It flowers in April, and was introduced in 1822. There was a plant of this species in the Horticultural Society's Garden, against the conservative wall, which died in the spring of 1836. Notwithstanding the tenderness of this species, we do not see any thing in that circumstance to prevent it from being merely a geographical variety of Oʻrnus americana or O. europæ'a. Though nothing can alter the nature of a plant, yet physical circumstances may to a considerable extent alter its habits, and even its constitution. The common European ash, if cultivated in the Himalayas, would, after many generations, in all probability become as tender as 0. foribúnda; and, in like manner, O. floribunda, after being cultivated for several generations in Europe, would in all probability become as hardy as 0. europæ'a.
1 5. 0. STRIA'TA Swt. The striped-barked Flowering Ash. Kentification. Swt. Hort. Brit., p. 256. ; Don's Mill., 4. p. 57. Synonyme. Fraxinus striàta Bosc ex Spreng. Syst., 1. p. 95. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves with 7 pairs of leaflets, which are villous beneath, as well as the petioles, and oblong, petiolulate, acute, toothed. Buds green. Branches striated. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 57.
) A tree, a native of North America, where it grows to the height of 30 ft. It flowers in April and May, and was introduced in 1818. We have not seen this sort.
App. i. Hardy Species of O'rnus not yet introduced. 0. xanthoxylödes G. Don ; Fraxinus xanthoxyloldes Wall. Cat., No. 2833. ; has the leaves pinnate; and 5 leaflets, which are small, oblong, tapering to the base, with the apex crenated, and almost sessile. Flowers lateral, aggregate. Fruit lateral, aggregate. Samaras with emarginate wings. A tree, native to Sirinaghur.
0. Moorcroftiana G. Don; Fraxinus Moorcroftiana Wall. Cat., No. 2834.; has the leaves pinnate; and leaflets, which are 5, oblong, acuminated at both ends, glabrous, almost sessile, paler beneath, finely denticulated, the odd one the largest. Fruit disposed in simple, aggregate, lateral racemes. Samara with an emarginate wing, furnished with a little point in the centre of the notch. A tree, native to Luddac, in the East Indies.
0. urophylla G. Don; · Fraxinus urophylla Wall. Cat., No. 2835. Leaves pinnate, on long petioles. Leaflets 5–7, on long petiolules, membranous, ovate-oblong, long-acuminated, serrated. Peduncles panicled, axillary. Flowers much smaller than those of 0. foribúnda. A tree, dative to Suhet, on the Pundua Mountains. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 57.)
App. ii. Alphabetical List of the Sorts of Fráxinus and Oʻrnus
in the Arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, and in the Horticultural Society's Garden, with their Names referred to the different App. iii. List of the Sorts of Fraxinus and Oʻrnus in the Arbo
Species to which they are presumed to belong.
the Arboretum Britannicum, are in small capitals; and those of which there are plants in the
Arboretum, and in the species and varieties
Hort. Soc. Garden. to which the plants belong. F. acuminata. F. americana acuminata. F. juglandifolia. F. am, juglandifolia amaríssima. cxcélsior parvifolia.
lancea. AMERICANA. AMERICA'NA.
LENTISCIFOLIA. álba var., H.S. var.
PE'NDULA. álba affinis, H.S. var.
lucida opaca, H.S.
microphylla, H.S. am. var.
monophylla, H.S. ex, heterophflla. angustifolia, H.S. excelsior var.
nana argentea. parvifolia
am. nigra atrovirens. atrovirens.
0. europæ'a. caroliniana am. caroliniana.
europæ'a, H.S. europæ'a.
(e.) var. latifdlia, H.S. var.
latifolia, H.S. (e.) latifolia cinerea, cinerea.
F. am. ovata. crispa, H.S. excélsior. var.
ex. parvifolia. curvidens, am. cúrvidens, oxyphylla.
oxyphylla Stevens. parvifolia. epiptera.
am. pannosa. ANGUSTIFO'LIA, ANGUSTIFOLIA.
ex. parvifolia H.S.
parvifolia, argéntea, H.S.
foliis argénteis. parvifdlia màjor, H.S. parvifolia atrovirens, H.S. excélsior var.
pennsylvánica. am. pennsylvánica
pubéscens longifolia. pubescens longifolia
quadrangulàris. am. quadrangulata.
quadrangulata striped bark, H.S. jaspidea.
quadrangulàris ner- quadrangulata ner
salicifolia expansa. expánsa. sambucildlia.
am. sambucildlia. floribunda, H.S. O'rnus floribúnda.
var. fúsca, H.S. F. am. var.
ex. heterophylla glauca. glauca. Theophrasti.
am. Theophrasti. heterophflla, H.S. ex. heterophylla
ex. parvifolia horizontalis, H.S. ex. var.
retum of Messrs. Loddiges, and in the Chiswick Garden, arranged alphabetically under the different Species to which they are pre
sumed to belong
The names which are applied to the same plants in the Arboretum Britannicum and in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, or the Chiswick Garden, are in small capitals. The synonymes, when more than one, are in Italics. Names of Species and
Names in the
Names in the
Chiswick and Hackney in the Arb.Brit. Arboretums. in the Arb. Brit.
Arboretums. F. AMERICA'NA. F. AMERICA'NA.
F. EX, ANGUSTIFOʻLIA. F. EX. ANGUSTIFOʻLIA, álba var., H.S.
H.S. álba affinis, H.S.
atrovirens. glabra, H.S.
expansa ovàlis, H.S.
FO LIIS ARGE'NTEIS. EX. FO'LIIS ARGE'Nretusa, H.S.
TEIS. caroliniana álba
ex. argentea, HS. var., H.S.
FUNGOSA, latifolia, H.S.
heterophylla. heterophylla, H. S. mollis, H.S.
monophylla, H.S. fúsca, H.S.
simplicifolia. lucida opaca, H.S.
HORIZONTA'LIS. EX, HORIZONTA'LIS. microphylla, H.S.
EX, JASPI'DEA. pubéscens virens, H.S.
er. with striped bark, sambucifolia crispa.
H.S. am. acuminata. acuminata.
parvifolia màjor, juglandifdlia juglandifolia
pálida. pennsylvánica. pennsylvánica.
rotundifolia. platycá rpa. platycarpa.
virens. polemoniifolia polemoniifolia
EX. PE'NDULA, pubescens pubéscens, H.S.
péndula, H.S. longifdlia. longifolia
salicifolia. parvifdlia parvifdlia
EX. VERRUCO'SA. quadrangulàta. quadrangulàris.
VERRUCO'SA PE'N- EX. VERRUCO SA quadrangulàla, H.S.
PENDULA. quadranguldta ner. quadrangulàta ner.
VERTICILLA'TA, EX. VERTICILLA TA. vosa, vosa.
LENTISCI PO'LI. LENTISCIFO'LIA.
LENTISCIF, Pe'r- LENTISCIFOʻL. PE'Nsambucifolia. sambucifdlia
O. EUROPB'^, H.S. EXCELSIOR, BXCE'LSIOR.
F. O'rnus. nigra, H.S.
0. globifera. pållida, H.S.
(europæ'a) ameri. 0. americàna. atrovirens, H.S.
cana. angustifolia, H.S.
(europæ*a) latifolia, latifdlia, H.S. horizontális, H.S.
F. floribunda, H.S.
Many of the names given in the above Appendixes, as placed against plants in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and in Messrs. Loddiges's arboretum, are, doubtless, synonymes for the same sort; nevertheless, this is not the case to such an extent as might at first sight be supposed; for the European and American ashes vary so much in their foliage, that many of the varieties are remark. ably distinct ; and all of them are beautiful. To close observers of nature, the common British ash varies exceedingly in its foliage; not only where it occurs in native woods, but in artificial plantations; and it is not, therefore, to be wondered at, that the American ash is equally subject to variation. The worst circumstance connected with the culture of the ash is, that it will only thrive in certain soils and situations; and we would, therefore, recommend those who wish to possess complete collections of thriving trees to be particular in choosing such a soil and situation for them as is found congenial to F. excélsior. (See p. 1214.) The common oak varies as much in its foliage as the common ash ; and it may be asked by the general reader, how it happens, that, while there are upwards of a score of varieties of the latter for sale in the nurseries, there is not more than one or two of the former. The reason is, the ash propagates freely by budding and grafting ; but the oak by neither of these modes, except with extreme difficulty. Were it not for this, the varieties of the common and Turkey oaks, propagated for sale in the nurseries, would be ten times more numerous than those of the commoan and American ashes. It is true, the oak is propagated by inarching, and even occasionally, as it rnay be seen in Gard. Mag., vol. xii., by whip-grafting, but, by both modes, always with difficulty and uncertainty.
OF THE HARDY AND HALF-HARDY LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF THE
ORDER JASMINA CEÆ.
JASMI'NUM Forskoel. THE JASMINE. Lin. Syst. Diándria Monogynia. Identification. Forskoel Ægyp. Arab., p. 59.; Dodon. Pempt., p. 1557. ; Tourn. Inst., Sti8.; Lin.
Gen., No. 17. į Juss. Gen., 106. ; R. Br. Prod., p. 521.; Gærın. Fruct., 1. p. 196. t. 42.; Lam. IIL,
t. 7. ; Lindl. Nat. Syst. Bot., 2d edit., p. 309.; Don's Mill., 4. p. 59. Synonymes. Mongorium Lam. ; Jessamine; Jasmin, Fr. and Ger. ; Schasmin, Ger.; Gelsomine,
Ital.; Jazmin, Span.
flowers has no resemblance to that of the violet. Forskoel, in his Ægyp. Arab., p. 59., says that it is taken from the Arabian name of the plant, Ysmym, which appears much more probable. Gen. Char., fc. Calyx tubular, 5—8-toothed or 5—8-cleft. Corolla 5—8-cleft.
Stigma 2-lobed or bifid. Berry didymous, having one of the lobes usually abortive. Seeds without albumen. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 59.)—Twining or rambling shrubs. Leaves simple or compound, mostly evergreen. Petioles articulated. Flowers white or yellow, odoriferous. Propagated readily by cuttings in common garden soil, and usually grown against walls.
* 1. J. FRU'TICANS L. The sprig-producing, or shrubby, Jasmine. Identification. Lin. Sp., 1. p. 9., Syst., ed. 14.; Vahl Enum., 1. p. 33. ; Don's Mill., 4. p.. Synonyme. J. heterophøllum Mænch, Lob. Adv., p. 389. f. 390. Engravings. Bot. Mag., 13. t. 461. ; Schmidt Baum., 3. t. 148. ; and our fig. 1073. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves alternate, trifoliolate, and simple, glabrous; leaflets
obovate or cuneiform, obtuse. Branches angular. Calycine segments subulate. Peduncles terminal, by threes. Corolla yellow, with oblong obtuse segments. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 63.) A shrub, a native of the south of Europe, and throughout the Levant, where it grows from 6 ft. to 8 ft. high, and flowers from May till October. It was introduced in 1570, and is frequent in British gardens, where it forms a very desirable subevergreen, either for planting in borders, or against walls; flowering freely, 1073 and ripening abundance of fruit, which is black when ripe. It sends up numerous suckers; which, when it is desired that the plant should assume a gardenesque character, should all be removed, leaving the branches to proceed from a single stem, or from two, three, or any other small and limited number of stems. On the other hand, when the plant is intended to assume a picturesque or natural habit, it should be allowed to throw up suckers, unlimited by any thing but the circumstances in which it is placed with reference to soil and other plants. In the last character, it is a very suitable plant for the front of a picturesque or wild-looking shrubbery. Plants of this species, in the London nurseries, are 25s. a hundred ; at Bollwyller,
half a franc per plant; and at New York, 50 cents each. Variety. A semi-double flower has been observed on a plant of this species, in a garden in Suffolk,
but we are not aware that it has been propagated. The existence of double-Howered varieties of J. Sámbac and J. officinale shows a tendency in this genus to vary into double flowers.
2. J. uu'mile L. The humble, or Italian yellow, Jasmine. Identification. Lin. Sp., 1. p.9. ; Vahl Enum., 1. p. 33. ; Don's Mill., 4. p. 63. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Engravings. Bot. Reg., t. 350.; Besl. Eyst., 40. f. 2.; Knor. Thes., 1. t. 1. ; Schmidt Baum., t. 149. ;
and our fig. 1074. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves alternate, acute,
trifoliolate, and pinnate. Branches angular. Calycine segments very short. Plant glabrous. Peduncles terminal, 1074 twin, or ternary, 3-flowered. Corolla yellow, with oblong obtuse segments. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 63.) An erect shrub, a native of Madeira, where it grows 3 ft. or 4 ft. high, and Aowers from June till September. It was introduced in 1656, and is not unfrequent in collections, being annually imported from Genoa, with the orange tree; and hence it is frequently called the Italian yellow jasmine. There are vigorous-growing plants of this species in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and in the Hammersmith Nursery. Price 1s. 6d. or 2s. per plant.
. 3. J. HETEROPHY'LLUM Roxb. The various-leaved Jasmine. Identification. Roxb. F). Ind., 1. p. 99. and 164. ; Don's Mill., 4. p. 63. Synonymes. J. arboreum Hamilt. MSS. In Nepal it is called Goojee and Javana. Engravings. Wall Pl. Asiat. Rar., 3. t. 275. ; and our fig. 1075. Spec. Char., &c. Arboreous. Leaves alternate, simple or trifoliolate, oblong
elliptic or broad-ovate, acuminated, waved, lucid, firm, glabrous. Panicles terminal, trichotomous, fastigiate, corymbose, downy. Calyx urceolate, with short subulate teeth. Segments of the corolla oblong, equal to the tube in length. Leaves varying in size and form. (Don's Mill., iv. p.63.) This species, in its native country (Nepal), grows to a middle-sized
1075 tree, with long round branches, which have a tendency to become rambling. In British gardens, into which it was introduced in 1820, it is always planted against
a wall; and it appears to be as hardy as J. revolùtum, the next species. Plants against the wall, in the Horticultural Society's Garden, have stood out since 1832, and have flowered freely. The flowers are very numerous, of a bright yellow, and fragrant.
. 4. J. REVOLU'Tum Ker. The revolute-flowered Jasmine. Identification. Ker Bot. Reg., t. 178. ; Sims Bot. Mag., t. 1731.; Don's Mill., 4. p. 64. ; Lodd. Cat.,
ed. 1836. Synonymes. J. chrysanthemum Roxb. Fl. Ind., 1. p. 93.'; the Nepal yellow Jasmine. Engravings. Bot. Reg., t. 178.; Bot. Mag., t. 1731. ; Bot. Cab., t. 966.; and our fig. 1076. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves alternate, pinnate. Leaflets 5—7, ovate-lanceolate
or elliptic, glabrous, on short petiolules. Corymbs terminal, compound. Calycine teeth very short, mucronate. Branches angular, glabrous. Leaves shining, and flowers bright and yellow, and very fragrant. (Don's Mill., iv. p. 64.) A rambling shrub, a native of the mountainous countries north of Hindostan and of Nepal. Introduced in 1812, and producing its bright