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of its white flowers, rendering it highly ornamental. It was introduced in 1736, and flowers in May and June.

L. prostratum; Ammýrsine prostràta Swt., Loud. Hort. Brit., No. 28221.; A. Lyoni Swt. Hort. Brit., ed. 1830, p. 344.—Branches spreading. Leaves oblong. We had this plant some years ago, but have now lost it. It appeared distinct from L.thymifòlium Pers.; but, whether specifically so or not, we are uncertain.

Genus XXV.

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LE'DUM L. The LEDUM. Lin. Syst. Decándria Monogynia. Identification. Lin. Gen., No. 546. ; Gærtn. Fruct., 2. p. 145. t. 112. ; Juss. Gen., 159.; Nutt, Gen.

Amer., 1. p. 275. Deridation. Ledon was the name applied by the ancients to a plant producing the substance called labdanum, and now known by the name of Cistus Ledon. In foliage, the Ledum of modern botanists bears some distant resemblance to the plant of the ancients.

Description, $c. Evergreen shrubs of small size, or decumbent; natives of Europe and North America.

a 1. L. PALU'STRE L. The Marsh Ledum. Identification. Lin. Sp., 651. ; Ed. Fl. Dan., t. 1031. ; Pursh F1. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 500.; Don's Mill.,

3. p.851. Synonymes. Lèdum silesiacum Clus. Pan., 68. ; Rosmarinum sylvés.

966
tre Cam. Epit., 546.
Engravings. "Du Ham. Arb., 1. t. 67.; Schmidt Baum., t. 136. ; Lodd.

Bot. Cab., t. 560.; Hayne Abbild., t. 57. ; and our fig. 966.
Spec. Char., fc. Leaves linear, with revolute mar-

gins, clothed with rusty tomentum beneath. Sta-
mens 10, longer than the corolla. Flowers white.
Leaves resembling those of rosemary. (Don's
Mill., iii. p. 851.) A shrub, 2 ft. high; a native of
Canada, in swamps, and round the mountain lakes
of New York; in Kotzebue's Sound, &c.; also
of the north of Europe, as of Denmark, Silesia,
&c. It was introduced in 1762, and flowers in

April and May.
Variety.
R. L. p. 2 decumbens Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2.,

vol.iii. p. 48., is a decumbent shrub, a native

of Hudson's Bay.
2. L. LATIFO‘LIUM Ait. The broad-leaved Ledum, or Labrador Tea.
Identification. Ait. Hort. Kew., 2. p. 65. ; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 300.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 851.
Synonymes. L. grænlandicum Retz. Obs., 4 p. 26., Fl. Dan., t. 567.; L. palústre Miche. È7. Bor.

Amer., 1. p. 259. į Labrador Tea, Amer.
Engravings. Jacq. Icon., 3. t. 464.; Schmidt Baum., t. 164. ; Lam. Ill., t. 363. ;

f. 1.; Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 534. ; Fl. Dan., t. 567. ; and our fig. 967.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves linear-oblong, with replicate mar-

gins, clothed with rusty tomentum beneath. Stamens 5, about the length of the corolla. Flowers white. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 857.) A larger and broader-leaved shrub than L. palustre; growing to the height of from 2 ft. to 4 ft. ; the leaves of which are said to be used, in Labrador, as a substitute for tea. Bees are very fond of the flowers. A native of Canada, in mossy swamps; and of Greenland, Labrador, Newfoundland, and Hudson's Bay. This, or the preceding species, has lately been found in Ireland. It was introduced in 1763, and flowers in

967 April and May.

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* 3. L. CANADE'NSE Lodd. The Canadian Ledum.
Identification. Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 1049. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 851.
Engravings. Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 1049. ; and our fig. 968.
Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves ovate-petiolate, white beneath.

Flowers disposed in terminal umbellate corymbs, large.
Flowers white. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 851.) A shrub,
from 3 in. to 6 in. high; a native of Canada, in swamps;
and flowering in April and May. It is in cultivation
in British gardens, but the year of its introduction is
uncertain.

969

Sect. III. VACCINIE'Æ D. Don. Identification. D. Don in Edinb. Phil. Journ., 17. p. 152. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 851. Sect. Char., 8c. Anthers 2-celled. Ovary connate with the calyx. Disk

perigynous, nectariferous. Fruit baccate. Gemmation scaly. The genera in this section agree with Vaccínium in the ovary adhering to the calyx. (Don's Mill., iii.p. 851.) Deciduous and evergreen shrubs, natives of Europe and North America; cultivated in peat soil, and propagated, generally, by division of the plant, but sometimes by layers, and, when necessary, by cuttings or seeds.

Genus XXVI.

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P. 851.

VACCI'NIUM L. THE WHORTLEBERRY. Lin. Syst. Oct-Decándria

Monogynia.
Identification. Lin. Gen., 191.; Ait. Hort. Kew., 2. p. 355. ; Pursh Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 282. ; Juss.

Gen., 162. ; Nutt. Gen. Amer., 1. p. 263. ; Lam. nii., 286.; Gærtn. Fruct., t. 28.; Don's MGI,
Synonymes. Vitis idæ'a Tourn. Inst., t. 377,; Airelle, Fr.; Heidelbeere, Ger.
Derivation. An ancient Latin name, but whether of a berry or a flower, has been a point in dispute
among critics, as well as its etymology.

Description. The species are shrubs, varying in height from 6 in. to 10 ft., some natives of Europe, but the greater part of North America. They are gemmaceous, with the bud scales often permanent on the base of the small branches; and the leaves often beset with resinous dots. The flowers are pedicellate, and either in solitary racemes, or in tufts. They are generally drooping, inodorous, tinted with various shades of red or pink, never blue, and scarcely ever yellow. They are succeeded by berries, black, purple, bluish, or red, covered with a fine bloom, generally eatable: some of them agreeable, and excellent in tarts; and others austere, acid, and scarcely wholesome in a raw state. In general, it may be observed, that the species are in a good deal of confusion, from the whole of them never having been studied together in the same garden. We have followed the arrangement of G. Don, as the latest and best, not having had an opportunity ourselves of examining all the species said to be in cultivation in British gardens. The best collection of large plants of the genus Vaccinium, in England, is at White Knights; and of plants for sale, at Messrs. Loddiges's. Price, of the common sorts, from ls. 6d. to 2s. 6d. each; of the rarer kinds, from 3s. to 5s, each,

A. Leaves deciduous. a. Pedicels l-flowered, usually solitary, rarely twin, or fasciculate. 1. V. Myrti'llus L. The Little-Myrtle-like Whortleberry, or common

Bilberry, or Bleaberry. Identification. Lin. Sp., 498.; Ger. Emac., 1415.; Matth. Valgr., 1. p. 410. ; Cam. Epit., 135, ;

Smith Eng. Fl., 2. p 219.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 851. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Engravings. Engl. Bot., t. 456. ; Fl. Dan., t. 974, ; and our fig. 969. Spec. Char., &c. Pedicels solitary, 1-flowered. Leaves serrated, ovate, smooth.

Stem acutely angular, smooth. Calyx hardly
divided. Corolla globose, generally 5-cleft, of a
very delicate, waxy, pink hue. (Don's Mill., iii.
p. 852.) A shrub, from 6 in. to 2 ft. high; a
native of heaths, stony moors, and mountain
woods, throughout most parts of Europe, es-
pecially the more northern countries; and also
in the north of Africa and Asia; and at Nootka
Sound and Nova Scotia, in America. It is plen-
tiful in Britain and Ireland, and also in Iceland.
According to H. C. Watson, it becomes pro-
cumbent about the subalpine zone in England,
and rarely produces flowers. Only the loftiest
mountains in Scotland rise sufficiently high to

969
arrest its ascent. It is seen on the summit of
Ben Lawers, 4000 ft. above the level of the sea, and on some other moun-
tains rather higher. In general, it grows at elevations of from 200 ft. to
600 ft. higher than Empetrum nigrum. It is found in every country in
Britain, from Cornwall to Caithness, least frequently in the south-eastern
countries, and increases in quantity as we advance northward.

“ This
is one of the species,” Mr. Watson observes, “ that, if allowed, would over-
run Britain, and form, with Calluna vulgaris and E'mpetrum nigrum, much
of the natural physiognomical character of its vegetation.” (Outlines, &c.,
p. 201.) The berries of this species are of a bluish black, about the size
of currants, and covered with a mealy bloom : they are eaten in tarts,
or with cream, or made into jelly, in the northern and western counties of
England and Scotland; and, in other parts of the country, they are made
into pies and puddings. In Devonshire, the berries are eaten with clotted
cream; in Poland, mixed with wood strawberries, and eaten with new
milk, they are considered a great delicacy. Their juice has been em-
ployed to stain paper or linen purple. In autumn, many kinds of game
live upon their berries, and the plant affords them shelter. In gardens,
it may be cultivated in sandy peat, kept moist, in a situation airy, but

somewhat shaded.
Variety.
# V. M. 2 báccis álbis has white fruit. At the moment when we were

writing this article (June 6. 1836), Mr. John Booth of the Floet-
beck Nursery, near Hamburg, called on us, and, among other
information, stated that a patch of 154 plants of this variety had
lately been discovered in the Black Forest, and that he had plants

of it for sale.
Mr. Menzies brought from the west coast of North America specimens
of what may be considered as a gigantic variety of V. Myrtillus, which
he found growing there to the height of 7 ft. or 8 tt.; but it has not yet been
introduced.

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2. V, uligino'sum L. The bog Whortleberry, or great Bilberry.
Identification. Lin. Spec., 499.; Smith Eng, Fl., 2. p. 210. ; Don's Mill., 3. p 851.; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.
Synonyme. Myrtillus grandis Bauh. Hist., 1. p. 518.
Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 581. ; FI, Dan., t. 231. ; and our fig. 970.
Spec. Char., fc. Pedicels somewhat aggregate, 1-flowered. Leaves obovate,

entire, smooth. Branches terete. Taller than the common bilberry, and
of a more glaucous hue. Leaves glaucous beneath. Flowers flesh-
coloured, with 8 long-horned stamens. Berries large, juicy, black, and
covered with a mealy bloom. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 852.) A shrub, about
2 ft. high; a native of Sweden, Germany, Siberia, Switzerland, Savoy,
Scotland, and the north of England; as well as in the more northern parts
of America, and on its west coast; and on the Island of Sitcha, and in the
north of Asia, in marshy mountain heaths and alpine bogs. In Scotland,

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it flourishes, at an elevation of between 2000 ft. and 3000 ft., on the Grampians; and at the height of 3500 ft. in Aberdeenshire. It is said to cover extensive tracts of land on the west coast of Greenland, along with Andrómeda tetragona. (Cassiope tetragona D. Don). On the Carpathian Mountains, it grows at an elevation of 6000 ft. (Watson.). It produces its flowers in April and May. The berries are agreeable, but inferior in flavour to those of V. Myrtillus : eaten in large quantities, they occasion giddiness, and a slight headache. In France, they are used to colour wines red; and in Siberia and Sweden they furnish an ardent spirit that

970 is highly volatile and intoxicating. They afford excellent sustenance to game. The leaves are added to Lycopodium alpinum by the Icelanders ; and a yellow dye, for colouring woollens, is produced by an infusion of the two plants. În gardens, it may be cultivated like the preceding species.

. 3. V. ANGUSTIFO'lium Ait. The narrow-leaved Whortleberry. Identification. Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2., vol. 2. p. 356. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 852. Synonyme. 1. myrtilloldes Michr. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 234., Hook. in Bot. Mag., t. 3447., Engraving. Bot. Mag., t. 3447. Spec. Char., fc. Pedicels scattered, mostly solitary, l-flowered, naked.

Leaves lanceolate, nearly entire, downy at the ribs and margins. Berries large, and known by the name of bluets. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 852.) A shrub, nearly 2 ft. high; a native of Canada, about Hudson's Bay and Labrador; and of the high alpine woods of the Rocky Mountains, from the Atlantic to the Pacific. It was introduced in 1776, and flowers in April and May. In the Glasgow Botanic Garden it grows about 1 ft. high. The corolla is remarkable for its flagon-shaped appearance, and is of a pale yellowish green or white, tinged with red. The fruit is large, globose, blackish purple, and is highly esteemed by the inhabitants of the countries where the plant is indigenous .

** 4. V. CÆSPITO'sum Michx. The tufted Whortleberry. Identification. Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 234. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 852. Engraving. Bot. Mag., t. 3429. Spec. Char., fc. Flowers lateral, solitary, nearly sessile. Leaves somewhat

wedge-shaped, rounded, obluse, serrated, membranous, very smooth. A little shrub, with many crowded stems, from 2 in. to 4 in. high, very smooth in every part. Corolla of a short urceolate form. Berries nearly sessile, globose, and blue black, with a glaucous bloom. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 853.) It is a native of America, particularly about Hudson's Bay; and also in the Island of Sitcha, and on the Rocky Mountains. It was introduced in 1823, .and flowers in May. In the Glasgow Botanic Garden the blossoms of this species are numerous, and exceeding delicate and beautiful, being white, with a deep tinge of blush.

b. Flowers in sessile Tufts. ** 5. V. GALEZANS Michx. The Gale-like Whortleberry. Identification. Mich. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 232. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 853. Synonyme. V. galifórmis Smith in Rees's Cycl., No. 16. Spec. Char., 8c. Flowers on very short stalks, in sessile tufts. Leaves sessile, lanccolate-wedge

shaped, slightly serrated, downy. Calyx pointed. Corollas ovate, much contracted at the mouth. Style prominent Flowers small, yellowish white. Berries small

, globular, black. Michaux describes this shrub as having the aspect of Myrica Gale, with slight downy branches. Leaves vary: ing. The pedicels, shorter than the flowers, burst from a bud composed of numerous crowded scales. (Don's Mill., ill. p. 853.) A shrub, growing to the height of 2 ft ; a native of Virginia and Carolina, in shady woods and swamps. It was introduced in 1806, and flowers in May and June.

6. V. TENEʼLLUM Ait, The delicate Whortleberry. Identification. Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2., vol. 2. p. 358. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 853. Synonyme. V. pennsylvánicum Lam. Dict., p. 74., Michu. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 232, Hook, in

Bot. Mag.
Engravings. Wats. Dend. Brit , t. 35. ; Bot Mag., t. 3434. ; and our fig. 971.

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A low very

Spec. Char., fc. Flowers in dense sessile tufts. Leaves

nearly sessile, ovate-lanceolate, acuminated, finely
serrated, smooth, except the rib and margins.
Branches angular, with a downy line on each side.
Calyx of 5 deep, acute segments.
branching shrub. Corollas pale red, or white,
Berries large, bluish black, extremely sweet, and
agreeable to eat. (Don's Mill., iï. p. 853.) A shrub,
2 ft. high; a native from New England to Virginia,
on dry hills, on a gravelly soil. It was introduced
in 1772, and flowers in May. There are plants in
the Glasgow Botanic Garden, and at Messrs. Lod-

op 971 diges's. Variety. The mountains of Pennsylvania produce an immense variety of this

species, remarkable for the size and shape of the fruit, leaves, and flowers. Leaves sometimes 1 iv. long. (Don's Mill.)

7. V. LIGU’STRINUM Michx. The Privet-like Whortleberry. Identification. Michx. FI. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 283. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 853. Spec. Char., fc. Flowers in tufts, and nearly sessile; as are the leaves, which

are also erect, lanceolate, mucronate, finely serrated, veiny and downy. Corolla longish and ovate. Branches angular. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 853.) An erect shrub, from 2 ft. to 3 ft. in height, with membranous leaves, furnished with conspicuous, often purple, veins. Scales of the flower buds often purplish. Corollas purplish red. Berries black. The leaves vary extremely in shape and size. It is a native of North America, from Pennsylvania to Virginia, in dry woods, common on the mountains; and flowering from May to July. There are plants of it at Messrs. Loddiges's.

c. Flowers disposed in Racemes. 8. V. PA'LLIDUM Ait. The pale-flowered Whortleberry. Identification. Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2., vol. 2. p. 355. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 853. Spec. Char., &c. Racemes bracteate. Corolla cylindrically bell-shaped. Leaves ovate, acute, finely serrated. Don's Mill., iii. p. 853.) This low shrub is a native of North America, whence it was said to have been sent, in 1772, to the Kew Gardens, by Dr. Samuel Martin; but Pursh never met

It grows to the height of about 2 ft., and flowers in May and June. We believe it is not now to be found in British gardens.

9 9. V. ARBO'reum Marsh. The Tree Whortleberry. Identification. Marsh. in Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 230. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 853. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Synonyme. V. diffusum Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2., 2. p. 556. Engraving. Bot. Cab., t. 1885. Spec. Char., &c. Pedicels axillary and solitary, or terminal and racemose,

naked. Leaves ovate, acute, with slight glandular serratures, polished above, and rather downy beneath. Corollas bell-shaped, acute. Stamens the length of the tube. Corollas white, tinged with red. Berries globular, black, almost dry. Branches terete, downy while young. (Don's Mill, iii. p. 853.). This species joins the solitary-flowered species with the racemosefowered species; the axillary flowers being solitary and pedicellate, and the terminal ones racemose. A native of North America, from North Carolina to Florida, in dry woods, on the rocky banks of rivers; where it grows to the height of from 10 ft. to 20 ft., forming a very elegant shrub, which flowers in May and June. It was introduced in 1765, and is occasionally to be met with in collections. There is a plant of this species, 10 ft. high, in the walled garden at White Knights, and there are plants at Messrs. Loddiges's.

fik 10. V. stami'NEUM L. The long-stamened Whortleberry. Identification. Lin. Sp., 498.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 853. Synonymes. v. álbum Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 285.; V. elevatum Banks Herb., Lodd. Cat.,

Pluk. Mant., 22., Phyt., t. 339., f. 3.
Engravings. "Andr. Bot. Rep., t. 263.; and our fig. 972.

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with it in a wild state in America.

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