Page images

Spec. Char., fc. Stem pilose, procumbent. Leaves ovate-elliptic, ciliately

serrulated, coriaceous, without a mucro, and callous at the point. Pedicels axillary, 1-flowered, elongated, deflexed. Corolla ovate, with blunt revolute teeth, white. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 837.) A prostrate shrub, a native of Mexico. Introduced in 1828, or before; and found to be perfectly hardy in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, and in the garden of Canonmills Cottage. The hairy prostrate branches are furnished with numerous toothed evergreen leaves, 9 lines long, and 4} broad. The flowers are not large.

App. i. Hardy Species of Pernettya not yet introduced. P. microphylla Gaud. (Don's Mil., 3. p. 336.), A'rbutus microphylla Forst., A. serpyllifolia Lam., is a native of the Straits of Magellan, where it grows to the height of 2 ft. or 3 ft., but has not yet been introduced.

P. Myrsinites G. Don (Min. Dict., 3. p. 836.), Andrómeda Myrsinites Lam., is a native of the Straits of Magellan, in woods on the mountains ; where it grows to the height of 2 ft. or 3 ft.

App. ii. Half-hardy Species of Pernéttya. P. empetrifolia Gaud. (Don's Mill., 3. p. 836.), A'rbutus empetrifolia Lindl., A. pumila Willd., Andrómeda empetrifdlia Lam., is a much-branched, diffuse shrub, with lateral, solitary, drooping, white flowers, and leaves like those of Empetrum. It is a native of the Falkland Islands, where it grows to the height of 2 ft. or 3 ft, but has not yet been introduced.

P. pumila Gaud. (Bot. Reg., May, 1834), Arbutus pumila Forst., is a native of Magellan, introduced in 1820, of which there were plants in the Horticultural Society's Garden.

P. Cavanillesiàna G. Don Mill. Dict., 3. p. 837.), Andrómeda prostrata Cav., is a prostrate shrub, a native of South America, not yet introduced. P. purpurea D. 'Don is a native of Peru, with purple flowers; and P. ciliàris D. Ďon is a native of Mexico. ,



Identification. Lin. Gen., No. 551.; Schreb., 449.; Gærtn. Fruct., 63. ; Juss. Gen., p. 161. ; R. Br.

Prod., p. 559.; H. B. et Kunth Nov. Gen. Amer., 3. p. 282.
Derivation. So named by Kalm, from Gaulthier, a physician and botanist of Canada.

Description. Procumbent, evergreen shrubs, natives of the colder parts of North and South America.

hot 1. G. PROCU'MBENS L. The procumbent Gaultheria. Identification Lin. Sp., 565.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 839.; Lodd. Cat., ed 1836. Synonymes. Partridge Berry, Mountain Tea, Spring Winter Green, Smith's History of Nova Scotia. Engravings. Andr. Bot. Rep., 116.; Kalm Amæn., 3. p. 14. t. 1. f. 6.; Du Ham. Arb., 1. p. 286.

t. 113. ; Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 82. ; Sims Bot. Mag., t. 1896.; and our fig. 925, Spec. Char., &c. Stem procumbent. Branches erect, naked at bottom, but

with crowded leaves at top. Leaves obovate, acute at the base, finely and ciliately toothed. Flowers few, terminal, nutant. A little shrubby plant somewhat resembling seedling plants of Kálmia latifolia Flowers white. Berries red, eatable, and known by the name of partridge berries. The leaves, if properly cured, make a most excellent tea; for which reason, it is likewise known by the name of mountain tea. It was introduced in 1762, grows 4 in. or 5 in. in height, and produces it small white flowers from July to September. The flowers are succeeded by red fruit, which, in British gardens, remain on the plant a great part of the

925 winter. It is difficult to preserve alive, except in a peat soil kept moist. (Don's Mill., iïi. p.837.) A native of North America, in dry woods, on mountains, and in sandy places, from Canada to Virginia.


me 2. G. SHA’LLON Pursh. The Shallon Gaultheria. Identification. Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., I. p. 283. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 839. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Engravings. Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. fig. ; Hook. Bot. Mag., t. 2848. ; Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 1411. ;

Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 1372., and our fig. 926.
Spec. Char., &c. Procumbent, hairy on the stems. Leaves ovate, subcordate, ser-

rated, glabrous on both surfaces. Racemes secund, bracteate, clothed with rusty down.

Branches warted, clothed with rusty down when young. Leaves broad, abruptly acuminated. Pedicels scaly. Corolla white, tinged with red, downy, urceolate, with a closed limb. Berries globose, acute, fleshy, purple. This plant grows in the shade of close pine forests, where hardly any thing else will thrive, which makes it a very desirable shrub for plantations. The berries of the shallon are much esteemed by the natives, on account of their agreeable

926 flavour. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 837.) It was introduced in 1826, and is a native of North America, on the Falls of the Columbia, and near the Western Ocean. In British gardens, this plant is as hardy as if it were indigenous. It grows to the height of 2 ft. or 3 ft. in sandy peat, or even in sandy loam, in 3 or 4 years producing abundance of fruit, which forms excellent food for partridges, and may be used in tarts. In the North of England, and in Scotland, it has already been planted as undergrowth in artificial plantations, and in belts, clumps, and thickets in parks, for the sake of the shelter and food which it affords for game. It thrives in the immediate vicinity of London, growing luxuriantly in the Hackney arboretum.



App. i. Half-hardy Species of Gaultheria G. fragrantissima Wall. (Don's Mill., 3. 840.), G. fràgrans D. Don, Arbutus laurifolia Hainil., is an evergreen shrub, a native of Nepal, at Narainhetty; with leaves coriaceous, reticulately veined ; from 2 in. to 4 in. long; with corollas oblong, silky, pale red, and very sweet-scented. It was introduced in 1824, but we have not seen a plant.

App. ii. Hardy and half-hardy Species of Gaultheria, not yet

introduced. G.nummulariöldes D. Don Prod. Fl. Nep., p. 150., Don's Mill., 3. p. 839., is a native of the alps of Nepal, where it forms a much-branched procumbent shrub, with filiform branches, cordate leares, and small flowers, on very short axillary pedicels.

G. ciliata Cham. et Schlecht. in Linnæa, 5. p. 126., Don's Mill., 3. p. 839., is a glabrous shruty with coriaceous lanceolate leaves, sharply serrated ; a native of Mexico, on Mount Orizaba, along with Solànum tuberosum. The leaves are half an inch long, the flowers white, and the berries black.

Several other species are described in Don's Miller, as natives of different parts of South America and Nepal; and as requiring the green-house or stove.


EPIGÆA L. The EPIGÆA. Lin. Syst. Decándria Monogynia. Identification. Lin. Gen., No. 550. ; Schreb. Gen., No. 240.; Nutt. Gen. Amer., 1. p. 262; Don's

Mill., 8. p. 841. Synonymes. Memnécylum Mich. Gen., 13. ; May Flower, Nova Scotia. Derivation. From cpi, upon, and gaia, the earth; the plant creeps upon the surface of the earth.

Description. Creeping, tufted, evergreen shrubs, with fragrant flowers in dense, axillary, and terminal racemes; natives of North America.

21. E. RE'Pens L. The creeping Epigæa. Identification. Lin. Sp., 565.; Don's Mill., S. p. 841. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Engravings. Andr. Bot. Rep., 102. ; Lam. Ill, t. 567. f. 1.; Lodd. Bot. Cab., 160.; Pluk. Alm.,

t. 107. f. 1. Spec. Char., &c. Branches, petioles, and nerves of leaves very hairy. Leaves

cordate-ovate, quite entire. Corollas cylindrical. Flowers white, tinged with red, very fragrant. (Don's Mill., iii. p.841.) It is a native from Nova Scotia to Carolina, on shady rocks and in stony woods, on the sides of hills, and at the roots of pines; where it forms a creeping shrub, flowering from May to July. It was introduced in 1736; and succeeds in peat soil, kept rather moist, and protected with a frame or hand-glass, or with snow, during very severe frosts.




dria Monogynia. Identification. Don's Mill., 3. p.341. Synonymes. Vaccinium Lin. ; Gaultheria Pursh; Oxycóccus Nutt. ; A'rbutus Lam. Derivation. From phalēros, white, and karpos, a fruit; in reference to the colour of the berries.

Description. A small creeping plant, with hispid branches ; small, roundishoval, acute leaves ; and axillary, solitary, nearly sessile, ? white flowers; and the habit of wild thyme,

Por 1. P. SERPYLLIFO‘lia G. Don. The Wild-Thyme-leaved Phalerocarpus.
Identification. Don's Mill., 3. p. 841.
Synonymes. Vaccinium hispidulum Lin. Sp., 500., Michr. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 228. t. 23., Lodd.
Cat., ed. 1836; Gaultheria serpyllitdlia Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 283. t. is. ; Arbutus filiformis

Lam. Dict., 1. p. 228.; Oxycoccus hispidulus Pers.
Engravings. "Michx. FÍ. Bor. Amer., 1. t. 23. ; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., t. 13.
Spec. Char., fc. Berries white, produced in considerable quantities, aro-

matic, not very acid, and rather insipid than agreeable. The shrub has the same aromatic taste and smell as Gaulthèria procumbens. (Don's Mill., iïi. p. 841.) It is a native from Canada to Pennsylvania; and Nuttall has observed it north-westward of Lake Michigan : and Pursh remarks that it abounds more particularly where cedars and other evergreens are predomipant; keeping pretty constant pace with the northern forests of pines, larches, and firs; and growing always amidst Sphagnum. It is a creeping shrub, flowering in April and May. It was introduced in 1815, and, in British gardens, it is cultivated in moist peat, in an open airy situation.


[ocr errors]


CLE'THRA L. The CLETHRA. Lin. Syst. Decándria Monogynia. Identification. Lin. Gen., No. 553. ; Schreb. Gen., 751.; Gærtn. Fruct., 1. p. 301. t. 63. ; Juss. Gen.,

160.; Gron., 43. ; Nutt. Gen., 1. p. 275.; H. B. et Kunth Nov. Gen. Amer., 3. p. 288.; Don's

Mill., 3. p. 841. Synonyme. Cuellaria Ruiz et Pav. Syst, 105. Derivation. From klēthra, the Greek name of the alder; alluding to a supposed resemblance in the leaves.

Description. Deciduous shrubs, with alternate leaves, and terminal, solitary, or panicled racemes of white, bracteated flowers. From the appearance of the plants in British gardens, we are strongly inclined to think that all the sorts may be referred to one species.

ed. 1836

p. 73.


s l. C. ALNIFO‘LIA L. The Alder-leaved Clethra.
Identification. Lin. Sp., 566.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 841. ; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., I. p. 501.; Lodd. Cat.,
Synonyme. C. alnifolia var. ce denudata Ait. Hort. Kew., 2.
Engravings. Schmidt Baum., t. 47.;

Lam. II., 369.; Du Ham.
Arb., 1. p. 176. t. 71. ; Mill, Icon., 28. ; Catesb. Car., 1. t. 66.;
and our fig. 927
Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves cuneate-obovate, acute,

coarsely serrated above, glabrous on both sur-
faces, and of the same colour. Racemes spicate,
simple, bracteate, clothed with hairy tomentum.
(Don's Mill., iii

. p. 841.) It is a native of North America, from New England to Virginia, in swamps; where it forms a shrub growing from 3 ft. to 4 ft. high, and producing its white flowers from July to September. It was introduced in 1731 ; and is frequent in British gar

927 dens, among other peat-earth shrubs, where it is valued for its flowers.

. 2. C. (A.) TOMENTO'sa Lam. The downy Clethra. Identification. Lam. Dict, 2. p. 46. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 842. ; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 301. Synonymes. C. alnifdlia s pubescens Ait. Hort. Keu., 2. p. 73.; C. incana Pers. Ench., 1. P. 482. Engravings. Wats. Dend. Brit., t. 39. ; and our figs. 928, 929. Spec Char. fc. Leaves cuneate-obovate, acute, finely

928 serrated at top, clothed with white tomentum beneath. Racemes spicate, simple, bracteate, villously tomentose. This is a very distinct species, although it has been considered by some as a mere variety of the preceding. (Don's Mill., iii

. p. 929

842.) It is a native of North Ame-
rica, in Virginia and Carolina, in
swamps; where it forms a shrub
growing from 3ft. to 4 ft. high, and
flowering from July to October. It
was introduced in 1731, and is fre-

quent in collections, . 3. C. (A.) PANICULATA Ait. The panicled-flowered Clethra. Identification. Ait. Hort. Kew., 2. p. 73. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 842. ; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 502. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves narrow, cuneate-lanceolate, acute, acuminately ser

rated, glabrous on both surfaces. Panicle terminal, elongated, composed of racemes, and clothed with white tomentum. (Don's Mill., iii

. p. 842.) It is a native of Carolina, where it is a shrub growing 3 ft. or 4 ft. high, and flowering from July to October. Said to have been introduced in 1770; but the plants which bear this name in British gardens appear to be nothing more than C. alnifolia.

$ 4. C. (A.) ACUMINA'TA Michx. The acuminated-leaved Clethra. Identification. Michx. Fl. Amer. Bor., 1. p. 260.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 842.; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1.

p. 302. ; Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 1427. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Synonyme, C. montàna Bartr. Cat. Engraving. Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 1427. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves oval, acuminated, bluntish at the base, serrated,

glabrous on both surfaces, rather glaucous beneath. Racemes spicate, almost solitary, bracteate, clothed with white tomentum. Flowers resembling those of C. alnifolia. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 842.) It is a native of Carolina, on the high mountains; where it forms a large shrub, or low tree, growing from 10 ft. to 15 ft. high, and Aowering from July to October. It was introduced in 1806, and is frequent in collections.

5. C. (1.) SCA'BRA Pers. The rough-leaved Clethra. Identification. Pers. Ench., 1. p. 482. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 842.; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 302.



Spec. Char., &c. Leaves broad, cuneate-obovate, acute, scabrous on both surfaces, coarsely serrated

serratures hooked. Racemes spicate, sub-panicled, bracteated, finely tomentose. (Don's Mill., iii p. 842.) A native of the western parts of Georgia, where it was collected by Mr. Lyon, and by him introduced into Britain in 1806. It is a shrub, growing to the height of 3 ft. or 4 ft., and flowering from July to October.

App. i. Half-hardy Species of Clèthra. C. arbdrea Ait (Bot. Mag., t. 1057.; and our fig. 931.) is a wellknown green-house tree-like shrub, and is by far the handsomest species of the genus. It is a native of Madeira, with oblong, attenuated, lanceolate, serrated leaves, glabrous on both surfaces; and spike-formed racemes of white flowers, resembling those of the lily of the valley. It was introduced in 1784; grows from 8 ft. to 10 ft. high, in pots, and still higher when planted in the bed of a conservatory; and flowers from August to October. It thrives best in a sandy peat; and, if planted against a conservative wall, and sufficiently protected during winter, it would thrive in favourable situations, although plants flowering so late in the season are not the most desirable for such a purpose, for obvious reasons. A plant in the Kilkenny Nursery has stood against a south wall for several years, and Mr. Robertson is of opinion, that, in that part of Ireland, it will ultimately prove as hardy as the Olea excélsa, which lives through the winter there as a standard. There is a variety of this with the leaves variegated, which is found in some collections.

C. ferruginea Ruiz et Pav. Fl. Per., 4. t. 380. fig. b, is a native of Peru, on mountains, where it grows to the height of 15 ft. It was introduced in 1800, and is probably as hardy

as Clethra ar. bòrea.

C. tinifolia Swartz; Tinus occidentalis L., Browne's Jam., 214. t 21. fig. 1.; is a native of the south of Jamaica, and also of Mexico, where it grows to the height of 14 ft. It was introduced in 1825. C. mexicana Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836, appears to be this species.

Other species of Clethra, requiring a green-house, are described in Don's Miller, but they have not yet been introduced.



App. I. Half-hardy Genera belonging to the Section Ericeæ and

s Andromedeæ of the Order Ericàcea. Agarista la mythological name, in commemoration of the beautiful daughter of Clisthenes ; in reference to the beauty of the flowers) D. Don. (G. Don's Mill., 3. p. 837.) This genus is composed of evergreen shrubs, natives of the Mauritius and South America, which were formerly included under Andrómeda. Only one species is introduced, and that is an inhabitant of the green-house. A., buzifolia G. Don; Andrómeda buxifolia

Lam., Bot. Mag., t. 2660., Bot. Cab., t. 1494.; is a native of the Island of Bourbon, introduced in 1822, and producing its pink

flowers in June and July, It forms a fine evergreen shrub for a conservatory, where it grows to the height of 6 ft. or 7 ft., and would, probably, live against a conservative wall, with sufficient protection.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Sect. II. RHODOREA. The Rhodòreæ include genera of some of the most singularly ornamental evergreen and deciduous peat-earth shrubs that adorn our gardens ; for what would our American ground be without the genera Rhododendron and Azalea ? Our conservatories would suffer equally without the Indian and Chinese species of these families. Of all the genera in existence,” G. Don observes, " Rhododendron” (under which he includes the Azalea)" comprises the most handsome, elegant, and showy shrubs for adorning shrubberies or planting singly on lawns." Though, in Britain, these plants are solely cultivated as ornamental, yet, in their native countries, they are not without their other uses. “ The Rhodòreæ,” Mr. Royle observes, « abound in stimulant, and even deleterious, properties. Thus Rhododendron pónticum, R. máximum, R. ferrugineum, and R. chrysánthum are poisonous to cattle which feed on them; and yet, in moderate doses, are used in medicine, for the cure of rhenmatism, &c. Azalea procumbens L. and Ledum palustre are accounted diuretic; and L. latifolium, being more stimulant, is used as a tea, under tlie name of Labrador tea, but determines to the head. Kálmia latifolia is accounted poisonous, and honey collected by bees from its flowers is of a deleterious nature; as is that of Ă. pontica, which was so injurious to the soldiers in the Retreat of the Ten Thousand. In the Himalayan species, Rhododendron arboreum is more remarkable for its uses as a timber tree than the other species.


« PreviousContinue »