Page images
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

Society, and in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges, are 12 ft. high, after

baving been 10 years planted. Varicty. 1 A.h. 2 Milleri (A. Milleri Mayes in West of England Journ. of Science

and Lit., Jan. 1835; and Gard. Mag., xi. p. 259.) was raised from seed in the Bristol Nursery, from the scarlet-flowered variety of A. U nedo and A. Andráchne. The flowers are of a delicate pink,

the leaves are large, and the plant vigorous. 1 3. A. ANDRA'CHNE L. The Andrachne Arbutus, or Strawberry Tree. Identification. Lin. Sp., 566.; Ehret Act. Angl., 57. p. 114. t. 6.; Ker Bot. Reg., t. 113. ; Sims

Bot. Mag., t. 2024. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 834.
Synonymes. 1. integrifdlia Lam. ; Andráchne Theophrasti Clus. Hist., 1. p. 48.; Andráchne Park.
Theatr., 1490., f. 2. This is the Adrachnē of Theophrastus ; and it is called Adrachla in modern

Engravings. Ehret Act. Angl., 57. t. 6. , Bot. Reg., t. 113.; Bot. Mag., t. 2024. ; Park. Theatr.,

1490. f. 2.; and the plate in our last Volume. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves oblong, bluntish, entire in some, a little serrated in

others, glabrous. Panicles terminal, erect, clothed with viscid down. Flowers greenish white. Fruit like that of A. U\nedo. (Don's Mill., üi. p. 384.)

A native of Greece, Asia Minor, and Tauria. Varieties.

Tournefort enumerates three varieties, which he observed in the Levant:

1. With serrated leaves ;
2. With a large oblong fruit ;
3. With large compressed fruit; but there is only the

following variety, which is probably the first of those

mentioned by Tournefort, in British nurseries :-
1 A. A. 2 serratifolia (A. serratifolia Nois. ; the serrated-leaved Arbutus,

as shown in Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 580., and our fig. 921.; Don's Mill., 3.
p. 834.) has the leaves serrated, and narrower than those of the spe.
cies. The flowers are yellowish, and disposed in terminal clusters.
It is cultivated in British gardens; but it is not known when, of
from what country, it was introduced.

921 Description. This species differs from the common arbutus in having much longer leaves, smooth, coriaceous, and shining, and but slightly, if at all, serrated, and polished; but the outer bark cracks, and peels off in very thin papery layers, annually. By this feature alone it is readily distinguished from the common arbutus. The flowers resemble those of the common sort; but the fruit is oval, with flat seeds ; whereas in the coinmon sort the seeds are pointed and angular. The plants, when young, are somewhat tender ; but, if kept in pots till 2 ft. or 3 ft. high before they are planted out, they will endure the winters in the neighbourhood of London without any protection; and will grow nearly as rapidly as the common arbutus, becoming eventually much larger and finer trees.

Geography. The A'rbutus Andráchne is most abundant in the Levant. It is found in the Isle of Candia, and in various islands of the Archipelago, in the neighbourhood of Damascus, Aleppo and Antioch ; also on Mount Olympus, about Smyrna, and in various other ports of Syria. It is found in some places in the north of Africa.

History. The tree abounds in Greece, and is mentioned by Theophrastus and other writers under the name of Adrachne. Pausanias says that the Adrachne produces the best fruit on Mount Helicon. In the Nouveau D: Hamel, it is stated that the translators of Pausanias have confounded two names, by which the Greeks designated two plants quite different: Adrachne, which is the species of A'rbutus now before us; and Andrachne, the

Portulaca of the Latins, and the modern Verónica Beccabúnga. Clusius, J. Bauhin, Ray, and Tournefort recognised this difference, and spelt the word accordingly; but Linnæus paid no attention to it. Theophrastus says that the Adrachne is a tree of which the leaves at the extremities of the branches are always green; and that its wood is employed for making tools for the weaver, and spindles for the women. Pliny says that the Adrachne resembles the Unedo; and Adrachla is the vulgar name for this species of A’rbutus throughout Greece, at the present day, as indicated in the synonymes above. This species was first brought to England from Smyrna in 1724, and cultivated at Eltham by Dr. Sherard ; many years afterwards, it was sent from London to Paris; and it is now frequent in the gardens in the neighbourhood of both capitals: in the environs of London, as a shrub or low tree in the open ground; and about Paris, as a conservatory plant for training against a wall, and protecting in winter. In Smith's Correspondence of Linnæus, it is stated that the A’rbutus Andráchne fowered for the first time in Europe in Dr. Fothergill's garden at Ham House, in Essex, in May, 1766. The plant there was raised from seed sent to Dr. Fothergill from Dr. Russell of Aleppo, in 1756. After Dr. Fothergill's death, the plant was sold by auction, in August, 1781, for 531. 11s. It was purchased by a nurseryman for the purpose of being cut up into scions for grafting on the common A'rbutus. It is also stated that a tree fully twice as large as that at Ham House, which was long the boast of the Chelsea Botanic Garden, was killed by the cold winter of 1796,


Properties and Uses. In countries where it is indigenous, the fruit is eaten, and the wood used for fuel and other useful purposes. The tree was so abundant in the neighbourhood of Aleppo, that, in Russell's time, it supplied nearly half the fuel in the city. In Britain, it is only to be considered in the light of an ornamental tree; and there are few evergreens which can be compared with it for the beauty and varied disposition of its foliage, and the singularity of the bark of its trunk, which annually presents a new and smooth surface to the eye.

Soil, Situation, &c. A free sandy loam, kept rather moist, seems to suit this tree where the climate is favourable to it: for example, in the neighbourhood of London; but farther north, a dry soil will be found preferable, in order that the plant may not be stimulated to make more wood than it can thoroughly ripen. The situation should always be sheltered, though not shaded by other trees. In a gardenesque arrangement of trees, the particular beauty of the trunk and branches of the andrachne will be best observed; but, if planted in picturesque masses in a shrubbery, its forms and foliage will harmonise very well with those of other species of A'rbutus, and of the larger Ericàceæ.

Statistics. In the environs of London there are plants of A'rbutus Andráchne, as standards, from 8 ft to 10 ft. high: one in the Hackney arboretum, 19 ft. high; and one in the Chelsea Botanic Garden 12 ft. high: there are also plants at White Knights, 13 ft. high, with heads 15 ft. in diameter. There is a tree of this species in the Edinburgh New Botanic Garden, which was re. moved thither from the old one in 1822, when it was 13 ft. in height, with a stem 104 in, in diameter, at 1 ft. from the ground. We have received notices of several other large specimens; but, as A. hýbrida resembles A. Andráchne in general appearance, and in the circumstance of casting its bark, We believe that species to have been frequently mistaken for the Oriental one in some of the accounts that have been sent us, from the rapid growth attributed to the trees. Price of plants, in the London nurseries, is from 3s. 6d. to 5s, each.

4. A. PROCE'ra Douglas. The tall Arbutus, or Strawberry Tree.
Identification. Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 1573.
Engraving. Bot. Reg., t. 1573.
Spec. Char., &c. A robust shrub, or rather tree, a native of the mountainous

woody parts of the north-west coast of North America, sent by Mr. Douglas
to the London Horticultural Society, in 1827. It bears a general resem-
blance-to A. Andráchne, but differs from it altogether in the form and
serratures of its leaves, and in the form and size of its flowers, the corollas
of which are of a delicate greenish white. Till the plant is 3 or 4 years
old, it requires protection during winter; and it will probably be found ad-
visable, in most situations north of London, to train it to a wall. There is
a plant against the wall, in the Garden of the Horticultural Society, which
has stood there since 1830, and has grown as high as the wall. In the
Fulham Nursery, this species appears to grow with greater rapidity than
any other of the genus. It is propagated by grafting on the common spe-
cies; and plants are 7s. 6d. each.

. 5. A. TOMENTO'sa Pursh. The downy Arbutus, or Strawberry Tree. Identification. Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 282. ; Hook. Bot. Mag., t. 3320.; Hook. Fl. Amer. and Ex.

Bot., 129. f. 1. ; Don's Mill., 3., p. 835. Synonyme. Arctostaphylos tomentosa Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 1791. Engravings. Bot. Mag., t. 3320.; Hook. Fl. Amer., and Exot. Bot., 122., f. 1.; Bot. Reg., t. 1791. Spec. Char., fe. Shrubby. The whole plant, except the flowers, downy

while young. Branches hispid. Leaves with short and hispid petioles, midribs hispid, and disks oval, acute, subcordate at the base, and clothed with white tomentum beneath. Flowers bracteated, disposed in somewhat headed racemes, that are axillary, and shorter than the leaves. Corolla campanulately pitcher-shaped, pure white. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 835.) A native of the west coast of North America, where it was collected by Mr. Menzies, and also by Mr. Douglas, and introduced in 1826. It deserves a place in every collection, from its copious evergreen foliage and showy flowers, which appear in profusion in a green-house in December, and in the open air in March. Plants have been kept in the open air in the garden of

William Harrison, Esq., of Cheshunt, since 1831. Variety. A. t. 2 nùda Hook. et Arnott in Beech. Voy. Pt. Bot.,144., Hook. Fl. Bor.

Amer, 2. t. 129. f. 4.- The plant is quite destitute of long stiff hairs.

(Don's Mill., iii. p. 835.) • 6. A. DENSIFLO'RA H. B. et Kunth. The densely flowered Arbutus, or

Strawberry Tree. Identification. H. B. et Kunth Nov. Gen. Amer., 3. p. 280. t. 260.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 836. Engraving. H. B. et Kunth Nov. Gen. Amer., 3. p. 280. t. 260. Spec. Char., 8c. Branches angular, pilose. Leaves 45 inches long; their

petioles long, pilose; their disks oblong, acute, sharply toothed, coriaceous, glabrous above, and shining beneath, clothed with brown-tinged down, and the middle nerve with long rusty-hued hairs. Flowers crowded, disposed in panicles that are terminal and composed of approximate racemes. Pedicels furnished with 3 bracteas at the base. Corolla oval, white. Filaments dilated and pilose at the base. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 835.) A native of Mexico, on the eastern declivities between La Plata and Xalapa ; growing to the height of 20 ft. It was introduced in 1826, and is somewhat tender.

App. i. Hardy Species of A'rbutus not yet introduced. A. laurif dlia Lin. Syst., 407., Suppl., 238., is a native of North America, but of what part is unknown, as Mr. G. Don could find nothing respecting it in the Linnæan herbarium.

A. Menzièsii Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 982., Hook. et Arn, in Beech. Voy., p. 143, is a tree, with leaves broad-oval, quite entire, glabrous, petioles long. Racemes axillary and terminal, padieled, and dense. It is a native of the north-west coast of America, where it was collected by Mr. Menzies

A. cordifolia ; Arctostaphylos cordifolia Lindi. Bot. Reg., Sept. 1835; was discovered by Mr. Menzies on the north-west coast of America. A. glauca ; Arctostaphylos glauca Lindl.,L C.; discovered in California by the unfortunate Douglas

App. ii. Half-hardy Species of A'rbutus. A. canariensis Lam. Dict., vol. 1., Bot. Mag., t. 1577., and our fig. 922., is a native of the Canary Islands, with oblong-lanceolate

922 serrated leaves, glaucous beneath ; and greenish white fowers, on hispid panicles. It has been in cultivation in British green-houses and cold-pits since 1796 ; Aowering in May and June; and, there can be no doubt, would stand against a conservative wall with the usual protection.

A. petiolaris H. B. et Kunth is a tree, a native of Mexico, on mountains, where it attains a large size. "The leaves are 3 or Sj in. long.

A. fìrens Hook. et Arn. is a low.growing shrub a native of Chili, about Concepcion. The fruit is a reddish brown berry, which, when eaten, is said to cause delirium.

A. xalapénsis H. B. et Kunth, and A. mblis H. B. et Kunth, which are natives of Mexico; and A. ferruginea Lin. Syst., 408., which is a native of New Granada, are described in Don's

Múler as trees; but they have not yet been introduced.




p. 287.

ARCTOSTA'PHYLOS Adans. The BEARBERRY. Lin. Syst. Decándria

Monogynia. Identification. Gall. Adans. Fam. ; H. B. et Kunth Nov. Gen. Amer., 8. p. 277.; Spreng. Syst., 2. Synonymes. U'va-úrsi Dod., Tourn. ; A'rbutus sp. Lin. Derivation. From arktos, a bear, and staphulē, a grape.

Description. Evergreen undershrubs, natives of Europe and of North and South America.

2 1. A. U'VA-Uʻrsi Spreng. The common Bearberry. Identification. Spreng. Syst., 2. p. 827. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 835. Synonymes. A'rbutus U'va-úrsi Lin. Sp., 566., Fl. Lapp., No. 162., t. 6. f. 3., Woodv. Med. Bot.,

194. t. 70., Fl. Dan., t. 33., Blackw., t. 592., Smith Eng. Bot., 714.; A'rbutus buxifolia Stokes Bol., 509. ; U'va-úrsi buxifdlia Sal. in Gray's Arr., 2. p. 100.; Bearberries, and Bear-whortle-berries, Eng: ; Barentraube, or Barenbeere, Ger.; Beerenduuif, Dutch.; la Basserole, Fr. ; Uva d'Orzo,

Ital.; Uva de Oso, Span. ; Uva de Urso, Port.; and Uva-ursi in the works of most old botanists. Engravings. Lin. Fl. Lapp., No. 162. t. 6. f. 3. ; Woodv. Med. Bot, 194. t. 70.; Fl. Dan., t. 33. ;

Blackw., t. 592. ; Engl. Bot, t. 714. ; Schmidt Baum., t. 138.; and our fig. 923.
Spec. Char., 8c. Stems procumbent. Leaves permanent, obovate, quite

entire, coriaceous, shining. Flowers fasciculate. Drupe 5-celled. Leaves
like those of the common box. Flowers pale red,
or white with a red mouth, growing in small clusters
at the extremities of the branches. (Don's Mill., iii.
p. 836.). A trailing shrub, a native of North America,
in the pine barrens of New Jersey, in mountains and
rocky situati

of Canada and New England, and in the Island of Unalascha. It is abundant on the continent of Europe; as, for example, in Sweden, Denmark, and most parts of the north; also in Switzerland, Germany, Carniola, Dauphiné, Savoy,

923 Siberia, &c. With us, it is common upon dry, heathy, mountainous, and rocky places, throughout the Highlands and Western Isles of Scotland; also in the north of England and Wales; flowering in May and June; and producing red berries, which are ripe in September. The berries are filled with an austere mealy pulp, and serve as food for grouse and other birds in Britain ; and, in Sweden, Russia, and America, they form a principal part of the food of bears. The whole plant is powerfully astringent: it abounds in the tannin principle; and, both in Sweden and America, it has been used for tanning leather, and dyeing it an ash-grey colour. It is also prescribed by rural practitioners in nephritic complaints; and, on the plains of the Mississippi, it is smoked by the Indians as a febrifuge. In British gardens, it finds a place among other peat-earth plants; and, though a native of cold and elevated regions, it thrives well in peat, kept moist, in the vicinity of London.

mnt 2. A. ALPI'NA Spreng. The Alpine Bearberry. Identification. Spreng. Syst., 2. p. 287. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 836. Synonyme. Arbutus alpina Lin. Sp., 566., Ed. Fl. Dan, 73., Smith Engl. Bot., t. 2030., Lightf.

Fl. Scot., 215. t. 11. f. a. b. Engravings. Engl. Bot., t. 2030. ; Lightf. F). Scot., 215. t. 11. f. a. b. Spec. Char., &c. Stems procumbent. Leaves ohovate, acute, wrinkled, ser

rated, deciduous. Racemes terminal. Pedicels rather hairy. The flowers grow in 'reflexed racemes, and are pure white. The berries are black when ripe, and of the size of a sloe, with a taste somewhat resembling that of black currants, but more mawkish; insomuch, that Linnæus says the Laplanders will scarcely eat them. Haller, on the contrary, thinks the flavour not

[ocr errors]

unpleasant. (Don's Mill., iii. p.836.) A trailing shrub, native of Denmark, Switzerland, Dauphiné, Savoy, Siberia, &c. Found wild in many places of the Highlands of Scotland, in dry barren moors. Nothing is more common, says Linnæus, in all the Lapland alps, in Dalecarlia, from their tops to their bases, round the White Sea, especially in very sandy places. It is also found in Canada, and the more northern parts of America, in the Aleutian Isles, &c. In British gardens, it has long been a favourite peat-earth trailing shrub, requiring an airy situation. It does not thrive in the immediate vicinity of London, nor where it is much sheltered; but, either on rockwork, in beds of dry peat, or in moist peat, it grows with great luxuriance, and occasionally ripens fruit.

App. i. Half-hardy Species of Arctostaphylos not yet introduced.

A. polifòlia H. B. et Kunth (Don's Mill., 3. p. 836., Andrómeda ledifolia Humb., is a native of the temperate parts of Mexico, growing to the height of from 4 ft. to 6 ft.

A. glaucescens H. B. et Kunth (Don's Mill., 3. p. 836.) is a native of Mexico, with lanceolateoblong leaves, and scarlet corollas.

A. pungens H. B. et Kunth Mill., 3. p. 836.) is a native of Mexico, in elevated places, near Moran and Villalpando, where it forms a branchy shrub, about a foot in height.

A. Hookeri G. Don (Mill. Dict., 3. p. 836.), Arbutus pungens Hook., is a native of Chili, where it forms a prostrate shrub, with the habit and leaves of A. U'va-ursi.



[ocr errors]

PERNEʻTTYA Gaud. THE PERNETTYA. Lin. Syst. Decándria

Identification. Gaud. in Frez. Voy., p. 454. t. 67. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 836.
Derivation. Named after Dom Pernetty, the author of the Account of a Voyage to the Falkland

Isles ; a work remarkable for its interest, as well as for its candour and exactness. The original
species of this genus was mentioned by this traveller under the name of “Bruyère à feuilles
pointues.” (Lindl. in Bot. Reg. t. 1675.)
Description. Evergreen undershrubs. Natives of North and South America.

1. P. MUCRONA'Ta Gaud. The mucronate-leaved Pernettya.
Identification. Gaud. in Ann. Sc., 5. p. 102. ; Don's Mill., 2. p. 856.
Synonyme. Arbutus mucronata Lin. fil. Suppl., p. 239., Forst. in Com. Gæt., 924

9. p. 31., Graham in Bot. Mag., t. 3093., Lam. Ill., t. 336. f. a., Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 1848., Penny Cyc., vol. 4.

P: Engravings. Lindl.

Bot. Reg., t. 1675. ; Bot. Mag., 6.3093. ; Lam. II., t. 336. f. a. ; Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 1848. ; and our fig. 924. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves ovate, cuspidate, denticulately serru

late, stiff, shining on both surfaces. Pedicels axillary, bracteate, about equal in length to the leaves. Flowers white, drooping: (Don's Mill., iii. p. 836.) A shrub growing to the height of from 2 ft. to 3 ft.; a native of Terra del Fuego, Cape Horn, and the Straits of Magellan. It was introduced in 1828, and flowers in May. In the garden of W. Harrison, Esq., of Cheshunt, in Hertfordshire it has, within 3 years, formed an evergreen bush, 31 ft. in diameter, and 24 ft. high, in a bed of peat soil.

It is a hardy evergreen shrub, of considerable beauty, on account of the neat appearance and dark colour of its foliage. (Bot. Reg., May, 1834.)

h 2. P. PILO'SA G. Don. The pilose, or hairy, Pernettya. Identification. Gard. Mag., 10. p. 286.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 837. ; Bot. Mag., 3177. Synonyme. A'rbutus pildsa Graham. Dr. Lindley says, “ As far as habit and the structure of the flowers are concerned, A'rbutus pildsa Graham would be referable to Pernéttya ; but we incline to believe that plant an Andrómeda" (Bot. Reg. t. 1675.); the doctor speaking of the genus An

drómeda as it stood previously to Professor Don's division of it. Engraving. Bot. Mag., t. 3177.

« PreviousContinue »