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about 10 in., and in the month of April turned out my plants. Many of these grew to admiration, and flowered beautifully in the following autumn. Having succeeded thus far, and being fearful lest the plants should be disfigured, or perhaps killed, by the winter's frost, I proceeded to erect a temporary frame over thein, with melon lights, old sashes, and feather-edged boards; the latter serving for the back, and nearly half of the roof sloped backwards, and the old sashes for the front and ends, so that the whole, when finished, looked something like a little green-house. The lights were always off in mild weather, and also in frosty weather during the day when the sun shone. In the month of April the frame was removed, and during the summer the plants grew rapidly, presenting a mass of vigorous shoots, covered with most beautiful foliage, and flowers of a very superior size and brilliancy of colour. This clump was admired by all who saw it. The species consisted of [we give the old names] Erica coccinea, verticillàta, grandiflora, cruénta, ignéscens, versícolor, mammosa, costàta, tubiflòra, Archeriana, curviflòra, concinna, exsurgens, vestita, cerinthöldes, ventricosa, báccans, Eweriana, Sparrmánni, spùria, and melástoma, with some others which I do not now remember. At the end of three years, when I left Cornwall, the plants had arrived at a fine state of maturity, and were far superior to any I had ever before, or have since, seen. (Gard. Mag., vol. ix. p. 585.) No ligneous flow. ering shrubs, whether hardy or half-hardy, are better deserving of culture than the heaths ; for, as we have before observed (Gard. Mag., vol. i. p. 366.), “ of what other genus can it be said, that every species, without exception, is beautiful throughout the year, and at every period of its growth ? in flower or out of flower, and of every size and age? perpetually green, perpetually in flower; and these flowers of various colours and sizes, and of many shapes ?” “ The two splendid natural orders Ericeæ and Epacrídeæ” (Ericeæ normales D. Don, and Epacridàceæ Lindl.), Mr. Marnock observes, " perhaps contain a greater number of really beautiful plants, than are to be found in all the other orders put together.”


ANDROMEDAL. The ANDROMEDA. Lin. Syst. Decándria Monogynia.
Identification. D. Don in Edinb. New Phil. Journ., 17. p. 157. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 828.
Synonyme. Polifolia Buxbaum Cent., 5. p. 5. t. 55. f. 1. ; Andrómeda sp., L.
Derivition. Andromeda was the name of the daughter of Cephalus, king of Ethiopia. She was tied

naked to a rock, and exposed to be devoured by a sea-monster to appease the wrath of Neptune; but was delivered by Perseus, who afterwards married her, and they had many children. The following reasons for the application, by Linnæus, of the name of Andromeda to this genus of plants are extracted from Sir J. E. Smith's translation of Linnæus's Lachesis Lapponica :-“ Andromeda polifolia was now (June 12.) in its highest beauty, decorating the marshy grounds in a most agree. able manner. The fowers are quite blood-red before they expand; but, when full grown, the corolla is of a flesh-colour. Scarcely any painter's art can so happily imitate the beauty of a fine female complexion ; still less could any artificial colour upon the face itself bear a comparison with this lovely blossom. As I contemplated it, I could not help thinking of Andromeda, as described by the poets; and the more I meditated upon their descriptions, the more applicable they seemed to the little plant before me; so that, if these writers had it in view, they could scarcely have

con. trived a more apposite fable. Andromeda is represented by them as a virgin of most exquisite and unrivalled charms; but these charms remain in perfection only so long as she retains her virgin purity, which is also applicable to the plant now preparing to celebrate its nuptials. This plant is always fixed on some little turfy hillock in the midst of the swamps, as Andromeda herself was chained to a rock in the sea, which bathed her feet, as the fresh water does the roots of this plant. Dragons and venomous serpents surrounded her, as toads and other reptiles frequent the abode of her vegetable resembler, and, when they pair in the spring, throw mud and water over its leaves and branches. As the distressed virgin cast down her blushing face through excessive affliction, so does this rosy-coloured flower hang its head, growing paler and paler till it withers away. Hence, as this plant forms a new genus, I have chosen for it the name of Andrómeda." (Tour in Lapland, &c., vol. i. p. 188.) Linnæus has drawn this fanciful analogy still farther in his Flora Lapponica. * At length,” says he, “comes Perseus, in the shape of summer, dries up the surrounding water, and destroys the monsters, rendering the damsel a fruitful mother, who then carries her head (the capsule) erect." These extracts are curious, not only

as showing the motives which induced Linnæus to bestow this apparently inapplicable naine on the plant, but as showing that the severe studies, and earnest search after truth, of the great naturalist, had not destroyed the vividncss of his fancy, or the powers of his imagination.

# 1. A. POLIFO'lia L. The Poly-leaved Andromeda, or Moorwort. Identification. Lin. Sp., 564. ; Lin. Fl. Lapp., 161. 1. 1. f.,3.; (Ed. Fl. Dan., t. 54. ; Smith in Eng.

Bot., t. 713, į Pall. Fl. Ross., 1. t. 1.; Pluk. Alm., 175. f. 1.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 829.
Synonymes. Rhododendron polifdlium Scop. Carn, No. 482.; Wild Rosemary, Poly Mountain,

Marsh Cistus, Moorwort, Marsh Holy Rose ; Andromède, Fr. and Ger.
Engravings. Lin. Fl. Lapp., t. I. f. 3. ; Fl. Dan., t. 54. ; Eng. Bot., t. 713.; Fl. Ross., 1. tl.;

Pluk. Alm., 175. f. 1. ; and our fig. 889.
Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves oblong, glaucous beneath. Corollas ovate, flesh-

coloured, or pale red. Segments of calyx ovate, spreading, white, sometimes tipped with red. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 829.) A native of the northern countries of Europe, on turfy bogs; as of Russia, Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany, Britain, &c.; of North America, in Canada and Labrador, Bay of St. Lawrence, &c., in bogs, and on the borders of mountain lakes; and in New York and Pennsylvania. In Britain, in mossy bogs in the mountainous parts of England and Ireland,

and the lowlands of Scotland. It is cultivated in gardens, in moist peaty soil, and it is only in such soil, and in an open airy situation, that it can be preserved for any

889 length of time. Like all the species of this order, it is propagated by layers, and sometimes by division. It flowers from May to September. This species and the following are sometimes admitted into ericetums, as being nearly allied to heaths, but in our opinion very improperly, for two reasons : first, because the leaves are so much broader than those of any heath, that, both in a general and a botanical point of view, they destroy the unity of the whole

or scene; and, secondly, because, to grow these two andromedas properly, they require to be planted in much moister peat than is suitable

for any species of heath. Varieties. The following varieties, the first of which may be considered as the normal form of the species, are enumerated in Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. & A. p. 1 angustifolia Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 1591., and our fig. 890., has

narrow leaves.
* A. p. 2 ericoides has the habit of a heath.
& A. p. 3 grandiflora Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 1714., and our fig. 891., has large

A. p. 4 latifolia Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 546., and our fig. 892., has broad



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# A. p. 5 mínima has small flowers.
B A. p. 6 revolùta Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 725., and our fig. 893., has the

flowers bent back.
* A. p. 7 scótica is common in Scotland.

A. p. 8 strícta has the branches erect.

2. A. ROSMARINIFO'LIA Pursh. The Rosemary-leaved Andromeda. Identification. Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 291.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 829. Synonyme. A. polifolia Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 2. p. 254., Pall. Fi. Ross., 2. p. 53. Engraving. Pall. Fl. Ross., 2. p. 53. t. 70. f. B. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves linear-lanceolate, convex, revolute, white beneath,

and canescent above. Corollas nearly globose. Calycine segments oblong red. Flowers white, tinged with red. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 829.) A shrub growing to the height of 1 ft.; a native of Newfoundland and Labrador, and flowering in June. It is occasionally to be met with in collections, but when it was introduced is uncertain.

Genus V.

CASSIOPE D. Don. The Cassiope. Lin. Syst. Decándria Monogynia.
Identification. D. Don. in Edinb. New Phil. Journ., 17. p. 157. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 829.
Synonyme. Andrómeda sp. Lin et Pall.
Derivation. From Cassiope wife of Cepheus, and mother of Andromeda, whose foolish boast that
her beauty was superior to that of the Nereides provoked the wrath of Neptune. (See p. 1105.)

21. C. HYPNöides D. Don. The Hypnum-like Cassiope.
Identification D. Don in Edinb. New Phil. Journ., 17. p. 157. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 829.
Synonyme. Andrómeda hypnoides Lin. Sp., 563., Lin. Fl. Lapp., 165. t. 1. f. 3.,
(Ed. Fl. Dan, t. 10., Pall. Fl. Ross., p. 55. t. 73. f. 2., Hooker in Bot. Mag., t.

2936. Engravings. Lin. Fl. Lapp., t. 1. f. 3. ; Fl. Dan., t. 10.; Pall. Fl. Ross., t. 73.

f. 2.; Bot. Mag., t. 2936. ; and our fig. 894. Spec. Char., &c. A small creeping shrub, resembling a kind of

moss. Leaves loose, flat, and needle-like. Flowers small, with a red calyx, and white corolla. (Don's Mill., iï. p. 829.) A native of Lapland, Denmark, and Siberia, on the mountains, where it covers whole tracts of land; and on the north-west coast of North America. Introduced in 1798; but rare in collections, from the difficulty of keeping it. There are

894 plants at Messrs. Loddiges, where it flowers in June and July, and is protected during winter.

2. C. TETRAGO'na D. Don. The 4-cornered-branched Cassiope. Identification. D. Don in Edinb. New Pbil. Journ., 17. p. 157.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 829. Synonyme.. Andrómeda tetragona Lin. Sp., 563., Lin. Fl. Lapp., 166, t. 1. t. 4., Pau, Fl, Ross.,

p. 50. t. 73. f. 4., Hooker in Bot. Mag., t. 3181. Engravings. Lin. Fi, Lapp., t. 1. 1.4. ; Pall. Fl. Ross., t. 73. f. 4.; Bot. Mag., t. 3181. ; and our

fig. 895. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaf obtuse, minutely ciliated, its margin revolute, in such a

manner as to render the leaf tumid, and somewhat 2-celled. Leaves appressedly imbricate in 4 rows, and into a 4-cornered column, of which the stem or branch is the axis and support. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 829.) A native of Lapland and Siberia; and, in North America, of Canada, Labrador, and the northwest coast; and of the Island of St. Lawrence, Kotzebue Sound. Introduced in 1810, and cultivated by Messrs. Loddiges, and in some other collections. It flowers in March and April, and re

895 quires protection during winter. This species and the preceding one may, without destroying the harmony of the scene, be admitted into the ericetum; but they are both difficult to keep, requiring a sandy peat, which should never be stirred after planting; and which should be kept cool, and, as far as practicable, in an equable degree of moisture throughout the year. Covering the soil round the plant closely with small pebbles, immediately after it is planted, has the effect of consolidating the soil, and retaining moisture; but in very hot sunshine, it produces rather too much heat.

App. i. Hardy Species of Cassiope, not yet introduced. C. lycopodiördes D. Don ; Andrómeda lycopodiöldes Pall. Fl. Ross., p. 55. t. 73. f. 1. ; is a small moss-like, creeping shrub, with red flowers, a native of Siberia and the Island of St. Lawrence.

C. ericöldes D. Don; Andrómeda ericoides Pall. Fl. Ross., p. 56. t. 73. f. 3.; is a heath-like creeping shrub, a native of Dahuria and Kamtschatka. c. Redowski G. Don in Don's Mill., 3. p. 829.; Andrómeda Redówskii

Cham. et Schlecht. in Linnæa, 1, p. 517., is a procumbent much-branched shrub, a native of the east of Siberia.

C. Mertensiāna G. Don, Don's Mill., 3. p. 829.; Andrómeda Mertensiàna Bongard in Mém. Acad. Petersb., 2. p. 152. t. 5. ; is a procumbent shrub, with the habit of C. tetragona, indigenous to the Island of Siteha,

C. fastigiàta D. Don; Andrómeda fastigiata Wall. Pl. Rar. Asiat., 3. t. 284.; A. cupressifórmis Wall. MŠS.; is a procumbent shrub, a native of Nepal and Mongol.


CASSA'NDRA D. Don. The CASSANDRA. Lin. Syst. Decándria

Identification. D. Don in Edinb. New Phil. Jour., 17. p. 157.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 830.
Synonyme. Andrómeda sp. Lin. and others.
Derivation. The name of a daughter of Priam and Hecuba.

. C. CALYCULA'TA D. Don. The calyculated Cassandra. Identification. D. Don in Edinb. New Phil. Journ., 17. p. 157.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 830. Synonyme. Andrómeda calyculàta Lin. Sp., 565., Pall. Fl. Ross., 2. p. 53. t. 71. f. 1., Lodd. Bot.

Cab., t. 1464.
Engravings. Pall. Fl. Ross., 2. t. 71. f. 1.; Bot. Cab., t. 1464. ; and our fig. 896.
Spec. Char., fc. Leaves elliptic-oblong, bluntish, obso-

letely serrulated, rusty beneath. Racemes recurved,
leafy. Bracteas of the calyx (these constitute the caly-
culus, or secondary and outer calyx, implied by the
term calyculàta) broad, ovate, acuminate. Corollas
oblong-cylindrical. (Don's Mill., iü. p. 830.) A native
of North America, from Canada to Virginia, on the
mountains, in bogs and swamps. It grows also in
Sweden, Prussia, Siberia, &c. ' Introduced in 1748,
and frequent in collections. Flowering from February

to April.
Varieties. The following forms of this species are enu-
merated in Don's Miller :-
& C.c. I ventricosa Sims Bot. Mag., t. 1286.— Co-

rolla inflated.
& C. c. 2 latifolia Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 530. — Leaf

& C. c. 3 nàna Sims Bot. Mag., t. 862., Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 826.—Dwarf.

2. C. (c.) ANGUSTIFO'LIA G. Don. The narrow-leaved Cassandra. Identification. Don's Mill., 3. p. 830. Synonymes. Andrómeda calyculata ß angustifolia Ait. Hort. Keu.

2. p. 70.; A. angustifolia Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 291. ; A. crispa | Desf. et Link, and our fig. 897.

897 Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves linear-lanceolate, acute, the

edges somewhat waved and revolute, the under-surface rusty. Racemes recurved, leafy. Bracteas of calyx minute. Corollas oblong-ovate. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 830.) A native of Carolina and Georgia, in open swamps. Introduced in 1748, growing to the height of 1 ft., and flowering in February and April. It is frequent in collections.



ZENO'BIA D. Don. The ZENOBIA. Lin. Syst. Decándria Monogynia. Identification. D. Don in Edinb. New Phil. Journ., July, 1834. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 850. Synonyme. Andrómeda sp. Michaux. Derivation. From Zenobia, a queen Pa nyra, distinguis hed for her virtue and learning. (D.


ul. Z. specio'sa D. Don. The showy-flowered Zenobia. Identification. D. Don in Edinb. New Phil. Journ., July, 1834; Don's Mill., 3. p. 830. Synonyme. Andrómeda specidsa Michr. F1. Bor. Amer., 256.; Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 551. Engravings. Bot. Cab., t. 551. ; and our figs. 898.

Description. Leaves oval, obtuse, mucronate, crenate, or serrate, veiny. Flowers white, drooping, disposed in racemes. Branches in the flower-bearing part naked of leaves. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 830.)

A very ornamental little shrub, native of North Carolina, in swamps. This very handsome species was introduced in 1800. It grows to the height of 2 ft. or 3 ft., and flowers in June.





+ Varieties. In Don's Miller the following forms are enumerated and described : * 2. s. 2 nítida Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., i. p. 294., under Andrómeda

cassinefòlia Vent. Malm., 79.; and our fig. 899. — Leaves oblong

ovate, serrate, green on both surfaces. Flowers white. • 2. s. 3 pulverulenta Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., i. p. 294., under An

drómeda speciosa; A. pulverulenta Bartram Itin., 476., Curt. Bot. Mag., t. 667.; A. cassinefòlia ß Vent. Hort. Cels, 60.; A. speciosa var. y glauca Wats. Dend. Brit., t. 26.; A. dealbata Lindl. Bot. Reg.,

7 t. 1010.; A. ovata Soland. MS. in Herb. Banks.; and our fig. 900.Leaves roundish-ovate, distantly crenate, covered with white powder, as are the branches. Flowers white.


LYO'NIA Nutt. The LYONIA. Lin. Syst. Decándria Monogynia. Identification. Nutt. Gen. Amer., 1. p. 268. ; D. Don in Edinb. New Phil. Journ., 17. p. 158. ; Don's

Mill., 3. p. 830. Synonyme. Andrómeda sp. Lin. and various authors. Derivation. In commemoration of John Lyon, an indefatigable collector of North American plants,

who fell a victim to a dangerous epidemic amidst those savage and romantic mountains which had so often been the theatre of his labours. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 830.)

Description. Evergreen and deciduous shrubs, and also a tree. Natives of North America, and bearing the common character of the plants of the order, both in respect to beauty, soil, situation, propagation, and culture.

A. Leaves evergreen. . l. L. FERRUGI'NEA Nutt. The rusty-looking Lyonia. Identification. Nutt. Gen. Amer., p. 266. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 830. Synonymes. Andromeda ferruginea Wall. Fl., 138., Veni. Malm., t. 80.; A. ferruginea ß fruticdsa

Michr. Fl. Bor. Amet., 1. p. 252. Engraving. Vent. Malm., t. 80. Spec. Char., &c. Shrubby, evergreen. Leaves on long petioles, coriaceous, oboyate, usually obtuse, quite entire, with hardly revolute edges, and co


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