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guished from E. Tétralix by the glaucous deep green hue, and deep purple, or sometimes white, flowers. (Don's Mill., üi. p. 795.) A shrub, growing from 6 in. to 1 ft. in height; a native of Europe, but not in the south, nor in the extreme north: beautiful in Britain. It is the badge of the clan

Macalister. Varieties.

E. c. 2 atropurpurea Lodd. Bot. Cab., 1409. - Plant

dwarf. Flowers deeper purple. - E. c. 3 álba Lodd. Cat. Flowers white. # E. c. 4 pállida Lodd. Bot. Cab., 1507.- Flowers pale

purple. # E. c. 5 carnéscens Lodd. Cat. — Flowers flesh-coloured. E. c.

865 prolífera Lodd. Cat. — Flowers proliferous. - E. c. 7 stricta Lodd. Cat. - Branches erect.

3. E. ARBO'Rea L. The Tree Heath. Identification. Lin. Sp., ed. 2. p. 502.; Ait. Hort. Kow., p. 402. ; Smith et Sibth. Fl. Græc., t. 81. ;

Don's Mill, 3. p. 794. Synonymes. E. scoparia Thunb. Diss., No. 80., P., Lin. Sp. ed. 2. p. 353., exclusive of the syno. nymes ; E. cáffra Lin. Diss , No. 22., with a figure; E. triidra Berg. PL' Cap., p. 118. ; E. procera

Sal. in Lin. Soc. Trans., 328. Engravings. FI. Græc., t. 351. ; Lin. Diss., No. 22. Spec. Char., fc. A tree-like shrub, with toinentose branches. Leaves 3-4 in a whorl, linear, glabrous. Flowers axillary, racemose, glabrous. Bracteas remote from the calyx. Corolla bell-shaped, 2 lines long, white. Anthers crested. Style prominent. (Don's Mill., iii. p.794.) A native of the south of Europe. Introduced in 1658, and growing to the height of from 10 ft. to 20 ft. in the Pyrenees. In Britain, this species is generally considered somewhat tender; nevertheless, in sheltered situations, it endures the open air, as a standard, in the climate of London, and is only killed down to within a short distance of the ground, in the most severe winters; and this, we believe, is more owing to the moisture of the atmosphere in autumn, and the sudden changes from frost to sunshine in spring, than to lowness of temperature. In the Pyrenees this shrub is found growing among pine woods along with the arbutus, the myrtle, &c., and we have no doubt whatever, that it would thrive perfectly well in the pine woods in England; for example, those in the neighbourhood of Esher, on the Claremont estate, and those at Woburn Abbey. There are plants at Syon 12 ft. high; one in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, as a standard, 5 ft. high, and

against a wall, 16 ft. high. Varieties.

. .
E. a. 2 stylosa. - Style very long. (Don's Mill.)

. E, a. 3 squarròsa Hort. Leaves squarrose. (Don's Mill.)

. E. a. 4 mínima Hort. — Plant small. (Don's Mill.) The succeeding sort might be added as another variety; but we have followed Don's Miller in giving it in the form of a species.

• 4. E. (A.) POLYTRICHIFO‘lia Sal. The Polytrichum-leaved Heath. Identification. Sal. in Lin. Soc. Trans., 6. p. 329. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 794. Synonyme. Perhaps only a variety of E. arborea (Don's Mill., 3. p. 794.) Dr. Lindley has inciden

tally, expressed, in Bot. Reg., t. 1698., as his opinion, that the E. arborca styldsa of English gardens is the E. polytrichifolia of Salisbury. Spec, Char., &c. Stem tomentose. Leaves 3–5 in a whorl. Flowers ter

minal. Bracteas remote from the calyx. Calyxes gradually narrowed at the base. Corolla 1-2 lines long. Spurs of anthers cuneated. Fruit pearshaped. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 794.) A native of Portugal, about Lisbon, and rather more tender than the species. It is to be found in some collections; but when it was introduced is uncertain.

5. E. (A.) codono'des Lindl. The bell-shaped-flowered Heath. Identification. Lindl. in Bot. Reg., t. 1698. Engravings. Bot. Reg., t. 1698., and our fig. 866.



Spec. Char., 8c. The general appearance of this sort, Dr.

Lindley observes, is that of E. arbòrea ; but it seems essentially distinct from that species, in its longer flowers, more slender leaves, less hardy branches, and truly bello shaped corolla, which has by no means the globular form of that of E. arbòrea ; its stigma is, moreover, very small, and not at all dilated or lobed, either when dried or recent. It was cultivated in 1834, in the Maresfield Nursery, in Sussex, where it is quite hardy, and forms a bush from 10 ft. to 12 ft. in height. It begins to blossom in February, and continues till the end of May, disregarding both frost and snow, being often covered with flowers from top to bottom, and forming a most beautiful object. In the warmest parts of Devonshire, and in the south of Ireland, it would form a very ornamental undergrowth to fine woods.

6. E. AUSTRA'LIS L. The southern Heath.
Identification. Lin. Mant., p. 231. ; Andr. Heaths, 3. t. 21. ; Ait. Hort. Kew., 2. p. 396. ; Lodd. Bot.

Cab., t. 1472.; Wendl. Eric., 9. p. 13., with a figure ; Don's Mill, 3. p. 795. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.
Synonyme. E. pistillàris Sal. in Lin. Soc. Trans., 6. p. 368.
Engravings. Andr. Heaths, 3. t. 21. ; Bot. Cab., t. 1472. ; Wendl. Eric., 3. p. 13, with a figure; and

our fig. 867
Spec. Char., fc. A shrub, 3 ft. to 6 ft. high. Leaves 4 in a whorl, scabrous,

spreading, mucronate. Flowers terminal, small. Corolla purplish red, 3 lines long, with a curved funnel-shaped tube, and a recurved limb. Pedicels beset with gemmaceous bracteas. Anthers crested. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 795.) A native of Spain and Portugal; introduced in 1769, and, in the neighbourhood of London, forming a handsome pyramidal shrub, of which there are specimens at Syon 7 ft. high, and in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden 10 ft. high. One of the most showy of all the arboreous heaths, producing

in great profusion its fine red flowers from April to August.

. 7. E. stricta Donn. The upright Heath.
Identification. Donn Hort. Cantab., ed. 3. p. 69. ; Willd. Sp., 2. p. 366. ; Andr. Heaths, 2. t. 22. ; Ait.
Hort. Kew.,

2. p. 393. ; Don's Mil., 3. p. 796.; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Synonymes. E. multicaulis Sal. in Lin. Soc. Trans., 6. p. 369.; E.

córsica Dec. Fl. Fr.; E. ramuldsa Viv. Engravings. Andr. Heaths, 2 t. 22. ; and our fig. 868. Spec. Char., &c. Stem diffuse, 2 ft. to 3 ft. high.

Leaves 4 in a whorl, obtuse, glabrous, having 2 furrows beneath. Flowers terminal, in umbel-like groups. Bracteas approximate to the calyx, sessile. Calyx spreading. "Corolla purplish red, 3 lines long, with an ovate pitcher-shaped tube, and reflexed segments. Anthers crested. Style a little prominent. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 796.) A native of Corsica and Italy. Introduced in 1765, and frequent in gardens, forming a fastigiate bush, in some instances, as at Purser's Cross, as high as 12 ft.

me 8. E. cilia'RIS L. The ciliate-leaved Heath.
Identification. Lin. Sp., ed. 1. p. 354.; Lafl. Res., p. 138.; Lin. Diss., No. 89., with a figure of the

flower ; Wendl. Eric., 7. p. 3. ; Curt. Bot. Mag., t. 484. ; Ait. Hort. Kew., 2. p. 394.; Lodd. Bot.
Cab., t. 1808.; Don's Mill., p. 798.; Hook. Brit. Flora, p. 176.'; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.
Engravings. Lin. Diss., No. 39., with a figure of the flower; Bót. Mag., t. 484. ; Bot. Cab., t. 1805.;

Eng. Bot. Suppl., t. 2618.; and our fig. 869.
Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves 3 in a whorl, ovate, glandularly ciliate, spreading,
rather remote. Flowers terminal, subracemose, directed to one side. Brac-

teas sessile, approximate to the calyx. Segments of calyx spathulate, ciliate. Corolla smooth, ovate, more ventricose on the upper side, 4 lines


long, pale red. Style prominent. (Don's Mill., iii.

869 p. 799.). A native of Portugal, and of England, in Cornwall. This comparatively rare species, Sir W. J. Hooker observes, is always found in boggy places, and never on dry ground. “ It is unquestionably the most interesting and beautiful addition that has been made to our British Alora for many years. The flowers are as large as those of Menzièsia cærulea Wall., Phyllódoce taxifòlia Sal., and more highly coloured; while the leaves are elegantly fringed with hairs, and each hair is tipped with a gland." (Brit. Flor., p. 177.) The usual height is about a foot. A hybrid between this species and E. Tétralix is noticed in p. 1079.

• 9. E. sI'cula Schonberg. The Sicilian Heath. Identification. Schonberg in Linnæa, 2. p. 614 ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 799. Spec. Char., fc. A shrub, 2 ft. to 3 ft. high. Leaves 4 in a whorl, linear, nearly cylindrical, canescent. Flowers erect, canescent, on long pedicels, in terminal umbel-like groups. Bracteas and segments of calyx membranous, coloured, about as long as the corolla Corolla ovate, oblong, downy, red. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 799.) A native of Sicily. Introduced in 1819; but we have not seen the plant.



P. 800.

GYPSOCAʼLLIS Sal. The GypsOCALLIS, or Moon HEATH. Lin. Syst.

Octándria Monogynia. Identification. Salisbury's MSS. ; D. Don in Edinb. New Phil. Journ., 17. p. 153. ; Don's Mill., 3 Synonyme. Ericæ sp. of other authors. Derivation. “ From gupsos, lime, and kallistos, most beautiful; the plants [kinds) are very elegant, and generally inhabit calcareous districts.” (Don's Mill.)

Description, f. The species are mostly undershrubs, not exceeding 1 ft. in height; but G, mediterránea (E. mediterrànea L.) grows to the height of 10 ft. or 12 ft., or upwards.

R 1. G. VA'GANS Sal. The wandering Gypsocallis, or Cornish Moor Heath. Identification. Sal. MSS.; D. Don in Edin. New Phil. Journ., 17. p. 153. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 800. Synonymes. E. vagans Lin. Mant., 2. p. 230., Lin. Syst., 370., Eng. Bot., t. 3. ; E. vaga Sal. in Lin. Soc. Trans., 6. p. 344. ; E. multiflora Huds. Fl. Anglica, 166., Bull. Fl. Par., t. 203.; E. di

dyma Stokes in Withering's Bot. Arrangement, 400.; E. purpurascens Lam. Dict. 1. p. 488. Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 3. ; Bull, Fl. Par., t. 203. ; and our fig. 870. Spec. Char., fc. Stem glabrous. Leaves 4-5 in a whorl, conti

guous, glabrous. Flowers small, upon footstalks, axillary, mostly ž in an axil, and those of any branch seeming as if disposed in a raceme, from the flowers being stalked and produced from axils near one another. Bracteas remote from the calyx. Corolla short, bell-shaped, pale purplish red. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 800.) A native of England, in Cornwall; and of the south of France and north

of Africa, Varieties.

870 . G. v. 2 pállida.-Corolla pale red. (Don's Mill.) 2 G. v. 3 rubéscens Bree, Loud. H. B., ed. 2. p. 588.—Corolla rubescent.

This must be near the preceding one, and may be identical with it. & G. v. 4 purpuráscens Bree, Loud. H. B., ed. 2. p. 588.—Corolla pur

plish. R G. v. 5 álba.-Flowers axillary. Corolla white. (Don's Mill.) # G. v. 6 tenélla.-Flowers terminating the small branches. Corolla

white. (Don's Mill.)

2. G. MULTIFLO'RA D. Don. The many-flowered Gypsocallis, or Moor

Identification. D. Don in Edinb. New Phil. Journ., July 1834 ; Don's Mill.,

3. p. 801.
Synonyme. Erica multifdra Lin. Sp., ed. 1. p. 355., Diss., No. 58., with a

figure of the flower, Andr. Heaths, 2. t. 57., Ait. Hort. Kew., 2. p. 367.,
Lodd. Bot. Cab., ! 1572. ; E. juniperifdlia, &c., Garidel. Aix., p. 160. t.
32.; E multiAdra longi-pedicellata Wendl. Eric., fasc. 5. p. 7. ; E. pedun-
culáris Presl.
Engravings. Lin. Diss., No. 58., a fig. of the flower; Bot. Cab., c. 1572. ;

Garid. Aix, p. 160. t. 32. ; and our fig. 871.
Spec. Char., fc. Leaves 4–5 in a whorl, glabrous, linear.

Flowers axillary, disposed in a racemose corymb. Brac-
teas remote from the calyx. Corolla 14 to 2 lines long,
pale red, bell-shaped, with a reflexed limb. Pedicel 871
twice as long as the corolla. Anthers black, their
orifices near the tip. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 801.) A native
of France, Spain, and of the south of Europe generally,
and in cultivation in British gardens since 1731. It begins
to flower in May or June; and, under favourable circum-
stances, continues to produce flowers in profusion till
November or December. Like other heaths, to flower
freely, it requires to be kept in a cool, open, airy situ-
ation, in which it will attain the height of 2 ft.


- 3. G. CA'RNEA D. Don. The flesh-colour-flowered Gypsocallis, or Moor

Heath. Identification. D. Don in Edinb. New Phil. Journ., July, 1834; Don's Mill., 3. p. 801. Synonymes. Erica carnea Lin. Sp., ed. 2. p. 504., Curt. Bot. Mag., t. 11., Jacq. Fl. Austr., 1. p. 91.

f. 31., Scop. Fl. Carn., ed. 2. vol. 1. p. 275., Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 1452. ; E'herbácea Lin. Diss No. 57., with a figure, Lin. Sp., ed. 2. p. 501., Wendl. Eric., '9. p. 7., with a figure; E. saját

Sal. in Lin. Soc. Trans., 6. p. 343.
Engravings. Bot. Mag., t. 11.;

Jacq. Fl. Austr., 1. f. 31. ; Bot.
Cab., t. 1152.; Lin. Diss., No. 57., with a figure; Wendl. Eric.,
9. p. 7., with a figure. ; and our sig. 872.
Spec. Char., 8c. Stems and branches prostrate.

Leaves 3—4 in a whorl, linear, glabrous,
sharply reduplicate. Flowers axillary, droop-
ing, disposed in racemes, and directed to one
side, pale red. Bracteas remote from the
calyx. Corollas conical, 2} lines. Anthers
with an orifice extending from the middle to
the tip. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 801.) A native of
the south of Germany and Switzerland, and
the north of Wales.




4. G. MEDITERRA 'NEA D. Don. The Mediterranean Gypsocallis, or Moor

Identification. D. Don in Edinb. New Phil. Journ., July, 1834 ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 801.
Synonymes. Erica mediterrànea Lin. Mant., p. 229., Diss., No. 59., with a figure of the flower,

Wendl. Eric., 7. p. 11., Curt. Bot. Mag., t. 471.; E. lugubris Sal. in Lin. Soc. Trans., 6. p. 343.
Engravings. Lin. Diss., No. 59., with a figure of the flower ; Bot. Mag., t. 471.
Spec. Char., &c. A shrub 4—6 ft. high. Leaves 45 in a whorl, linear, cu-

neate, glabrous. Flowers axillary, disposed in the manner of a raceme, directed to the lower side, so nodding. Bracteas above the middle of the pedicels. Corolla pitcher-shaped, red. Anthers dark, foraminose from the middle. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 801.) Native of the south of Europe, in the region of the Mediterranean; and, in 1830, found wild at Cunnemara, on the western coast of Ireland, by Mr. Mackay. It grows there on a declivity by a stream, in boggy ground, at the foot of Urisberg Mountain, near Round Stone, on its western side, occupying a space of above half a mile in length, and covering between 2 and 3 acres of ground, in tufts of from 1 ft. to 2 ft. in height. (Mag. Nat. Hist., iv. p. 167., and is. p. 127.)



p. 828.

Flowers pur

CALLU'NA Sal. The Calluna. Lin. Syst. Octándria Monogynia. Identification. Salisbury in Lin. Soc. Trans., 6. p. 317.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 828. Synonymes. Erica sp. Lin. and others. Derivation. The name of Callùna is derived from kalluno, which, as Sir J. E. Smith observes, "is doubly suitable; whether, with Mr. Salisbury and Dr. Hull, we take it to express a cleansing property, brooms being made of ling; or whether we adopt the more common sense of the word, to ornament or adorn, which is very applicable to the flowers." (Eng. Flora, 2. p. 224.)

h 1. C. vulg'aris Sal. The common Ling, or Heather. Identification. Salisb. in Lin. Soc. Trans., 6. p. 317. ; Smith Eng. Flora, 2. p. 224. ; Don's Mill, S. Synonymes. Erica vulgaris Lin. Sp., p. 501. ; la Bruyère, Fr.; Heide, Ger. ; Lyng, Dan.; Liung,

Swed. ; Erica, Ital. ; Brezo, Span. ; Urze, Port. ; Weresk, Russ.
Engraving. Eng. Bot., t. 1013.
Spec. Char., fc. Leaves 3-cornered in a transverse section of them, arrow-

shaped at the base, obtuse at the point, revolute in the lateral margins, imbricate in 4 rows. Flowers disposed in long, terminal, spicate racemes. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 828.). A small, spreading, evergreen shrub; native

throughout Europe, plentiful in Britain. Varieties. In Don's Miller, the following forms of this species are enumerated : . C. v. I purpurea.-Flowers purplish red. C. v. 2 spària. - Branches tufted. Racemes short.

plish red. h C. v. 3 decúmbens.-Branches decumbent. Racemes short. Flowers

purplish rech
2. C. v. Å tomentosa.- Leaves and branches woolly. Flowers purplish

2 C. v. 5 álba.- Flowers white, less crowded. Corolla shorter.
2. C. v. 6 flòre plèno.-Flowers double, pale purplish red.

C. v. 7 foliis variegatis.---Leaves variegated. Flowers purplish.
h. C. v. 8 aúrea.-Leaves variegated with yellow.

C. v. 9 coccinea.-Flowers deep red. & C. v. 10 spicata.-Racemes long. Flowers red or white. C. v. 11 and 12.--Two varieties are mentioned by Sir W. J. Hooker,

as being in cultivation in the Glasgow Botanic Garden, where they have retained their differences for years. They have both pubescent branchlets; but the one has deep red flowers, and was received from Aberdeenshire; and the other, which was received from Arran, has white flowers, that appear later than those of the other varieties. The first may be called C. v. 11 atro-rubens, and the second C. v. 12

serótina. Description, 8c. The common heath varies considerably in size, according to the soil and situation in which it grows. In open, elevated, exposed moors, where there is scarcely any surface soil, it seldom exceeds 1 ft. in height; but in sandy soils, in open woods, it often reaches the height of 3 ft, or 4 ft., growing erect. On the sides of mountains, in Scotland and Ireland, it sometimes forms a bed or close matting of recumbent or trailing stems, which are 3ft. or 4 ft. in length; the bed extending for many miles together. The stems are bushy, and are repeatedly and irregularly branched. The plant is of slow growth, seldom making shoots longer than 3 in. or 4 in. in one season, even when young; and, when of 5 or 6 years' growth, not more than half that length : but it is of great duration.

Geography. The common heath abounds in almost every part of Europe,


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