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CHAP. LXVIII.

OF THE HALF-HARDY LIGNEOUS PLANTS BELONGING TO THE

ORDER EPACRIDA'CER. STYPue'LIA R. Br. is a genus of Australian shrubs, of an erect, stiff, and compact habit of growth; with leaves mucronate, on short petioles ; and showy, crimson, scarlet, pink, or green flowers. There are several species in our green-houses, as will be seen by our Hortus Britannicus. In height they vary from 3 ft. to 6 ft. or 8 ft. ; and, like other hair-rooted plants, they thrive best in sandy loam mixed with sandy peat. Young

cuttings, treated, like those of Erica, root readily, Stenanthera pinifolia R. Br., Bot. Reg., t. 218. ; Styphèlia pinifolia

Spreng.; is an erect shrub, with acerose leaves, crowded together; and with axillary flowers, having a scarlet tube, and a greenish yellow limb. It is a native of New South Wales, growing to the height of from 4 ft. to 6 ft., and flowering from May to July, Like Styphèlia, from which it has been separated, it is a beautiful shrub when in flower, and well deserves a place against a conservative wall.

Cyathodes glauca Labil., Trochocarpa glauca Spreng., is a tree, a native of Van Diemen's Land, where it grows to the height of 25 ft. The leaves and appearance of the flowers resemble those of Styphèlia. C. Oxycedrus R. Br. and C. aceròsa R. Br. are both natives of Van Diemen's Land, where they grow to the height of 5ft. or 6 ft.; and they are occasionally to be met with in our greenhouses, Lissanthe sápida R. Br., Bot. Mag., t. 9147., is a low evergreen shrub, with oblong-linear mucronate

. leaves, and small white flowers, tipped with green, which appear in May. These are succeeded by berries, which are red and acid, and are made into tarts in New South Wales, under the name of cran. berries. This species was introduced in 1823, and deserves a place on a conservative rockwork, as being one of the few plants of Australia which produce edible fruit. L. subulàta, L. strigòsa, L. daphnöldes, and L. ciliata are also in British gardens. Leucopogon lanceolatus R. Br.; Styphélia lan

860 ceolata Smith; S. parvifdra Andr. Bot. Rep., t. 287., Swt. Fl. Aust., 47. ; is an evergreen shrub, a native of New South Wales, on mountains, where it grows to the height of 12 f., producing its white flowers from May to August. It has been in British green houses since 1790, and is, doubtless, well adapted for a conservative wall.

L. Réchei R. Br. (L. polystachyus Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 1456.; L apiculatus Smith ; L. parvi. Adrus Lindl. Bot. Reg., t. 1516.;

and our fig. 860.); and L. interruptus R. Br., Bot. Cab., t. 1451.; with several others; are also in British collections, but do not grow to half the height of L. lanceolatus.

Monotoca R. Br. is a genus of Australian shrubs, of which M. elliptica R. Br., M. álbens, M. lineata, and M. scoparia are in collections.

Trochocarpa laúrina R. Br. ; Styphèlia cornifolia Rudge, Hook. Bot. Mag., t. 3324., Lin. Trans., 8. t. 9., and our fig. 861. ; is a tree, a native of New South Wales, with glabrous leaves, somewhat like those of Laú. rus; and small white flowers, in slender terminal or axillary spikes.

E'pacris Smith is a genus of Australian shrubs, of great beauty, Howering in British green-houses throughout the winter, and some of *hem from January till July. They require to be grown in peat, and kept moist, and to be protected during severe weather. E. grandi.

fiòra Smith ; E. longifidra Cav., Bot. 861 Cab., t. 21., and our fig. 862.; is the

862 tallest-growing species hitherto introduced of this genus. It grows to the height of 6 ft., and produces its scarlet and white flowers from January to June.

Lysinema R. Br. is a genus nearly allied to E'pacris, of which there are 3 or 4 species introduced, and well deserving a trial against a conservative wall.

Andersonia R. Br. This is a genus of elegant New Holland shrubs, named by Mr. Brown, in memory of William Anderson, a surgeon of the royal navy, who accompanied Captain Cook : he paid great attention to botany. Descriptions of the genera of Van Diemen's Land plants, written by him, are still in the Banksian library. The genus is also intended to commemorate the late Alexander Anderson, formerly director of the Botanical Garden at St. Vincent; and William Anderson, the present curator of the Apothecaries' Botanical Garden at Chelsea.

A. sprengeliöldes R. Br., Bot. Mag., t. 1645., Bot. Cab., t. 263., and our fig. 863., grows to the height of 3 ft., and produces its pink flowers from May to July. Like all the Epacridáceæ, it requires to be grown in sandy peat.

Sprengelia incarnata Bot. Cab., t. 262., is a shrub, resembling Andersonia, which grows to the height of 2 ft., and produces its flesh. coloured flowers from April to June. It is a native of Van Diemen's Land, and would probably succeed well on a conservative wall, or on conservative rockwork.

Sphenotoma gracilis Swt. Fl. Austr., t. 44.; Dracophyllum grácile R. Br. ; is a native of New Holland, on the south coast; and, as it thrives perfectly well in a cold-pit, it would probably succeed on conservative rockwork.

863 4 B 3

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CHAP. LXIX.

OF THE HARDY LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF THE ORDER ERICA'CEÆ.

Distinctive Characteristics. Calyx and corolla each with 4-5 segments. Stamens 4–5–8—10, inserted variously, but alternately with the segments of the corolla where not more numerous than they. Anthers, in most, with 2 cells. Ovary with its cells, in most, agreeing in number with the segments of the calyx or corolla. Style and stigma undivided. Seeds many. Albumen fleshy. Embryo erect, slender. Shrubs (in Rhododendron arboreum, a timber tree); various in habit, inhabiting most parts of the world. (Don's Mil. and Lindley's Introd, to N.S.) This order contains many of the finest and most ornamental shrubs of the temperate regions of the world: all the species which compose it have hair-like roots, and require a peat soil, or a soil of a close cohesive nature, but which is yet susceptible of being readily penetrated by the finest fibrils which belong to any kind of plants. Peat, thoroughly rotted, leaf-mould, or very fine loamy sand, are soils of this description, and are accordingly required, more or less, for all the plants of this order. The hairlike roots of the Ericàceæ soon suffer, either from a deficiency or a superfluity of moisture; and hence an important part of their culture in gardens consists in keeping the soil in which they grow equally moist. In transplanting hairrooted plants, they are very apt to suffer from their slender fibrils coming in contact with the air : but, fortunately, these fibrils are so numerous, and so interlaced with each other, as to form a kind of network, which encloses and supports a portion of the soil in which they grow, and the plants are, consequently, almost always sent from the nurseries with small balls of earth attached to them. This practice, by continually diminishing the quantity of peat earth in a nursery, occasions a demand for a continual supply of this expensive soil, and, consequently, tends to increase the price charged for plants of the Ericaceae. On the other hand, the adhesion of the soil to the roots answers an economical purpose, as it does not require the plants to be grown in pots for the convenience of sending them out; since many of them may be taken up and carried to a distance, at any season, and even if it were necessary, when in full flower, without sustaining much injury. All the species are readily propagated by seeds, layers, or cuttings.

The following characteristics of the genera, and of the groups which they form, are deduced from Don's Miller, in which the whole order has been remodeled by Professor Don.

Sect. I. ERI'CEÆ. Sect. Char. Calyx not connate with the ovary, except in Gaultheria. Disk

nectariferous, hypogynous. Fruit, in most, a capsule. Inflorescence, in

the bud state, naked. § i. Eri'ce Æ NORMA'LEs. Calyx and Corolla each with 4 Segments. Corolla

permanent. Stamens 8. Fruit with 4 Cells. Erica D. Don. Corolla globose, or pitcher-shaped. Filaments capillary.

Anthers not protruded beyond the corolla, bifid; the cells short, opening by an oblong hole, awned or crested at the base, or, in a few, without any appendage. Stigma peltate. Leaves needle-shaped, scattered, or in

whorls. Gypsoca'llis Sal. Corolla bell-shaped, or shortly tubular. Filaments flat.

Anthers protruded beyond the corolla, 2-parted; the cells without any appendage at the base, distinct, each on a short stalk, and opening by an

oblique hole. Stigma simple. Leaves needle-shaped, in whorls. CALLU'NA Sal. Corolla shorter than the calyx, bell-shaped. Filaments

dilated. Anthers not protruded beyond the corolla, with two small appendages at the base : their cells end in a point, and open lengthwise. Stigma capitate. “ Capsule concealed by the inflexed, permanent calyx, orbicular, a little depressed, with 4 furrows, 4 simple valves, and 4 cells; the partitions simple, flat, alternate, and unconnected with the valves, fixed vertically to a large, ovate, pitted, permanent, central column.” (Smith, Eng. Flora, ii. p. 224.) Leaves arrow-shaped at the base, obtuse at the tip; in transverse

section triangular, imbricate in 4 rows. § ü. ANDROME'DER. Corolla deciduous. Stamens, in most, not protruded

beyond the Corolla. A. The following 7 Genera have all been instituted out of the Genus Andrómeda;

and all have 10 Stamens, 1 Pistil, and Fruit that has a loculicidal Dehiscence. ANDRO'MEDA L. Calyx with 5 acute segments. Corolla globose, with a con

tracted, 5-toothed mouth. Filaments bearded. Anthers with short, l-awned cells. Stigma truncate. Leaves linear-lanceolate. Flowers in

terminal, umbel-like groups. Cassı'OPE D. Don. Calyx with 5 leafy segments, imbricate at the base. Co

rolla bell-shaped, 5-cleft. Filaments glabrous. Anthers with short, tumid, l-awned cells. Style dilated at the base. Stigma obtuse. Capsule with its valves bifid at the tip. Small heath-like shrubs. Leaves imbricate.

Flowers solitary. CASSA'NDRA D. Don. Calyx with 2 bracteas at its base; its segments 5, leafy,

imbricate at the base. Corolla oblong, with a contracted 5-toothed mouth. Filaments glabrous. Anthers with cells elongated at the tip, and tubular there. Stigma annulated. Leaves with short petioles, and elliptic oblong disks, that have peltate scales on both surfaces. Flowers axillary, disposed

as if in racemes along the terminal parts of the branches. ZENO'BIA D. Don. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla bell-shaped, with a revolute

5-lobed limb. Filaments glabrous. thers with cells elongate, tubular, and 2-awned at the tip. Stigma truncate. Leaves dilated, with the margins

usually toothed. Flowers in racemes. LYO'Nia Nutt. Calyx 5-parted. Corolla ovate or tubular, with a contracted,

5-toothed mouth. Filaments short, flat, downy. Anthers with membranous cells that open lengthwise. Style 5-cornered. Stigma obtuse. Capsule

5-cornered. Flowers for the most part terminal, disposed in racemose panicles. Leuco'THÇE D. Don. Calyx with 5 leafy segments, imbricate at the base.

Corolla tubular, toothed. Filaments flat, downy. Anthers with short trun

cate cells. Stigma large, capitate. Flowers white : in racemes. PI'ERIS D. Don. Calyx 5-parted. Corolla tubular or ovate, with a con

tracted, 5-toothed, revolute mouth. Filaments dilated, furnished with 2 bristles at the tip. Anthers with short incumbent cells that open lengthwise. Style 5-cornered. Stigma truncate. Leaves coriaceous. Flowers drooping, terminal, racemose.

B. Capsule with the Dehiscence septicidal. PHYLLO'DOCE Sal. Calyx with 5 segments. Corolla globose, with a contracted,

5-toothed mouth. Stamens 10, not protruded out of the corolla. Filaments slender, glabrous. Anthers with short, truncate cells. Stigma peltate with

5 tubercles, Dabe'cuD. Don. Calyx with 4 segments. Corolla oval, inflated; its mouth

4-toothed. Stamens 8, enclosed. Filaments dilated, glabrous. Anthers linear, sagittate at the base, their cells parallel, loosened at the apex, opening lengthwise. Stigma truncate. Capsule 4-celled. C. Calyx and Corolla each with 5 Segments. Stamens 10, not protruded

beyond the Corolla. A'RBUTUS Camer. Corolla globose or ovate, with a small reflexed border. Anthers compressed at the sides, opening at the tip by 2 pores, fixed by the

back beneath the tip, and there furnished with 2 reflexed awns. Ovary

with 5 cells, ovules in each cell many. Berry externally granulate. ARCTOSTA'PHYLOS Gal. Adans. All as in Arbutus, except that the fruit is not

externally granulate, and that the cells, 5 in number, include each but I

seed. PERNE'TTYA Gaudichaud. Corolla globose, with a revolute limb. Anthers

with the 2 cells 2-lobed at the tip, the lobes bifid. Hypogynous scales 10,

3-lobed, surrounding the ovary. "Berry with 5 cells, and many seeds. GAULTIE'RIA L. Corolla ovate, inflated. Anthers bifid at the tip, each

lobe with 2 awns. Ovary half-inferior. Hypogynous ? perigynous) scales 10, usually united at the base. Capsule with 5 cells, the dehiscence

loculicidal. EPIGÆ'A L. Corolla salver-shaped. Capsule with 5 cells. Cle'thra L. Corolla so deeply 5-parted as to seem 5-petaled. Filaments

membranous. Anthers, after a time, inflexedly pendulous, obverse and cordate at the base, and mucronate at the tip. Capsule with 3 cells, many seeds, and a loculicidal dehiscence.

D. The Characteristics as under. PHALEROCA'RPUS D. Don. Calyx 4-cleft, with 2 bracteas at its base. Co

rolla short, campanulate, 4-cleft. Stamens 8. Filaments ? hairy. Anthers semibifid. Hypogynous disk 8-lobed or 8-toothed.

Sect. II. RHODOʻREE. Sect. Char. Calyx not connate with the ovary. Disk nectariferous, hypo

gynous. Buds of inflorescence resembling strobiles in form, and in being

scaly. Leaves flat, callous at the extremity of the midrib. RHODODE'NDRON D. Don. Calyx 5-parted. Corolla somewhat funnel-shaped,

5-cleft. Stamens 5—10. Anthers opening by terminal pores. Capsule

5-celled, 5-valved, opening at the tip. KA'LMIA L. Corolla of the shape of a wide-spread bell, and with 10 cavities

on the inside, in which the anthers of 10 stamens repose before shedding their pollen. Capsule 5-celled. Dissepiments marginal. MENZIE SIA D. Don. Calyx 4-cleft. Corolla globose, 4-cleft. Stamens 8.

Capsule 4-celled, 4-valved, having the dissepiments formed from the in

flexed margins of the valves, AZA'LEA D. Don. Calyx 5-parted. Corolla bell-shaped, 5-cleft. Stamens 5.

Cells of anthers opening lengthwise. Capsule 5-celled, 5-valved, opening LEIOPHY'LLUM Pers. Calyx and corolla deeply 5-parted, . Stamens 10, ex

serted. Anthers lateral, opening lengthwise on the inside, Capsule 5

celled, 5-valved, opening at the tip. LE'dum L. Calyx minute, 4-toothed. Corolla in 5 segments, so deep as to

5 seem petals. Stamens 5—10, exserted. Anthers opening by pores at the tip. Capsule 5-celled, 5-valved, opening at the base. "Seeds terminating in a wing at each end.

Sect. III. VACCINIE'£. Sect, Char. Calyx connate with the ovary. Disk nectariferous, perigynous.

Fruit a berry, Vaccinium L. Calyx 45-toothed. Corolla pitcher-shaped or bell-shaped,

4-5-cleft. Stamens 8—10. Anthers 2-horned, opening at the tip, and in some furnished at the back with spreading spurs or bristles. Berry globose,

4-5-celled, many-seeded. Oxyco'ccus Pers. Calyx 4-cleft. Corolla 4-parted, with the segments some

what linear and revolute. Stamens 8. Filaments conniving. Anthers tubular, tripartite. Berry 4-celled, many seeded.

at top.

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ERICA D. Don, The Heath. Lin. Syst. Octándria Monogynia. Identification. D. Don in Edinb. New Phil. Journ., 17. p. 152. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 790. Synonyme. Erica sp. of Linnæus and other authors. Derivation. The erica of Pliny is altered from the ereikē of Theophrastus, which is derived from

ereiko, to break; from the supposed quality of some of the species, of breaking the stone in the bladder,

Description. Evergreen shrubs, with needle-like leaves, and hair-like roots; natives of Europe and Africa; varying in height from 6 in. to 2 ft, or 3 ft.; a number of them growing as high as 6 ft., and some few of them, as E. austràlis and E. arbórea, attaining the height of 12 ft. or 15 ft.

In British gardens, they are propagated by cuttings taken from the points of the growing shoots, and planted in pure sand, and covered with a hand-glass or a bell-glass. Many of the species of this genus are propagated more readily by seeds, than by layers or by division of the plant. They are all, without exception, eminently beautiful; and almost all are absolute in their choice of soil, which is that of sandy peat or heath mould ; and of the situation in which they will grow, which should be elevated and airy, yet not arid,

The price of plants, in British nurseries, varies from 6d. to 28. 6d. each ; at Bollwyller, the only hardy species is E. cinerea, which is 1 franc and 50 cents; and none appear to be cultivated as hardy in the nurseries of New York.

ul. E. T'E'TRALIX L. The four-leaved Heath, Identification. Lin. Sp., ed. 2. p. 507. ; Curt. Fl. Lond., f. 1. & 21. ; Smith In Engl. Bot., t. 1914. ;

F1. Dan., t./81. ; Don's Min., s. (p. 792. ; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Synonymes. E. botuliformis Sal. in Lin. Soc. Trans., 4. p. 369.; E. barbárica Raii Syn, 471.; E. pumila Park. Theatr., 1483. No. 5. ; E. Tétralix rubra Hort. Eric. Woburn., p. 25.; the cross

leaved Heath, Engravings. Curt. Fl. Lond., fasc. 1. t. 21. ; Eng. Bot., t. 1314.; and our fig. 864. Spec. Char., fc. Plant of a greyish hue. Leaves ciliated, 4 in a whorl. Flowers in terminal heads. Corolla ovateglobose, about 3 lines long, downy at the tip outside. Spurs of anthers lanceolate. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 792.) Native of the north of Europe, in boggy or moory ground; plentiful in Britain. It is the badge of the clan

Macdonald. Varieties.

E. T. 1 rubra Hort. Eric. Woburn., p. 25. — Corolla

pale red. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 792.)
RE. T. 2 cárnea Loudon's H. B. — Corolla of a flesh

colour.
- E. T. 3 álba Hort. Eric. Woburn., p. 25.; Ait. Hort.
Kew., ii. p. 393. - Corolla white.

864
+ E. T. 4 Mackaiàna, E. Mackaiàna Bab., Fl. Hiber., p. 181., Mag. Nat.

Hist., ix. p. 127., Comp. Bot. Mag. i. p. 225., is a native of Ireland. It has the leaves and calyx of E. ciliàris, and the flowers of E. Tétralix. # 2. E. CINE'REA L. The grey

Heath. Identification. Lin. Sp., ed. 2. p. 501. ; Ait. Hort. Kew., 2. p. 392.; F1. Dan., 38.; Don's Mill., s.

p 795. ; Lodd. Cat., ed, 1836, Synonymes. E. mutabilis Salisb. in Lin. Trans., 4. p. 369.; E. humilis Neck. Gall., 182.; E. tenui.

folia Ger., 1198., Emac., 1382. ; E. cinerea rubra Bedf. Hort. Eric. Woburn., p. 5. Engravings. Curt. Fl. Lond., fasc. 1. t. 25. ; Loei. Res., p. 137.; Smith Engl. Bot., t. 1015. ; and

our fig. 865. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves 3 in a whorl. Corolla ovate-urceolate. Flowers

verticillate, on the naked stems. Crests of anthers ear-formed. Corolla 3 lines long, purple, changing to blue as it fades. This is easily distin

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