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HELICHRY'SUM Lessing. The HELICHRYSUM, or EVERLASTING FLOWER.
Lin. Syst. Syngenèsia Supérflua. Identification. Less. Synops. Gen. Compos., p. 274. Synonyme. Part of Gnaphalium Lin. Gen. Pl., 1982., as adopted in Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2. vol. 5. Derivation. From hēlios, the sun, and chrusos, gold; in reference to the blossoms. 1. H. Ste'chas D. Don. The Stechas Helichrysum, or common shrubby
Everlasting Flower. Identification. D. Don; Loud. Hort. Brit. Synonymes. Gnaphalium Stæ'chas Lin, Willd. Sp. Pl., S. p. 1803., Ail. Hort. Kew., ed. 2. vol. 5. p. 12 ; Stæ'chas citrina Dod. Pempt., 268. Engravings. Barrel. Icon., č. 410.; Blackw., t. 438. ; Encyc. of Plants, p. 1699. f. 11756. Spec. Char., &c. Branches twiggy. Leaves linear. Heads of flowers in a com
pound corymb. (Willd. Sp. Pl., as Gnaphàlium Stæ'chas.) A native of Germany, France, and Spain. It was cultivated in Britain in 1629, where it grows to 2 ft. or 3 ft. high, and produces its yellow flowers from June to October. It is a low evergreen shrub, with long, slender, irregular branches, the lower ones having blunt leaves, 24 in. long, and an eighth of an inch broad at the end; those on the flower stalks are very narrow, and end in acute points; and the whole plant is very woolly. The flowers terminate in a compound corymb; the calyxes are at first silvery, but afterwards turn to a yellow sulphur colour. If the flowers are gathered before they are much opened, the heads will continue in beauty many years if kept from air and dust. The plant is of easy culture in dry calcareous soils ; but it requires to be placed in a warm sheltered situation; and, north of London, it will, in many places require a conservative wall. This species is now scarcely to be procured in any of the London nurseries, though some years ago there were plants of it in the Hammersmith collection.
App. i. Half-hardy Species of the Helichrysum. H. fràticans D. Don; Astélma fruticans Bot. Reg., t. 726.; Gnaphalium fraticans L.; G. grandi. Aldrum Bot. Rep.; and our fig. 840. ; is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, growing to the height of 3 ft., and producing its yellow flowers from June to August.
H. congestum D. Don; Gnaphalium congéstum Lam., Bot. Reg., t. 253. ; and our fig. 841. ; is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, growing 3 ft. high, and producing its purplish Aower heads in May and June. Various other species of this genus,
and of closely allied genera, are suitable for the base of a conservative wall, or for conservative rockwork. H. apiculatum, H. crassifolium, H. diversifolium, H. ericöldes, and some other species, are in the collection of Messrs. Loddiges.
CINERARIA Lessing. The CINERARIA. Lin. Syst. Syngenèsia
Supérflua. Identification. Less. Synops. Gen. Compos., p. 389. Synonymes. Cineraire, Fr.; Aschenpflanze, Ger. Derivation. From cineres, ashes; the surface of the leaves being covered with down. 21. C. MARITIMA L. The Sea-side-inhabiting Cineraria, or the Sea Ragwort. Identification. Lin. Sp., 1244. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 3. p. 75.; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2. vol. 5. p. 75. Synonymes. Cinerària Dod. Pempt., 642; Jacobæ a marítima Bonp.; Sicilian Ragwort. Engravings. Flor. Græc., t. 871. ; Park., 689. f. 7.; Lob. Icon., 2472 ; Ger. Emac., 280. f. 4. Spec. Char.,fc. Leaves pinnatifid, tomentose beneath ; the lobes obtuse, and each
consisting of about 3 obtuse lobelets. Flowers in panicles. Involucre tomentose. (Willd. Sp. Pl.) A native of the south of Europe, on the sea coast and on rocks. It grows about Vaucluse, in the cliffs of the perpendicular rock, above the spring. It was cultivated in Britain in the time of Gerard and Parkinson, and was by these authors, and by Miller, erroneously considered as indigenous. It is a suffrutescent plant, with rambling branches, growing, in dry soil and a warm situation, 3 ft. or 4 ft. high, and producing its yellow ragwortlike flowers from June to August. Unless planted in very dry soil, it is liable to be killed to the ground in severe winters; but such is the beauty of its whitish, large, and deeply sinuated fo. liage, at every season of the year, that it well deserves a place against a conservative wall, where it may be placed near Solànum marginatum, and any other ligneous whitish-leaved species
of that genus.
App. i. Half-hardy Species of Cinerària. 842
There are numerous species of Cinerària, which are somewhat ligneous, and are frame or green-house plants, of low growth, flowering in April or May; and, where there is a rockwork sus. ceptible of being protected during the winter season, these may be tried upon it. C. cruenta ( fig. 842.), perhaps rather herbaceous than suffruticose, though so marked in our Hort. Brit., C. láctea, C. canescens, C. hybrida, C. populifolia, C. bicolor, C. lanata (fig. 843.), C. geifolia (fig. 844.), and C. amellördes L., Agathæ'a cæléstis Cas. (figs. 845, 846.), may be mentioned as examples. All these species seed freely, and also mule together; so that abundance of plants may be easily raised, which may be preserved in a frame through the winter, and turned out
App. I. Half-hardy Genera belonging to the Order Compositæ.
Though there are few plants belonging to the order Compositæ, whether hardy or half-hardy, which are truly ligneous, yet there are a number which are suffruticose ; and which, though usually kept in the frame, green-house, or even stove, may be tried, with every prospect of success, at the base of a conservative wall, or on rockwork which is capable of being protected during winter. We shall notice the genera to which these belong in the order in which they are given in Lessing's Synopsis, and chiefly refer for the species to our Hortus Britannicus.
Carlowizia salicifdlia Mench, Onobróma salicifdlia Link, is a native of Madeira, growing to the height of 2 ft. It is an erect shrub, with hoary leaves, resembling those of a willow. Arctòtis L. This is a very interesting family consisting
of undershrubs, all natives of the Cape of Good Hope, and very splendid when in flower. The colour of the rays is yellow, orange, purple, or white. Several, or perhaps all, of them might partly be preserved at the base of a conservative wall
A. áspera L. (Boi. Reg., t. 34.) has yellow rays, and grows to the height of 3ft., flowering from June to September
Didélla carndsum and D. spinòsum H. K. are Cape shrubs, growing to the height of 3 ft, and flow. ering in June and July.
Berckheya Ehrh. is a Cape genus, of which there are 7 suffruticose species introduced, which grow to the height of 3 ft., and produce their yellow flowers from June to August B. grandifldra W. (Bot. Mag., t. 1844.) is often in collections.
Culùmia R. Br. is a Cape genus of evergreen undershrubs, of which 3 species have been introduced, which grow to the height of 2 st., and produce their bright yellow flowers from May to August.
Othonna is a Cape genus, of which there are numerous low undershrubs, evergreen, some of them rising as high as 3 ft. 0. flabellifòlia Bot. Cab., t. 728. o. virginea L. and our fig. 847. ; O. pinnáta Bot. Mag., t. 768. ; O. pectinata Bot. Mag., t. 306. ; and O. coronopifolia ; are species frequent in col. lections.
Osteospermum is a Cape genus of low evergreen shrubs, growing to the height of 8 ft. or 10 ft., and producing their yellow flowers from April to August.
851 Several of them are figured in our Encyclopædia of Plants ; and 0. pisiferum L. (Bot. Cab., t. 470.; and our figs. 848, 849, and 850.) will give a sonie idea of the general appearance of the genus.
Calendula is a genus of which several species are natives of the Cape, and are evergreens, rising as high as 2 ft. .or 3 ft., producing yellow flowers from April to August. All the species are beautiful. C. chrysanthemifolia Ven. (Bot. Reg., t. 40.; and our fig. 851.), may serve to exemplify the genus.
Mutísia Cav. This is an exceedingly interesting genus of shrubby climbers, with leaves terminating in tendrils, by the 852 prehension of which the stems are supported, The species are natives of South America, and only three of them, as far as we know, have yet been introduced. M. latifolia D. Don in Brit. Fl.-Gard., 2d ser., t. 288., and our fig.852., is a native of Valparaiso, which has flowered in a frame at Kilmington Rectory, Wilts. The flowers are pale pink and yellow, and the leaves cordate-oblong, ending in a scollop, or notch, the midrib of the leaf being extended up the blade of the leaf, through the centre of the notch, and being continued into a tendril 3 in. long. M. arachnoidea Mart. (Bot. Mag., t. 2705.) is a native of Brazil, with red flowers, produced in July and August. A plant, apparently of the former species has stood out three winters in the Clapton Nursery, without the slightest protection, and appears perfectly hardy. Mutisia latifolia represents a family of climbers so very different from every other hitherto propagated in British
gardens, that we cannot but strongly recommend it for trial against every conservative wall.
Dáhlia Cao. There is an arborescent 'species of this genus, which, in Mexico, is said to grow as high as 40 ft. A plant of it was introduced into the Liverpool Botanic Garden in 1835, and it was seen in the August of that year by Dr. Neill of Canonmills Cottage, who describes it as "a cutting, resembling a middle-sized trunk or small stem of an elder bush, as thick as a man's leg, and fully as woody as the elder. It was throwing out leaves very like those of our herbaceous species.” (Gard, Mag., vol. xi. p. 680.) On applying to Mr. Shepherd for information respecting this plant, he says nothing of the plant alluded to by Dr. Neill, but inforins us that he has very fine plant, on a south wall, where it does better than in a green-house.” He also informs us that, in the Walton Nursery, there are a fine old plant, and several young ones for sale; and that, in the green-house of C. Taylure, Esq., there is a plant from 11 ft. to 14 ft. high. We also learn from Messrs. Loddiges, that they received the tree dahlia, a few years ago, from Mexico, but afterwards lost it. Mr. M‘Nab informs us that there are plants of it in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden; and Mr. Campbell, that there is one in the Botanical and Horticultural Garden at Manchester.
Atalánthus pinnatus D. Don (Prenanthes pinnata Lin.) is a native of Teneriffe, growing to the height of 3 ft., and producing its yellow Aowers in June and July.
Sonchus fruticosus Jacq. Icon., 1. t. 161., and our fig. 853., is an evergreen suffruticose plant, a native of Madeira, which grows to the height of 4ft, and produces its yellow flowers from April to July. It is a very handsome plant during the summer season, both on account of its large leaves and it showy fowers. A few years ago, there were plants in the conservatory of the Cambridge Botanic Garden.
855 Vernonia acutifolia Hook. (Bot. Mag., t. 3062.) is an evergreen shrub, a native of South America, growing to the height of 4 ft., and producing its pale purple flowers in December.
A'ster L of this genus there are upwards of 20 species introduced, which are technically considered as subligneous, suffruticose, or somewhat woody. Of these the most remarkable is A. argophýllus Lab. (Bot. Mag., t. 1563. ; and our fig. 854.), a native of Van Diemen's Land, which grows to the height of 10 ft., and produces its white flowers from May to July. It is very hardy, and sometimes stands out in the open border, in the neighbourhood of London, for five or six years, without any protection whatever. The whole plant has a white aspect, and smells strongly of musk. This is the Haxtònia argophylla of Caley. (See First Addit. Supp. to Hort. Brit.) A. angustifolius Jacq. Sch., 3. t. 370., is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, which grows to the height of 6 ft., and produces its pale blue flowers from May to July. A. aculeatus Lab. (Bot. Cab., t. 830.; and our fig. 855.) is a native of New Holland, which grows to the height
of 2 ft or 3 ft., and produces its white flowers from March to July.
Chrysocoma Comaárea L. (Bot. Mag., t 1972.; and our fig. 856.) is a native of the Cape, where it grows to the height of 6 ft. It is an old inhabitant of our green-houses, and produces its yellow flowers from June to August. There are five or six other shrubby species, natives of the Cape, of still humbler growth.
Brachylæ na nereifolia Swt. (Baccharis nereifdlia Lin.) is a Cape evergreen undershrub, growing to the height of 4 ft., and producing its white flowers from August to November.
Conyza carolinensis Jacq. Icon., t. 585., is an evergreen shrub, a native of Carolina, growing to the height of 5 ft., and producing its purple flowers from July to October. There are several other frame and green. house suffruticose species ; but few of them exceed a foot in height.
Podanthus Mitiqui Lindl., and our fig. 857., is a low evergreen shrub, a native of Chili, which grows to the height of 8 ft. or 10 ft., and produces 856 its yellow flowers from Äugust to November. It was introduced in 1824;
and plants have stood against the wall in the Horticultural Society's Garden for 6 years, and been found perfectly hardy.
Culcitium salicinum Spr., Cacàlia salícina Lab., (Bot. Rep., t. 923.; and our fig. 862.) is a New Hollandshrub, with succulent leaves; evergreen; growing to the height of 6 ft; and producing its yellow flowers in June and July.
Caca'lia L. is a genus of which there are several suffruticose species, with succulent leaves, varying in height from 1 ft. to 6 ft., all of which might be tried on conservative rockwork.
Franzèria artemisiöldes W., and F. ambrosioldes Cav. Icon., 2. t. 200., are natives of Peru and Mexico, growing to the height of from 4 ft. to 6 ft., and producing their greenish flowers from July to Sep tember.
(Edera prolifera Thunb. (Bot. Mag., t. 1637.) is an evergreen undershrub, a native of the Cape, growing to the height of 3 ft., and producing its yellow Howers in May and June.
Pyrethrum Sm. is a genus of which several species, natives of the Canadas and Teneriffe, are suffruticose, grow to the height of 3 f., and
859 produce their white flowers all the year. P. fæniculàceum W. En. (Bot. Reg., t. 272. ; and our fig. 863.) will give an idea of the species. In a late number of Sweet's Brit. Fl. Gard., under the head of Ismèlia maderense, it is remarked, that all the shrubby Teneriffe and Canary plants, hitherto considered as included in the genus Pyrethrum, will, probably, be found to belong to that of Ismèlia.
Athanasia L is a genus of evergreen undershrubs, natives of the Cape, of which A. pubéscens L. (Com. Hort., 2. 47.; Encyc. of Plants, p. 696. f. 11662.) is deserving of a place against a conservative wall. This plant grows to the height of 6 ft., and produces its yellow flowers from June to August.
Balsamita ageratifolia Desf. (Alp. Ex., t. 326.) is a native of Candia, growing to the height of 2 ft., and producing its yellow flowers from June to October, It deserves a place against a conservative wall or rock.
Piéntza flabelliformis W., Tanacetum flabellifórme L'Hérit., (Bot. Mag. t. 212.) is an evergreen undershrub, a native of the Cape, which grows to the height of 4 ft., and produccs its yellow flowers from May to August. It is interesting for its silvery fan-shaped leaves.
Eriocephalus africanus L (Bot. Mag., t. 893.) is an evergreen Cape shrub, which grows to the height of 8 ft., and though not remarkable in its flowers, which are yetlow, has yet very interesting leaves, which have a whitish hue, and are divided into narrow filaments, so as to somewhat resemble those of the southernwood ; they are also odorous when slightly rubbed.
Senècio L. is a genus of which there are several Cape and South American species that are suffruticose and evergreen; and which, if planted in dry soil, against a wall, or on rockwork in a very warm situation, might probably admit of being protected during winter. In the warmest parts of Cornwall and Devonshire, some of the species are treated as border flowers, and formd to be bardier than pelargoniums. Sélegans plèna rùbra Bot. Mag., t. 238., has been so treated. S likcinus Link grows to the height of 6 ft., and flowers in June and July. It would form a most ornamental plant if trained to a wall.
Tarchonanthus camphoratus Lam. III., 671., is not rare in old botanical collections. It has whitish, somewhat ovate, leaves, with an odour more or less camphor-like. Planted out under a wall for the summer,
it grows freely Eriscoma fragrans D. Don is a native of Mexico, beautiful in its panicles of white-rayed heads of fragrant flowers; and it has large leaves.
Various other genera of Compositæ afford half-hardy suffruticose species ; but some of these are of such humble growth, that they are better adapted for being considered as half-hardy herbaceous plants than shrubs. Those, however, who wish to pursue the subject as far as it will go, may turn to the following genera in our Hortus Britannicus and Gardener's Magazine : - Centaurea, Kentrophyllum (K. arboréscens is 6 ft. high), Stobe'a (S. pinnàta is 4 ft. high), Bacàzia, Cichòrium, Rolandra, Neca, Piquèria, Eupatorium, Mikània, Améllus, Grindèlia, Diplopáppus, Nèja, Erigeron, Pteronia. Bhupthalmum, Diomèdia, Zcxmènia, Montanòa, Lidbeckia, Achillea, Tanacetum, Hippia, Cassinia (C. leptophyla is very shrubby), fæddia, Ozothamnus, Leucostemma, Aphelésis, Syncárpha, Metalà sin, Stæ'be, Phenocoma, Leysera, Relhània, Osmites, Triris.