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tings, and will grow in any light sandy soil ; at-
Stæhelina L. There are two green-house species, S. arboréscens
otherwise be known to botanists only through books or herbariums ; and which would never be seen by the general observer at all. Botanic gardens, therefore, exist, more or less, in every civilised country, as a part of the national institutions; and in some countries, as in France, they are very properly supported at the expense of the local, or general, government,
BA'CCHARIS R. Br. THE BACCHARIs, or PLOUGHMAN'S SPIKENARD.
Lin. Syst. Syngenèsia Supérflua.
ed. 2. vol. 5, p. 26.
man's Spikenard. Identification. Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 523. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves narrow, linear, entire. Panicle compound, many
flowered. Involucre small. (Encyc. of Plants, p. 703.) A subevergreen
shrub, of less vigorous growth, and somewhat more tender, than the
, 2. p. 523., is described as having the leaves smooth, cuneately obovate, toothed towards the point; the heads of flowers axillary, sessile, remote; and the scales of the calyx brown above. It is a native of Virginia and Carolina, in woods on the sea coast, flowering from August to October ; but it has not yet been introduced.
B. Dioscoridis W., Rauw. Itin., t. 54., is a native of the Levant, and is generally kept in the greenhouse or cold-pit ; though there can be no doubt that, if it were thought worthy of cultivation, it would stand against a conservative wall.
IVAL. The Iva. Lin. Syst. Syngenèsia Necessària.
# 1. I. FRUTE'SCENS L. The shrubby Iva.
p. 181. ; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p.,580.
f. 1. ; Bastard Jesuits' Bark Tree.
and our fig. 834.
SANTOLI'NA L. THE SANTOLINA, or LAVENDER COTTON. Lin. Syst.
Description. Diminutive evergreen undershrubs, natives of the south of
me 1, S. CHAMECYPARI'ssus L. The Dwarf Cypress Santolina, or common
2. vol. 4. p. 517.
the teeth obtuse, and in four rows. Each peduncle bearing
shaped, spreading in 4 rows. Peduncles bearing severally at the tip a single
* 3. S. vI'RIDIS W. The green Santolina, or Lavender Cotton.
shaped, straight, in 4 rows. Heads of flowers solitary on the tips of pe-
lina, or Lavender Cotton.
2. p. 5. t. 62. ; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2. vol. 4. p. 18.
ones rather downy, tubercled on the margin: upper ones
836 and producing its yellow flowers from July to September
ARTEMI'SIA Cass. . The ARTEMISIA. Lin. Syst. Syngenèsia Supérflua. Identification. Cassini, according to Lessing in his Synop. Gen. Compos., p. 264. ; Ait. Hort. Kew.,
ed. 2. v. 5. p. 2. Derivation. From Artemis, one of the names of Diana; or, as some suppose, from Artemisia, the wife of Mausolus : there is a cypress-like and drooping character in some of the species, that may be associated with the latter etymology.
Description. Woody or suffrutescent evergreen plants, natives of Europe and Asia; all of them highly fragrant and aromatic, and all of them of the easiest culture in any dry soil.
. 1. A. Abro'tanum L. The Abrotanum Artemisia, or Southernwood. Identification. Lin. Sp., 1185. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 3. p. 1818.; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2. vol. 5. P. S. Synonymes. Abrótanum más Dod. Pempt., 21.; oid Man; Armoise Aurone, Aurone des Jardins, la Citronelle, la Garderobe, Fr.; Eberraute, Wermuth, Stabwurtz, Gartenwurtz, Ger. ; Abrotano,
Ital., Span., and Port. Derivation. The Greek name for this plant is Abrotonon, which is variously derived, from abrolon, incorruptible; from abroton, unfit for food; from the soft delicacy (abrotēs) of its appearance; or from abros, soft, and tonos, extension, because it is extended, or grows, in a very soft manner. Why Linnæus and others write it Abrotanum, is not known. The name of Old Man, doubtless, has reference to its grey and powdery appearance. It is called Garderobe in French, from its being used to prevent moths foom getting into clothes, dresses, and wardrobes. Eberraute is boar's rue;
and Wermuth, wormwood ; Stabwurtz means staff root; and Gartenwurtz garden root. Engravings. Blackw., t. 55. ; Woodv., 356. t. 119.; and our fig. 837. Spec. Char., fc. Stem straight. Lower leaves bipinnate, 837
upper ones pinnate, with the segments hair-like. Calyxes pubescent, hemispherical. (Willd. Sp. Pl.) A native of Italy, Spain, the south of France, Silesia, and Carniola, in Europe ; and of Siberia, Syria, Galatia, Cappadocia, China, and Cochin-China, in Asia. In a wild state, it is seldom found above 3 ft. or 4 ft. high; and, in mountainous situations, not above half that height, with the branches recumbent. In British gardens it sometimes attains the height of 5 ft. in deep dry soil. Its flowers, which are yellowish, and of little show, appear from August to October. This plant was known to the Greeks, by whom it was called abrotonon; and it is mentioned in Turner as being cultivated in almost every English garden in his time. Gerard recommends it as aromatic; and, according to Allioni, the branches dye wool a deep yellow. In modern times, it is almost confined to the gardens of farmers and cottagers, where it ranks with thyme, rosemary, and mint, for its fragance; but it is a very useful plant for suburban gardens, as it will bear the smoke and want of free air of cities without the slightest injury. The leaves, when held against a strong light, will be found full of transparent dots; in which
it is probable the odorous matter contained in the plant will be found. Varieties. • A. A. 2 hùmile Hort. is a low-growing spreading shrub, found on moun
tains in the south of Europe, and retaining its dwarf habit for some years in British gardens. A. A. 3 tobolskiànum Hort., A. tobolskiàna Lodd. Cat., was introduced
from Siberia in 1820, or before, and is a much more vigorousgrowing variety, and larger in all its parts, than the species. There are plants in the arboretums at Hackney and Goldworth. This plant
has elegant foliage, consisting of finely divided leaves. 2. 4. SANTO'NICA L. The Santonica Artemisia, Tartarian Southern
wood, or Worm-seed. Identification. Lin. Sp., 1185. ; Woody., 335.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 3. p. 1826.; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2. vol. 5. p. 5.
Synonyme. Artemisia fruticosa, &c, Gmel. Sib., 2. p. 115. t. 51.
poundly divided; those of the stem pinnate, linear, gla-
838 little used in medicine. It is, however, tonic, and stomachic; and, like many other plants now neglected, may be found useful
to practitioners who depend for drugs on their own resources. • 3. A. ARBORE ́SCENS L. The arborescent Artemisia, or Tree Wormwood. Identification. Lin. Sp., 1188. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 3. p. 1820.; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2. vol. 5. p. 3. Synonymes. Absinthium arborescens Lob. Ic., 1. p. 753. ; Abisynthe, or Armoise en Arbre, Fr. Engravings. ? Park. Theatr., 93. f. 3. ; Lob. Icon., t. 753. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves tripinnatifid, silky, grey; segments linear. Flowers in globose heads, that are borne on simple branchlets. (Willd. Sp. Pl.) A native of the Levant, Portugal, and the south of France, principally on the sea shore, where it grows to the height of 6 ft. or 8 ft., and produces its yellowish green Aowers from June to August. The whole plant so much resembles the common wormwood, that Linnæus considered it only a variety of that species. It was cultivated in British gardens in 1640; Gerard calls it the greater, or female, southernwood, and says that, “ by careful manuring, it doth oftentimes grow up in manner of a shrub, and cometh to be as high as a man, bringing forth stalks an inch thick, or more, out of which spring very many sprigs, or branches, set about with leaves, diversely jagged, and finely indented, somewhat white, and of a certain strong smell. This species makes a fine strong plant, and a fit associate for the strong-growing variety of the common southernwood. There are plants of this species in the Horticultural Society's Garden, in the Chelsea Botanic Garden, and in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges; and it well deserves a place, with A. Abrótanum and A. procèra, in collections. Plants are ]s. 6d. each.
App. i. Other hardy Species of Artemisia. In our Hortus Brilannicus, several species will be found indicated as ligneous and hardy; but, in general, they are of such humble growth, and so imperfectly ligneous, that, for all practical purposes, they may be more fitly considered as herbaceous plants ; unless we except A. procèra, which is said to grow 8 ft. high, but which appears to us to be nothing more than A. arboréscens. App. ii. Half-hardy Species of Artemisia.
The same remarks that we have applied to the hardy ligneous species in the preceding Appendix will apply to those which are half-hardy. Though there are a dozen or more of them enumerated in our Hortus Britannicus, they are almost all too low to be considered otherwise than as herbaceous plants. The most in. teresting of these is A. argéntea Ait. Hort. Kew.,
3. p. 170., L' Hérit. Sert. Angi., t. 28, N. Du Ham., 6. t. 36., and our fig. 839. This species has bipinnated silky white leaves, with lanceolate linear leaflets. The flower heads are globose, and the flower-bearing branches wand-like. The whole plant is of a silvery colour.lt is a native of Madeira, whence it was introduced in 1777; and, in British green-houses, it grows to the height of 4 ft. or 5 ft., producing its yellowish green flowers in June and July. This is by far the handsomest species of the genus, and it used formerly to be very common in green-houses. If placed, under favourable circumstances, against a conservative wall, it would make a fine appearance, associated with such shrubs as Anthyllis Bárba Jovis,