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tings, and will grow in any light sandy soil ; attaining the height of 2 ft. or 3 ft. in three or four years. It was cultivated by Parkinson in 1640. App. i. Half-hardy Species of Stæhelina.

Stæhelina L. There are two green-house species, S. arborescens and S. Chamæpeuce, both considered pretty plants; the first growing to the height of 6 ft., and the other to that of 2 ít. ; which, being natives of Candia, and thriving quite well in a frame, are doubtless fit for a conservative wall or conservative rockwork,

Remark. We may observe here that such plants as the different species of Stæhellna, hardy and half-hardy, are rarely, if ever, to

832 be found in the public nurseries. Their culture is in general confined to the collections of curious individuals; or some of our public botanic gardens. Hence the great value of such gardens, in a scientific point of view; since, by means of them, many plants are preserved alive in the country, that would otherwise be known to botanists only through books or herbariums; and which would never be seen by the general observer at all. Botanic gardens, therefore, exist, more or less, in every civilised country, as a part of the national institutions; and in some countries, as in France, they are very properly supported at the expense of the local, or general, government.




Lin. Syst. Syngenèsia Supérflua. Identification. Less. Syn. Gen. Compos., p. 204. ; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2. vol. 5. p. 25. Synonymes. Bacchante, Fr.; Baccharis, Ger. Derivation. From Bacchus, winc; because of the vinous odour of its root. Pliny says the root

smells of cinnamon: but, as the ancients sometimes boiled down their wines, and mixed them with spices, these wines may have had an odour similar to that of the root of the baccharis. 1. B. HALIMIFOʻLIA L. The Sea-Purslane-leaved Baccharis, or the

Groundsel Tree. Identification Lin. Sp., 1204. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 3. p. 1915. ; Schmidt Baum., t. 82.; Ait. Hort. Kew.,

ed. 2. vol. 5. p. 26. Synonyme. Senècio arborescens Hort. Kew. Engravings. Schmidt Baum., t. 82. : Du Ham. Arb., t. 35. ; and our fig. 833. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves obovate, crenately notched on the terminal portion. (Willd. Sp. Pl., iii. p. 1915.)

833 Flowers white, with a tint of purple, and resembling those of the groundsel, but larger. A native of North America, on the sea coast, from Maryland to Florida. It has been in cultivation in British gardens since 1683 ; it grows to the height of 8 ft. or 10 ft., and flowers from September to November. It is chiefly remarkable for the glaucous hue of its leaves, in consequence of the whole plant being covered with a whitish powder. Its general appearance accords with that of the genus A'triplex, and the shrubs of both families are, accordingly, well calculated for being grouped together. Baccharis halimifolia will grow in any common soil which is tolerably dry, attaining the height of 6 ft. or 8 ft., in 3 or 4 years, and forming a large, looseheaded, robust-looking bush, of from 10 ft. to 12 ft. in height, and 12 ft. or 15 ft. in diameter, in 10 years. It is readily propagated by cuttings. Price of plants, in the London nurseries, Is. each. 2. B. ANGUSTIFO‘LIA Pursh. The narrow-leaved Baccharis, or Plough

man's Spikenard. Identification. Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 523. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves narrow, linear, entire. Panicle compound, many

flowered. Involucre small. (Encyc. of Plants, p. 703.) A subevergreen


shrub, of less vigorous growth, and somewhat more tender, than the preceding species. It is a native of North America, on the sea coast, from Carolina to Florida, and on the banks of the Mississippi ; flowering from July to September. It was introduced into British gardens in 1812, and grows to the height of 3 ft. or 4 ft., retaining its leaves, in mild seasons, through the greater part of the winter. There were plants in the Twickenham Botanic

Garden, Cambridge Botanic Garden, and in that of Bury St. Edmunds, a few years ago.

B. glomeratiflòra Michx. Fl. Amer., 2. p. 125., Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p. 523., is described as having the leaves smooth, cuneately obovate, toothed towards the point; the heads of flowers axillary, sesşile, remote; and the scales of the calyx brown above. It is a native of Virginia and Carolina, in woods on the sea coast, flowering from August to October ; but it has not yet been introduced. B. Dioscoridis W., Rauw. Itin., t. 54., is a native of the

Levant, and is generally kept in the green. house or cold-pit; though there can be no doubt that, if it were thought worthy of cultivation, it would stand against a conservative wall.


IVAL. The Iva. Lin. Syst. Syngenèsia Necessària.
Identification. Lin. Gen. Pl., 1429.; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2. vol. 5. p. 181.
Derivation. Uncertain. Perhaps from Yua, a name used by the elder botanists.

1. I. FRUTE'SCENS L. The shrubby Iva. Identification. Lin. Amen. Ac., 3. p. 25.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 3. p. 2387.; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2. vol. 5

p. 181. ; Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 2. p.580.
Synonymes. Agerato affinis peruviàna frutéscens Pluk. Alm., 12. t. 27.

f. 1.; Bastard Jesuits' Bark Tree.
Engravings. Pluk. Alm., 12. t. 27. f. 1.; Encyc. of Plants, p. 744. f. 12762. ;

and our fig. 834.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves lanceolate, deeply serrated,

rough with dots. (Willd. Spec. Plant.) native of North America, from New England to Florida, on the sea coast; flowering in August and September. Cultivated in Britain in 1711. It grows to the height of 3 ft. or 4 ft., and, in sheltered dry situations, is tolerably hardy; but, when freely exposed in moist soil, it is apt to be killed to the ground in severe winters. It is readily propagated by cuttings; but, not being a plant of much beauty, it is seldom met with in collections.- I. imbricàta Willd. is described by Pursh as a smooth shrub, with linear lanceolate entire leaves, found on the sea coast, from Carolina to Georgia. It has not yet been introduced.


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Syngenèsia Æquàlis. Identification. Lin. Gen. Pl., 1978. ; Less. Syn. Gen. Compos., p. 259.; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2. vol. 4.

p. 517. Synonymes. Santoline, Fr.; Heiligenpflanze, Ger. Derivation. From sanctus, holy, and linum, fax; so called from its supposed medical qualities.

Description. Diminutive evergreen undershrubs, natives of the south of Europe; of easy culture and propagation, by cuttings, in any poor sandy soil.

1. S. CHAMÆCYPARI'ssus L. The Dwarf Cypress Santolina, or common

Lavender Cotton.
Identification. Lin. Sp., 1179. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 3. p. 1797.; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed.

2. vol. 4. p. 517.
Engravings. Lam. I11., 671. t. 3. ; and our fig. 835.
Spec. Char., &c. Branches tomentose. Leaves hoary, toothed ;

the teeth obtuse, and in four rows. Each peduncle bearing a single head of flowers, which has a downy involucre. (Willd. Sp. Pl., iii. p. 1797.) A native of the south of France, which has been cultivated in Britain since 1573. It grows to the height of 2 ft. or 3 ft., and produces its yellow Howers in July. It was common in gardens in Gerard's time, who says it is acrid, bitter, and aromatic, and has much the same qualities as southernwood. It was formerly

835 employed as a vermifuge, but is now disused. 2 2. S. (C.) SQUARRO'SA W. The squarrose (?-leaved) Santolina, or Lavender

Identification. Willd. Sp. Pl., 3. p. 1798.; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2. vol. 4. p. 517.
Synonyme. Abrótanum fæʼmina

foliis Ericæ Moris. Hist., 3. p. 12. 8. 6. 1. 3. f. 17. Engraving. Moris. Hist., 3. t. 3. f. 17. Spec. Char., &c. Branches tomentose. Leaves hoary, toothed ; teeth awl

1 shaped, spreading in 4 rows. Peduncles bearing severally at the tip a single head of flowers, the involucre of which is glabrous. (Willd. Sp. Pl., iii. p. 798.) A native of the south of Europe ; cultivated in Britain since 1770; growing to the height of li ft. or 2 ft., and producing its yellow flowers in July and August.

R 3. S. vI'RIDIS W. The green Santolina, or Lavender Cotton. Identification. Willd. Sp. Pl., 3. p. 1798. ; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2. vol. 4. p. 518. Spec. Char., &c. Branches glabrous. Leaves glabrous, toothed; teeth awl

shaped, straight, in 4 rows. Heads of flowers solitary on the tips of peduncles. Involucre glabrous. (Willd. Sp. Pl., iii. p. 1793.) A native of the south of Europe, and cultivated in Britain in 1727; growing 2 ft. or 3 ft. high, and flowering in July. This sort is very distinct from the common species, in its growing shoots, foliage, and peduncles being of a fresh green colour, and thus affording, an obvious contrast to the hoary aspect of the common sort. Its leaves have, also, their segments more divaricate; and its heads of flowers, which are of a very pale yellow, are of greater diameter. It is an eligible kind of shrub for planting upon dry rockwork, in a sunny and sheltered situation, and, thus placed, will produce an abundance of flowers. Like most of the other sorts of this genus, it is rarely to be met with except in botanic gardens. It is, doubtless, one of the three kinds of S. Chamæcyparíssus which were cultivated by Miller, and considered by him as species. (See Martyn's Miller.) There are plants in the collection of the Messrs. Loddiges, which, from their deep green foliage, appear distinct; but whether specifically so or not, we have not presumed to decide. 4. S. ROSMARINIFO'LIA L. The Rosemary-leaved Santo

lina, or Lavender Cotton. Identification. Lin. Sp., 1180. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 3. p. 1798.; Smith Exot. Bot.,

2. p. 5. t. 62. ; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2. vol. 4. p. 18. Engravings. Éxot. Bot., 2. t. 62. ; Encyc. of Plants, p. 695. f. 11655. ; and our

fig. 836. Spec. Char., &c. Branches glabrous. Leaves linear; lower

ones rather downy, tubercled on the margin ; upper ones glabrous, fat, entire. Heads of flowers solitary at the tips of peduncles. Involucre glabrous. (Willd. Sp. Pl., iii. p. 1798.) A native of Spain, cultivated in Britain since1683,

836 and producing its yellow flowers from July to September.

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ARTEMI'SIA Cass. The ARTEMISIA. Lin. Syst. Syngenèsia Supérflua. Identification. Cassini, according to Lessing in his Synop. Gen. Compos., p. 264. ; Ait. Hort. Kew.,

ed. 2. v. 5. p. 2 Derivation. From Artemis, one of the names of Diana ; or, as some suppose, from Artemisia, the wife of Mausolus : there is a cypress-like and drooping character in some of the species, that may be associated with the latter etymology.

Description. Woody or suffrutescent evergreen plants, natives of Europe and Asia; all of them highly fragrant and aromatic, and all of them of the easiest culture in any dry soil.

. 1. A. ABROʻTanum L. The Abrotanum Artemisia, or Southernwood. Identification. Lin. Sp., 1185.; Willd. Sp. Pl., 3. p. 1818.; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2. vol. 5. p. 3. Synonymes. Abrótanum más Dod. Pempt., 21.; Old Man; Armoise Aurone, Aurone des Jardins, la Citronelle, la Garderobe, Fr.; Eberraute, Wermuth, Stabwurtz, Gartenwurtz, Ger. ; Abrotano,

Ital., Span., and Port. Derivation. The Greek name for this plant is Abrotonon, which is variously derived, from abroton, incorruptible; from abroton, unfit for food; from the soft delicacy (abrotēs) of its appearance; or from abros, soft, and tonos, extension, because it is extended, or grows, in a very soft manner. Why Linnæus and others write it Abrotanum, is not known. The name of Old Man, doubtless, has reference to its grey and powdery appearance. It is called Garderobe in French, from its being used to prevent moths foom getting into clothes, dresses, and wardrobes. Eberraute is boar's rue;

and Wermuth, wormwood ; Stabwurtz means staff root; and Gartenwurtz garden root. Engravings. Blackw., t. 55. ; Woodv., 356. t. 119.; and our fig. 837. Spec. Char., &c. Stem straight. Lower leaves bipinnate, 837

upper ones pinnate, with the segments hair-like. Calyxes pubescent, hemispherical. (Willd. Sp. Pl.) A native of Italy, Spain, the south of France, Silesia, and Carniola, in Europe ; and of Siberia, Syria, Galatia, Cappadocia, China, and Cochin-China, in Asia. In a wild state, it is seldom found above 3 ft. or 4 ft. high; and, in mountainous situations, not above half that height, with the branches recumbent. In British gardens it sometimes attains the height of 5 ft. in deep dry soil. Its flowers, which are yellowish, and of little show, appear from August to October. This plant was known to the Greeks, by whom it was called abrotonon; and it is mentioned in Turner as being cultivated in almost every English garden in his time. Gerard recommends it as aromatic; and, according to Allioni, the branches dye wool a deep yellow. In modern times, it is almost confined to the gardens of farmers and cottagers, where it ranks with thyme, rosemary, and mint, for its fragance; but it is a very useful plant for suburban gardens, as it will bear the smoke and want of free air of cities without the slightest injury. The leaves, when held against a strong light, will be found full of transparent dots ; in which

it is probable the odorous matter contained in the plant will be found. Varieties. . A. A. 2 hùmile Hort. is a low-growing spreading shrub, found on moun

tains in the south of Europe, and retaining its dwarf habit for some

years in British gardens. • A. A. 3 tobolskiànum Hort., A. tobolskiàna Lodd. Cat., was introduced

from Siberia in 1820, or before, and is a much more vigorousgrowing variety, and larger in all its parts, than the species. There are plants in the arboretums at Hackney and Goldworth. This plant

has elegant foliage, consisting of finely divided leaves. 2. d. SANTO'NICA L. The Santonica Artemisia, Tartarian Southern

wood, or Worm-seed. Identification. Lin. Sp., 1185. ; Woodv., 335. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 3. p. 1826. ; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2.

vol. 5. p. 5.


fig. 838.

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Synonyme. Artemisia fruticosa, &c, Gmel. Sib., 2. p. 115. t. 51.
Engravings. Gmel. Sib., 2. t. 51. ; Woodv., 335. 6. 123. ; Encyc. of Plants, p. 11697. f. 1698.; and our
Spec. Char., 8c. Stem somewhat branched. Leaves com-

poundly divided; those of the stem pinnate, linear, gla-
brous. Flowers about 5 in a head. Heads almost
sessile, disposed unilaterally and reflexedly in spikes,
which are in panicles. (Willd. Sp. Pl.) A native of
Siberia, Tartary, and Persia. It has been cultivated
since 1596 in British gardens, where it grows to the
height of 1 ft., forming a low spreading bush, and pro-
ducing abundance of whitish green flowers from Sep-
tember to November. The leaves are very small, linear,
and undivided. The seeds of this species were for-
merly imported from the Levant, under the name of
semen santonicum, or worm-seed; but the plant is now

838 little used in medicine. It is, however, tonic, and stomachic; and, like many other plants now neglected, may be found useful

to practitioners who depend for drugs on their own resources. • 3. A. ARBORE'SCENS L. The arborescent Artemisia, or Tree Wormwood. Identification. Lin. Sp., 1188. ;, Willd. Sp. Pl., 3. p. 1820. ; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2. vol. 5. p. 3. Synonymes. Absinthium arboréscens Lob. Ic., 1. p. 753. ; Abisynthe, or Armoise en Arbre, Fr. Engravings. ? Park. Theatr., 93. f. 3. ; Lob. Icon., t. 753. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves tripinnatifid, silky, grey; segments linear. Flowers in globose heads, that are borne on simple branchlets. (Willd. Sp. Pl.) A native of the Levant, Portugal, and the south of France, principally on the sea shore, where it grows to the height of 6 ft.

or 8 ft., and produces its yellowish green flowers from June to August. The whole plant so much resembles the common wormwood, that Linnæus considered it only a variety of that species. It was cultivated in British gardens in 1640; Gerard calls it the greater, or female, southernwood, and says that,“ by careful manuring, it doth oftentimes grow up in manner of a shrub, and cometh to be as high as a man, bringing forth stalks an inch thick, or more, out of which spring very many sprigs, or branches, set about with leaves, diversely jagged, and finely indented, somewhat white, and of a certain strong smell.” This species makes a fine strong plant, and a fit associate for the strong-growing variety of the common southernwood. There are plants of this species in the Horticultural Society's Garden, in the Chelsea Botanic Garden, and in the arboretum of Messrs. Loddiges; and it well deserves a place, with A. Abrótanum and A. procèra, in collections. Plants are Is. 6d. each.

App. i. Other hardy Species of Artemisia. In our Hortus Britannicus, several species will be found indicated as ligneous and hardy; but, in general, they are of such humble growth, and so imperfectly ligneous, that, for all practical purposes, they may be more fitly considered as herbaceous plants; unless we except A. procèra, which is said to grow 8 tt. high, but which appears to us to be nothing more than A. arborescens. App. ii. Half-hardy Species of Artemisia.

The same remarks that we have applied to the hardy ligneous species in the preceding Appendix will apply to those which are half-hardy. Though there are a dozen or more of them enumerated in our Hortus Britannicus, they are almost all too low to be considered otherwise than as herbaceous plants. The most in. teresting of these is A. argentea Ait. Hort. Kew., 3. p. 170., L' Hérit. Sert. Angl., t. 28, N. Du Ham., 6. t. 36., and our fig. 839. This species has bipinnated silky white leaves, with lanceolate linear leaflets. The flower heads are globose, and the flower-bearing branches wand-like. The whole plant is of a silvery colour. It is a native of Madeira, whence it was introduced in 1777; and, in British green-houses, it grows to the height of 4 ft. or 5 ft., producing its yellowish green flowers in June and July. This is by far the handsomest species of the

genus, and it used formerly to be very common in green-houses. If placed, under favourable circumstances, against a conservative wall, it would make a fine appearance, associated with such shrubs as Anthyllis Bárba






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