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GENUS VI.

LEYCESTERIA Wall. THE LEYCESTERIA. Lin. Syst. Pentándria

Monogynia. Identification. Wall. in Roxb. Fl. Ind., 2. p. 181. ; Plant. Rar. Asiat., 2. p. 21. t. 120. ; Dec. Prod., 4.

p. 338.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 451. Derivation. Named by Dr. Wallich after his friend William Leycester, formerly chief judge of the principal native court under the Bengal Presidency; "who, during a long series of years, and in various parts of Hindoostan, has pursued every branch of horticulture with a munificence, zeal, and success, which abundantly entitle him to that distinction."

Description, &c. This genus appears to be intermediate between Caprifoliàceæ, and Rubiàceæ; but from the last it is distinguished by the want of stipules. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 451.) The only species known is a shrub, a native of the Himalayas.

* 1. L. FORMO'sa Wall. The beautiful Leycesteria. Identification. Wall

. in Roxb. Fl. Ind., 2. p. 182. ; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 338. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 451. Synonyme. Hamèlia connata Puerari MSS. Engravings. Plant. As. Rar., 2. t. 120. ; and our fig. 827. Description, &c. A large, ram

827 bling, deciduous shrub, a native of the highest mountains which surround the valley of Nepal ; and of much more northerly situations, towards Gossainthan, at elevations of between 6000 ft. and 7000 ft., and even as high as 8000 ft., among forests of pine and oak. It is a most beautiful shrub when in a flowering state, from the contrast of the deep green hue of its stem and leaves, with the purple colour of its large bracteas and its berries. It was introduced into British gardens in 1824, and it flowered soon afterwards in the nursery of Messrs. Allen and Rogers, at Battersea, whence specimens were sent to the late Mr. Sweet, and to Mr. G. Don.

It is a rambling shrub, with the general appearance of a honeysuckle ; and it will probably prove somewhat tender in this country; but, as it is easily propagated by cuttings, or by seeds, which it produces in abundance, a stock of plants might easily be kept in readiness to provide for accidental losses. Trained against a conservative wall, it would have a splendid effect in autumn . There are young plants, raised in 1836, from Nepal seeds, in the Horticultural Society's Garden

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CHAP. LXIV.

OF THE HARDY LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF THE ORDER RUBIACEÆ.

This order includes a great number of genera; but there is only one of these that contains any ligneous species truly hardy in British gardens.

GENUS I.

CEPHALA'NTHUS L. The Button-wood. Lin. Syst. Tetrándria

Monogynia.
Identification. Lin. Gen., No. 113.; Gærtn. Fruct., 2. t. 86.; Lam. II., t. 59. ; Juss. Mém. Mus., 6.

p. 402. ; Rich. Diss., with a fig. ; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 538.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 610.; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836.
Derivation. From kephale, a head, and anthos, a flower; in allusion to the flowers being disposed in

globular heads.
Gen. Char., fc. Calyx with an obversely pyramidal tube, and an angular

5-toothed limb. Corolla with a slender tube, and a 4-cleft limb; lobes
erectish. Stamens 4, short, inserted in the upper part of the tube, hardly
exserted. Style much exserted. Stigma capitate. Fruit inversely pyra-
midal, crowned by the limb of the calyx, 2-4-?celled, and separating into
2–4 parts; cells, or parts, 1-seeded, indehiscent, and sometimes empty by
abortion. Seeds oblong, terminating in a little callous bladder. Albumen
somewhat cartilaginous. Embryo inverted in the albumen, with a superior
radicle. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 610.) - Shrubs, with terete branches. Leaves
opposite, 3 in a whorl.

21. C. OCCIDENTA'LIS L. The Western Button-wood.
Identification. Lin. Sp., 138.; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 538.; Don's Mill., 3. 610.; Lod. Cat., ed. 1836.
Synonymes. C. oppositifolius Moench Meth., p. 487.; Swamp Globe Flower, Amer.
Engravings. Du Ham. Arb., 1. t. 54. ; Schkuhr Handb., t. 21., and t. 6. b. fruit. ; Lois. Herb. Amat.,

t. 272. ; Pluk. Alm., 336. t. 57. f. 4. ; and our figs. 828, 829. Spec. Char., fc. Leaves opposite, or 3

829 in a whorl, ovate or oval, acuminated. Peduncles much longer than the heads, usually by threes at the tops of the branches. Petioles reddish next the branches. Heads of

828

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flowers globular, size of a marble. Flowers whitish yellow. There are varieties of this species having the branchlets and young leaves either glabrous or downy. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 610.) A shrub, growing to the height of from 6 ft. to 8 ft. ; a native of North America, from Canada to Florida, in marshy places. It was introduced in 1735, and Alowers in July and August. It will grow in common garden soil, but prefers peat kept moist; and is propagated chiefly by seeds, but will also grow by cuttings and layers. It is an inter

esting shrub, from its curious round heads of flowers, and from the lateness of the season at which these appear. Price of plants, in the London nur

series, 1s. 6d. ; at Bollwyller, i franc; and at New York, 25 cents. Variety. sé C. o. 2 brachypodus. Dec. Prod., iv. p. 539. - Leaves elliptic-oblong,

3 in a whorl, or short petioles ; petioles 3—4 lines long. There are varieties of this, with either glabrous or downy branches. A native of the north of Mexico, near Rio de la Trinidad and Bejar, where it

was collected by Berlandier. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 610.) Some other species of Cephalánthus are described in De Candolle's Prodromus and Don's Miller ; but they are natives of South America, the East Indies, or China, and are considered as requiring the green-house or the stove.

App. I.

Half-hardy ligneous Plants belonging to the Order

Rubiacere.

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Pincknèya pùbens Michx. (North Amer. Syl., 1. p. 260. t. 49.) and our fig. 830.), Pincknèya pubescens Pers., Cinchona caroliniana Poir., is a tree growing to the height of 20 ft., in Georgia, South Carolina, and other parts of North America. The branches and leaves are tomentose, and the flowers rather large, pubescent, and white, tinged with red. The tree divides into numerous branches, and is covered with large light green leaves, which are downy beneath, but it is not particularly ornamental. In America it is called Georgia bark, and was originally supposed to belong to the same genus as the cinchona, which it strongly resembles. It is interesting for the properties of its bark; which partakes of the same bitter qualities as that of the cinchona ; and which is employed successfully in the alleviation of the intermittent fevers which prevail in the country where it is a native. The wood is soft, and unfit for use in the arts. In England, the plant is generally kept in green-houses or cold-pits; but it will

830 thrive much better if planted in the free ground, and trained against a wall with a southern exposure. It requires a shady situation, and is said to thrive best in a mixture of sand and peat.

Serfssa foe'tida Comm. in Juss. Gen. (Don's Mill., 3. p. 633.) į Lycium japonicum Thunb. (Bat. Mag., t. 361., and our fig. 831.); Lycium fæ tidum Lin, fil.; Lycium indicum Retz.; Dyseda fasciculata Lour. Coch., p. 146.; Buchozia coprosmoldes L'Hérit

. Diss.,

with a fig:; Dysoda fæ'tída Salisb. Prod., p. 60.; Sperma, coce fruticosa Desf. Hort. Par. ; is a native of China, Japan, and other parts of the East, where it forms a bushy shrub, growing to the height of 2 ft. or 3 ft., with small, dark green, shining leaves, a little deflexed; and flowers which are white within, and reddish without, and often single and double on the same plant. In Japan, it is frequently planted for hedges. It was introduced in 1787, and grows freely in our green-houses, in a mixture of loam, peat, and sand, flowering during the most part of the summer.

Plócama péndula Ait. ; Bartlingia scoparia Rchb. Icon. Erot., t. 11. į is a small, glabrous, much branched shrub, with the branches round, slender, and pendulous, and the leaves linear, filiform, and opposite. It is a native of the Canary Islands, where it grows to the height of 2 ft.; and was introduced in 1779, but has not yet flowered. Phyllis Nobla L. (Dill. Elth., p. 405. t. 299. f. 386.) has been an

831 + inhabitant of our green houses since 1699. It is a glabrous shrub, with round branches, and small greenish white flowers, which are produced in June and July

Anthospermum æthiópicum L. ; Ambraria Heisteri Walth. Hort., t. 9., Hort. Cliff., t. 27., Pluk. Alm., t. 193. f. 1. ; is a branched shrub, with small linear leaves, shining above, and whitish beneath. The male and female flowers are produced on different plants, the former being brownish, and the latter green. This is an evergreen Cape shrub, an old inhabitant of our green-houses, where it forms a dense fastigiate bush, sometimes as high as 4'it., and Aowering in June and July. it well deserves a place against the conservative wa)).

Rùbia fruticosa Ait., Don's Mill., 3. p. 643., Jacq. Icon. Rar., t. 25. ; R. fruticosa canadensis Poir.; is a native of the Canary Islands, where it grows to the height of 4 ft. or 5 ft., and produces its small yellowish flowers in September. It is chiefly remarkable for its leaves, which are from 2 to 6 in a whorl; and, as it is somewhat shrubby, it deserves a place against a conservative wall, or on dry rockwork

Bouvárdia Jacquini H. B. et Kunth Don's Mill., 3. p. 486.; B. triphylla Hort. ; Houstdnia coccínea Bot. Rep., t. 106. ; is a native of Spain, growing to the height of 2 ft. or 3 ft., with scarlet tubular flowers, with a tube about 9 lines long, which appear from April to November. It is a most desirable shrub, for turning out into beds and borders during the summer season, or for training against a low conservative wall. There are two forms of it in British collections, one with leaves much more pubescent than those of the other.

Manettia glabra Cham. et Schlect., Swt. Fl. Gard., 2d ser., t. 334. ; M. cordifolia Mart., Hook. Bot. Mag., t. 3202., Gard. Mag., ix. p. 107., and x. 238.; is an exceedingly elegant little twiner, with scarlet tubular corollas, and broad deep green leaves. It is a native of Buenos Ayres; and, Professor D. Don observes, will doubtless succeed well in the open border during summer.

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CHAP. LXV.

OF THE HALF-HARDY LIGNEOUS SPECIES OF THE ORDER

LOBELIA CER.

TU'PA G. Don is a genus that contains some tall-growing herbaceous plants, natives of Chili, which
might technically be considered as suffruticose; because, in frames and green-houses, they retain
their leaves, and do not die down during winter. Among these are T. salicifolia G. Don; Lobelia
Tipa Ait. ; L. gigantèa Sims Bot. Mag., t. 1785. ; and L. salicifolia Swt., which grows to the height
of 16 ft., and makes a fine appearance in the open garden during the summer season.

Lobelia arborea Forst. and L. superba Cham, are natives of the Society Islands, superb plants
which grow to the height of 12 ft. or 15 ft. ; but neither of them have been yet introduced. A shrubby
species of Lobelia from Valparaiso, in Knight's Exotic Nursery, which has not yet received a name,
appears as if it would grow 8 ft. or 10 ft, high; and, from its blue flowers, and deep green leaves, it
would make a fine appearance against a wall.

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HALF-HARDY PLANTS BELONGING TO THE ORDER CAMPANULACEÆ.

Mussckia aurea Dumort. ; Campánula aurea L., N. Du Ham., 3. p. 169., Bot. Reg., t. 57. ; is an evergreen suffruticose plant, growing to the height of 2 ft. or more, in Madeira and Teneriffe, among rocks. It is an interesting shrub, which may be compared to a miniature tree. The stem is simple, rather fleshy, marked by the scars left by the falling of the leaves, but furnished with a crown of leaves at top, and annual floriferous branches, which are disposei in a leafy pyramidal panicle. Leaves 3-6 in. long, pale green, shining. Peduncles 13.flowered,

Flowers erect. (Don's Mill., iii. p 772.) From the habit of this plant, it is better adapted for conservative rockwork, than for being trained to a wall; but it may be tried in both manners; for, as it ripens seeds freely, the loss of plants can easily be supplied.

CHAP. LXVII.

OF THE HARDY LIGNEOUS PLANTS OF THE ORDER COMPOʻSITÆ,

GENERAL Characteristics. Flowers grouped in heads; those in each head so
disposed, and so environed by an involucre composed of bracteas, that cor-
responds to a calyx, as to seem to constitute but one flower. The leading
characteristics of the separate flowers are the following : -- Ovary inferior,
bearing on its top, in many, pappus of some kind. Corolla of 1 petal.
Stamens 5, their anthers connate into a tube. Style encircled by the tube;
its top bifid, the portions of it extended above the tube. Ovary with 1 cell
and 1 erect ovule. (Lindley's Introd. to N. S., and Lessing's Synopsis Generum
Compositarum, 1832.) The genera of this order that include hardy ligneous
species are but few. The following characteristics of them are derived chiefly
from Lessing's Synops. Gen. Comp. The species are mostly natives of Europe
and North America, and are all of the easiest propagation and culture in any
common garden soil.
STÆHELI'NA Lessing. Flowers bisexual. Pappus with its segments branched,

feathery, and in a single row. Rachis (receptacle) with chaffy projections.
Involucre of many rows of bracteas. Heads purplish violet.

Small shrubs,
of the south of Europe. Leaves silkily tomentose beneath, entire.
BA'CCHARIS R. Br. Sexes diæcious, or mostly so; with the pappus, in the

male flowers, with its segments in a single row, in the female ones, with its
segments in several rows; the corolla filiform. Where the sexes are
not diæcious, the flowers of several rows in the exterior of the head are
female : the rest Lessing has not characterised; but it would appear, from

FEESE LIBRARY UNTVIRSITI

1

the Hort. Kew., that they are bisexual. Rachis naked. Bracteas of the involucre imbricate. Heads whitish, solitary, or aggregate. Shrubs or trees of North America; the young branchlets, in many, viscous. Leaves

alternate, entire, in most coriaceous. I'va L. A single row of flowers in the outline of the head, female ; the rest

male. Not any pappus. Rachis bearing bracteoles. Involucre of a single row of bracteas, and these few. Heads in a terminal, linear, spike. Herbs or shrubs of North America, with leaves alternate or opposite, with 3

ribs. SANTOLI'NA L. A single row of female flowers in the outline of the head;

the corolla of each of these with a ligula that is much shorter than the tube, and spreads rayedly. The rest of the flowers bisexual; the corolla tubular, without a ligula. Not any pappus. Involucre bell-shaped. Bracteas imbricate. Heads borne solitarily at the tips of peduncles, including many flowers. Small shrubs, of the Mediterranean region, more or less tomen

tose; their leaves alternate, cut in a bipinnate manner, ARTEMISIA Cass. Flowers in the head either all bisexual, or those of a

single row in the outline, females ; the res bisexual. Not any pappus. Rachis naked or villose. Bracteas of the involucre dry, filmy in the margin, imbricate. Heads small, each of few flowers; the heads disposed in spikes, racemes, or pyramidal panicles. Chiefly herbs, but also a few shrubs, natives of most parts of the world. The kinds to be described in this work have their flowers partly female and partly bisexual, as described

above, and their rachis naked. HELICHRY'sum Lessing. Flowers in the head either all bisexual, or with the

external row of them female. Pappus with a single row of segments. Rachis without bracteoles. Bracteas of the involucre of various colours ; the inner ones spreading more or less, and rayedly, about the head. Heads solitary or aggregate, each of many flowers. Herbs or shrubs, most of

which are found in the southern extremity of Africa. CINERARIA Lessing. External flowers of the head female; with ligulate

corollas, spread rayedly. The rest bisexual, and their corollas tubular. Pappus with its segments in several rows. Bracteas of the involucre filmy in the margin, in one row. Rachis flat, without bracteas. Heads in corymbs. Flowers yellow. Herbs or small shrubs, of the Cape of Good Hope. The one species that we have to describe is a native of the south of Europe. Leaves alternate, entire, or variously cut in a pinnate

manner.

GENUS I.

STÆHELI'NA Lessing. THE STÆHELINA, Lin. Syst. Syngenèsia

Æquàlis.
Identification. Lessing Synops. Gen. Compos., p. 5. ; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2. vol. 4. p. 512.
Synonyme. Stæheline, Fr. and Ger.
Derivation. So named in honour of John Henry Stæhelin, and his son Benedict, Swiss botanists and
physicians.

* 1. S. DU'bia L. The doubtful, or Rosemary-leaved, Stæhelina. Identification. Lin. Sp., 1176. ; Less. Syn. Gen. Coinpos., p. 5. ; Willd. Sp. Pl., 3. p. 1783. ; Ger. Prov.,

190. 1. 6.; Ait. Hort. Kew., ed. 2. v. 4. p. 512.
Synonyme. S. rosmarinifdlia Cass., according to Less. Syn. Gen. Compos., p. 5.
Engravings. Ger. Prov., p. 190. t. 6.; Lam. lll., 666, f. 4.; and our fig. 832.
Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves sessile, linear, finely toothed, tomentose beneath.
Inner bracteas of the involucre lanceolate, elongate. (Willd. Sp. Pl.) A
native of the south of Europe. In England, a hardy shrub, with fragrant
flowers, which appear in June and July. It is readily propagated by cut-

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