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wood, being extremely hard, makes teeth
for rakes, &c. Gmelin informs us that
the Russians make an empyreumatic oil
from the wood, which they recommend for
cold tumours and chronic pains. Animals
seldom touch the leaves. In hard weather
birds eat the berries, which are reputed
to be purgative and emetic. (Martyn's
Mill.) According to Pallas, an empyreu-
matic oil is prepared from the branches
when young; and the wood, which is ex-
tremely hard, and yields only in beauty
to L. tatárica, is used for walking-sticks.
It is one of the oldest and hardiest inha-
bitants of British shrubberies, having been
in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden since
1683; but, certainly, it cannot be recom-

mended for its beauty, in a country pos-
sessing such an extensive ligneous flora as we have in Britain. In the
colder parts of Europe, about Stockholm and Petersburg, for example, it
is valuable, because it endures the severest winters. In the English
garden, or rather park, at Munich, it is planted in masses and groups, along
with other masses and groups of Córnus álba, Salix vitellina, and Vibúrnum
Oʻpulus; and, in the winter time, the whitish-grey bark of its shoots con-

trasts finely with the red, yellow, or brown, bark of the other species. Varieties.

L. X. 2 leucocarpa Dec. Prod., iv. p. 335., N. Du Ham., i. p. 52., has

white berries.
L. X. 3 xanthocarpa Dec., l. C., N. Du Ham., l. c., has the berries yellow.
L. X. 4 melanocarpa Dec., 1. c., Bauh. Pin., p. 451., has black berries,

22. L. FLEXUO'SA Thunb. The flexible-stemmed Honeysuckle.
Identification. Thunb. in Lin. Trans., 2. p. 530, but not of Lodd., nor Ker; Don's Mill., 3. p. 449.
Synonymes. L. nigra Thunb. Fl. Jap., p. 89., but not of Lin.; L. brachypoda Dec. Prod.,
Spec. Char., &c. Erect, branched. Branches very villous at the apex. Leaves ovate-oblong, acute,

on short petioles, glabrous; petioles villous; nerves of leaves puberulous. Flowers axillary, few,
almost sessile. Berries globose, glabrous. Stems flexuous. Leaves about an inch long; upper
ones the smallest. Peduncles hardly a line long. Berries distinct, ovate, acuminated, black. (Don's
Mul, iii. p. 149.) A shrub, growing to the height of from 4 ft. to 5 st., a native of Japan; which
was introduced in 1806, and flowers in June and July.





a. Hardy Species of Lonicera, belonging to the Division Chamæcérasi of the

Section Xylosteum, not yet introduced. L. hispida Pall., Led. Fl. Ross. Alt. III., t. 212., is a native of Siberia, growing to the height of 2 ft. or 3 ft.. with hispid branches, and pendulous greenish white flowers, which are succeeded by dark purple berries. C. Berries either distinct or joined together. Corolla very gibbous at the Base.

Erect bushy Shrubs. Cuphánthæ Dec. Derivation. From kuphos, gibbous, and anthos, a flower ; in reference to the flower being gibbous on one side at the base,

** 23. L. INVOLUCRA'TA Banks. The involucrated Honeysuckle. Identification. Banks Herb. ex Spreng. Syst., 1. p. 759. ; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 836.; Don's Mill., 3. Synonyme. Xylosteum involucratum Richards. in Frank. First Journ., ed. 1., append. p. 6. Engravings. Our figs. 817, 818, 819. Spec. Char., 8c. Erect. Branches acutely tetragonal. Leaves ovate or oval, petiolate, membranous, beset with appressed hairs beneath. Peduncles axillary, 2-3-fowered. Bracteas 4; two outer ovate, two inner broad, obcordate, at length widening, clothed with glandular pubescence. Corolla pubescent, gibbous at the base on the outside; yellowish, tinged with red. Style exserted. (Don's Mill., iii, p. 449.) A shrub, 2 ft. to 3 ft.

p. 449.

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high, native of North-west America, between lat. 54° and 64° (but probably confined to the vicinity of the Saskatchawan); thence to the Rocky Mountains. It was introduced in 1824, and flowers in May.

a. Hardy Species of Lonicera belonging to the Division Cuphánthæ of the

Section Xylosteum, which are not yet introduced. L. gibbdsa Wild., Xylosteum mexicanum H. B. et Kunth, is a native of Mexico, in woods, with the corolla scarlet.

L. Mociniana Dec., L. gibbosa Moc. et Sesse, is a native of Mexico, very nearly allied to the preceding species, but differs in the corolla being yellowish, and, when decaying, of a blood colour, permanent, and jagged, with the bracteas spreading. The berries are globose, and of a dark purple.

L. Ledebourii Eschsch., Don's Mill., S. p. 449. A native of California, so nearly allied to L. involu. cràta, as hardly to be distinguishable from it.

D. Berries two on each Peduncle, joined together in one, which is bi-umbilicate

at the Apex. Erect branching Shrubs.- Isìkæ Adans. Derivation. A name, the origin of which is unknown, employed by Adanson to designate this division of the genus,

24. L. ALPI'Gena H. The alpine Honeysuckle. Identification. Lin. Sp., 248. ; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 336. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 449. Synonymes. Caprifdlium alpinum Lam. F. Fr.; Caprifolium alpigenum Gertn. Fruct., 1. p. 15.; Isika alpígena Börck.; Isica lùcida Mench; Xylósteum alpigenum Lodd. Cat. ; Chamæcérasus

alpígena Delarb. ; Cherry Woodbine; Heckenkirsche, Ger. Engravings. Jacq. Fl. Aust., t. 274.; N. Du Ham., 1. t. 16.; Mill.

Icon., t. 167. f. 2. ; Lob. Icon., t. 173.; and our figs. 820, 821. Spec. Char., 8c. Erect. Leaves oval-lanceolate, or elliptic; acute, glabrous, or pubescent, on very

820 short petioles, rather ciliated." Peduncles 2-flowered, shorter than the leaves. Corolla gibbous at the base, and greenish yellow tinged with red or purple. Berries red, and of the size and appearance of those of a cherry; whence it is called cherry woodbine by Johnson. Leaves large. (Don's Mill., iï. p. 449.). A shrub, from 3 ft. to 5 ft. high, a native of the middle and south of Europe, in subalpine places and mountains. Introduced in 1596, and flowering in April and May. One of the oldest and hardiest of our shrubs, and

of the easiest propagation and culture. Variety.

821 L. a. 2 sibirica Dec. Prod., iv. p. 336.; L.

sibirica Vest in Ræm. et Schult. Syst., 5.
p. 259. — Lower leaves rather cordate.
Peduncles thickened a little under the
flowers. A native of Siberia ; and, like
most other varieties of trees and shrubs,
natives of the west of Europe, indigenous
to Siberia, coming into leaf and flower, a
week, or more, earlier than the species.


P. 450.

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25. L. (A.) MICROPHY'LLA Willd. The small-leaved Honeysuckle.
Identification. Dec. Prod., 4. p. 336. ; Willd. Rel. in Ræm. et Schult. Syst., 5. p. 258. ; Don's Mill., 3
Synonyme. L alpígena Sievers.
Engraving. Led. Fl. Ross. Alt. III., t. 213.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves elliptic, acute at both ends, glaucous beneath,

rather villous on both surfaces, and sometimes rounded at the base. Pe-
duncles 2-flowered, and shorter than the leaves. Corollas greenish yellow.
Berries joined, of a reddish orange colour. The epidermis falls from the
branches. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 450.) A shrub, 3 ft. or 4 ft. high; a native of
Eastern Siberia, and introduced in 1818. Obviously a variety of the pre-
ceding species.

26. L. OBLONGIFO‘lia Hook. The oblong-leaved Honeysuckle.
Identification. Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 284. t. 100. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 450.
Synonyme. Xylosteum oblongifolium Goldie in Edin. Phil. Journ., 6. p. 232.
Engravings. Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. t. 100.; and our fig. 822.
Spec. Char., &c. Erect, Leaves oblong, or oval,

clothed with velvety pubescence beneath. Pe-
duncles elongated, erect.

Bracteas obsolete.
Tube of corolla hairy, gibbous at the base on one
side. Limb unequal, deeply 2-lipped; the upper
lip 4-toothed, and the lower one nearly entire.
Berries joined in one, which is bi-umbilicate at the
top, bluish black in the dried state, and about the
size of a pea. (Don's Mill., iii

. p. 450.) A shrub,
growing to the height of 4 ft. or more, native of
North America, in the Island of Montreal, in the
St. Lawrence, about Montreal, Lake Winnipeg,
and of the western parts of the state of New
York. It was introduced in 1823, and flowers in
April and May. There are plants in the Horti-
cultural Society's Garden.

% 27. L. CÆRU'LEA L. The blue-berried Honeysuckle.
Identification. Lin. Sp., 349. ; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 337. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 450.
Synonymes. L vilidsa Muhi. Cat., p. 22., Hook. et Arn, in Beech. Voy. Pt. Bot., 1. p. 115.; Xylós.

teon villdsum Micht. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 106., Richards, in Frankl. First Journ., ed. 2., append,
p. 6.; X. Soldnis Eaton Man. Bot., p. 518.; L. velutina Dec. Prod., 4. p. 397.; L. altàica Pall. Fl.
Ross., t. 37. ; Xylosteum cæruleum canadense Lam. Dict., 1. p. 731. ; X. canadénse Du Ham. Arb.,
2. p. 373. ; Caprifolium cæruleum Lam, Fl. Fr., and Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; Chamæcérasus cærulea

Delarb. Fl. du.; L. pyrenaica Pall. Fl. Ross., p. 58.; L Pallasii Led Fl. Ross. Alt. III., t. 131.
Engravings. Jacq. Fl. Aust. Append., 5. t. 17Sims Bot. Mag., t. 1975. ; Pall. Fl. Ross., t. 37. ;

Led. Fl. Ross. Alt. II., t. 131.; and our figs. 823, 824.
Spec. Char., fc. Erect. Leaves oval-oblong, ciliated, stiffish, densely clothed
with pubescence while young. Peduncles short, 2-flowered, reflexed in the

fructiferous state. Bracteas 2, subulate, longer than the

ovaria. Tube of corolla glabrous, short, gibbous on one

side at the base; lobes of limb short, nearly equal.
Berries closely joined in one, which
is bi-umbilicate at the apex. Flowers
greenish yellow, tubular. Berries
elliptic or globose, dark blue, and
covered with a kind of bloom. +

Bark of young shoots purplish.

There is no difference between the
American and European plants of this species. (Don's Mill., 3. p. 450.)
A shrub, growing to the height of from 3 ft. to 5 ft. ; native of Europe,
in France, Switzerland, Austria, &c., on the mountains ; throughout the
woody country of British North Ainerica, and as far as lat. 66° to the
mountains in the west, Labrador, Newfoundland, and Hudson's Bay; in
the states of New York, Massachusetts, New Hampshire; and of Siberia



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and Kamtschatka. It was introduced in 1629, and flowers in March and April.

28. L. (c.) ORIENTA'Lis Lam. The Oriental Honeysuckle. Identification. Lam. Dict., 1. p. 731. ; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 357. ; Bieb. Fl. Taur. et Suppl, No. 39;

Don's Mill., 3. p. 450. Synonymes. L. caucásica Pall. Fl. Ross., 1. p. 57.; L. cærulea Güld. Itin., 1. p. 423., ez Pall. ; Cha

mæcérasus orientális laurifdlia Tourn. Cor., p. 42. Spec. Char., 8c. Erect. Leaves on very short petioles, ovate-lanceolate, acute,

quite entire, smoothish, peduncles 2-flowered, shorter than the leaves. Bracteas 2, setaceous. Berries joined in one, didymous and bi-umbilicate at the apex, 10-seeded. Berries black (Lam., Bieb.), dark blue (Pall.). Leaves stiffish, veiny, larger than in L. cærùlea. Flowers greenish yellow. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 450.) A shrub, growing to the height of from 3 ft. to 5 ft.; native of 'Iberia and Asia Minor, in woods. It was introduced in 1825, and flowers from April to June. Judging from the plants in the Hackney arboretum,


appears to be a variety of the preceding sort.

. 29. L. IBE'Rica Bieb. The Georgian Honeysuckle. Identification. Bieb. Fl. Taur., and Suppl., 895. ; Stev. Mém. Soc. Mosc., 3. p. 257. ; Dec. Prod., 4 p. 337.; Don's Mill., 3.

P. Synonyme. Xylósteon ibèricum Bieb. Cent. Pl. Rar., 1. t 13., er Suppl., and Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Engraving. Bieb. Cent. Fl. Rar., 1. t. 13., ex Suppl." Spec. Char., &c. Erect. Leaves petiolate, cordate, roundish, tomentose, or

pubescent. Peduncles 2-flowered, shorter than the leaves. Bracteas oblong, ciliated. Berries joined together to the middle,globose. Corollas lucid, of the form of those of L. alpígena. Ovarium tomentose. Berries bloodcoloured. Leaves like those of Cotoneaster vulgàris. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 450.) A shrub, growing to the height of from 3 ft. to 4 ft.; native of Georgia, about Teflis. It was introduced in 1824, and flowers in April and May. a. Hardy Species of the Genus Lonicera belonging to the Division Isìkæ of the

Section Xylosteum, not yet introduced. L. Webbia na Wall. (Dec. Prod., 4. p. 1336. ; Royle Nlust., p. 236.) is a native of the East Indies, in Sirinagur, with the habit of L. alpígena.

L. Govaníána Wall. (Dec. Prod., p. 337.) is a native of Sirmore, in the East Indies, and is nearly allied to L. alpígena. L. angustifolia Wall

. (Dec. Prod., 4. p. 337.) is a native of Nepal, with the branches smooth, and the leaves 15 lines long, and 4 lines broad. Corolla pale. Some other species, not sufficiently

known, but presumed to be hardy, natives of the East Indies and of Chili, are enumerated in Don's Miller and Royle's Ilustrations, to which we refer the curious collector.


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SYMPHORICA'RPOS Dill. The St. Peter's Wort. Lin. Syst.

Pentándria Monogynia. Identification. Dill. Elth., p. 371.; Juss. Gen., p. 211. ; Manch Meth., p. 502. ; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 338 ;

Don's Mill., 3. p. 451. Synonymes. Symphoricárpa Neck. Elem., p. 220. ; Symphdria Pers. Ench., I. p. 214. ; Anisanthus

Willd. Rel. ; Lonicera sp. Lin. Derivation. From sumphoreõ to accumulate, and karpos, fruit; species bearing the fruit in groups. How it obtained the name of St. Peter's Wort we have not been able to ascertain.

Description, &c. Bushy deciduous shrubs, of the easiest culture in common garden soil, and readily increased by suckers, which they throw up in abundance. Price of plants, in London, from 6d. to 1s. each; at Bollwyller, 50 cents; and at New York, 374 cents.

l. S. vulga'ris Michx. The common St. Peter's Wort. Identification. Michx. F1. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 100. ; Dec. Prod , 4. p. 339.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 451. Synonymes. Lonicera Symphoricárpos Lin. Sp. 349. , S. parviflora Desf. Cat.; Symphòria conglome

ràta Pers. Ench., 1. p. 214. ; Symphdria glomerata Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., p. 162. Engravings. Schmidt Baum., t. 115.; Dill. Elth., t. 278, f. 360. ; Hort. Angl., t. 20.; and our fig. 825.

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Spec. Char., fc. Flowers disposed in axillary capitate clusters, composed of
nearly sessile racemules. Corolla white. Berries red, size of hempseed;
but, in America, according to Pursh, the flowers
are small, red and yellow, and the berries pur-

ple. Branches brown, smooth. Leaves ellip-
tic ovate, obtuse, glaucous, and pubescent
beneath. The berries are numerous, and ripen
in winter. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 451.) A shrub,
growing to the height of from 3 ft. to 6 ft. ;
native of Virginia, Carolina, and Pennsylvania,
in sandy dry fields. It was introduced in 1730,

and flowers in August and September. Variety.

S. v. 2 fölös variegatis, S. glomeràta fòliis

variegàtis Lodd. Cat., has the leaves

finely variegated with green and yellow, 2. S. RACEMO'Sus Michx. The racemose-flowered St. Peter's Wort, or

Snowberry. Identification. Michs. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 107. ; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 339.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 451. Synonymes. Symphdria racemosa Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 162; S. leucocarpa Hort. Engravings. Bot. Mag., t. 2211. ; Lodd. Bot. Cab., t. 230.; and our fig. 826. Spec. Char., &c. Flowers disposed in nearly terminal, loose, interrupted racemes, which are often leafy. Corolla densely bearded inside. Style and stamens enclosed. Leaves glaucous beneath. Corolla rose-coloured. Berries large, white. This is a fine shrub, very common in our gardens, easily known by its large white berries, and small 826 red flowers. The S. elongata and S. heterophýlla Presl in Herb. Hænke, which were collected about Nootka Sound, do not differ from this species, in which the lower leaves are sometimes deeply sinuated. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 451.) A shrub, growing to the height of from 4 ft. to 8 ft.; native of North America, on mountains near Lake Mistassins, and on the banks of the Missouri; in Upper Canada it is abundant about the Saskatchawan, on the banks of the Columbia, and at Puget's Sound and Nootka Sound, north-west coast. It was introduced in 1817, and flowers from July to September. The flowers are succeeded by white fruit, about the size of a large black currant, but elliptical in form, which remain on the bush even after the leaves have dropped, and make a very fine appearance. In small gardens, this shrub is rather troublesome, from the numerous suckers it throws up from the roots ; but, as its flowers are much sought after by bees, and its berries are excellent food for game (See Gard. Mag., ix. p. 699., and x. p. 432.), that habit, when it is planted for these purposes, is found rather advantageous than otherwise. For gardens, it might be desirable to graft it on Lonicera Xylosteum, or some allied species of suitable habit. So grafted, standard high, it would form a very elegant small tree. App. i. Hardy Species of Symphoricárpos not yet introduced. S. occidentalis Richards. (Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer., i. 285.) is a native of British North America, in the woody country between lat. 540 and 64°, and known under the name of wolfberry. Dr. Richardson remarks of this plant, that it approaches very near to S. racemosus;, and Sir W. J. Hooker says, “ Among the numerous specimens in the herbarium, are some which appear almost as much allied to one species as the other : but the majority of the individuals of the two species are readily enough distinguished; those belonging to the S. occidentalis, by their larger, less glaucous, more rigid, and denser foliage (some of the leaves being 2 in. long); by the flowers arranged in dense drooping spikes, larger than in S. racemosus ; and by the prominent style and stamens." (Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer., I. p. 285.) We have given this quotation to show the very uncertain grounds on which what are called species are established; and, perhaps, it cannot be otherwise, so long as botanists are obliged to form their opinions from dried specimens. There is scarcely any tree or shrub that, by culture in different soils and situations, could not be made to vary in magnitude, and other particulars, as much as, or more than, is stated to be the case with these dried specimens of Symphoricárpos. We are very much inclined to think that, if the

species of all the genera of Capri. foliaceæ were cultivated for some years in the same garden, they would be reduced to less than half their present number,

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