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and which he had before described as

“ The pleached bower, Where honeysuckles, ripen'd by the sun,

Forbid the sun to enter." “ Gentle as are the first embraces of the honeysuckle, and of other twining shrubs,” Mr. Denson observes (Mag. Nat. Hist., vi. p. 330.), “ while their stem is yet tender, and through that tenderness, powerless ; yet they become with the age, size, strength, hardness, and consequent incapacity for dilatation of the stem or branch, effective agents of an obviously injurious constriction ; for the coils of woody-stemmed twining plants are scarcely in any, perhaps in no, species enlarged in capacity so fast as is the diameter of the trunk, stem, or branch, which these coils encircle; that is, presuming the supporting tree or shrub to be in a healthy and freely growing condition.” Cowper, alluding to the constrictive powers of the honeysuckle, has the following beautifully descriptive lines in his poem, Retirement.

“ As woodbine weds the plant within her reach,
Rough elm, or smooth-grain'd ash, or glossy beech,
In spiral rings ascends the trunk, and lays
Her golden tassels on the leafy sprays;
But does a mischief while she lends a grace,

Straitening its growth by such a strict embrace." All the varieties of the common honeysuckle are beautiful and fragrant; and, either trained against a wall, twining round a pole and over a parasol top, or climbing and rambling among bushes, form great ornaments to gardens, particularly when planted against other trees; which, however, if not strong enough to resist their pressure, are seriously injured by it, their trunks and branches sometimes becoming indented like a screw. (See Mag. Nat. Hist., vi. p. 331.) In a state of art and culture, where the gardenesque is the prevailing expression, honeysuckles, or other climbing or twining plants, should never be planted against trees or bushes, but always by themselves, against walls, rods, stakes, or

other artificial supports. The reason is, that it is only when they are planted apart from other plants that they can be properly cultivated, and, consequently, display the expression of the gardenesque. Where the object is merely picturesque beauty, the honeysuckle may be planted close to the root of a tree; and, being trained up its trunk, and allowed to twine among its branches, it may be considered as displaying the elegant picturesque. Planted among bushes, and allowed to grow up among them without any training whatever, the expression will be that of the common, or rural, picturesque ; or, if the shrubs are chiefly of foreign kinds, and are arranged in a dug shrubbery, the expression may be designated the shrubbery picturesque. These terms are of very little consequence in themselves; but they are introduced here to show that very different kinds of beauty are produced in plantations, according to the manner of planting, and the kinds of plants chosen. The different varieties of common honeysuckle may be propagated by cuttings; but so large a proportion of these do not succeed, owing, as is supposed to the large space in the centre of the shoot admitting the wet during winter, and rotting the upper part of the cutting, that the more common mode of propagation is by layers. Both layers and cuttings are made in the autumn, as soon as the leaves have dropped; and they become sufficiently rooted in one year. It has been recommended, in order to prevent the water from entering the hollow part of the shoot, and rotting the cuttings, to make the latter of double the usual length, and insert both ends in the ground, so that the cutting should present the appearance of a bow; but this mode, which, it is supposed, would produce two plants from each cutting, can scarcely be said to have been properly tried. (See Encyc. of Gard., edit. 1835,9 2882.) 3 2. L. CAPRIFO'LIUM L. The Goat's-leaf, or pale perfoliate, Honeysuckle. Identification, Lin. Sp., p. 246.; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 331. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 444. Synonyme. Periclymenum perfoliatum Ger. Emac., p. 891, Engravings. Engl. Bot., t. 799. ; Jacq. Austr., t. 357. ; Engl. Gard. Cat., 14. t. 5., Dodon. Pempt.,

411., with a flg. ; Matth. Volgr., vol. 2. p. 321., with a fig. ; Cam. Epit., 713., with a fig. ; Riv. Irr.,

t. 123. ; Krauss, t. 6.; and our fig. 798. Spec. Char., &c. Branches twining. Leaves

798 deciduous, obovate, acutish, glaucous; uppermost ones broader and connate. Flowers ringent, terminal, disposed in capitate whorls. Stems twining from left to right. Buds acute, glaucous. The lower leaves are distinct, and somewhat stalked; two or three of the upper pairs united; the uppermost of all forming a concave cup. Flowers in one or more axillary whorls, the uppermost whorl terminal; with a central bud, 6 in each whorl, highly fragrant, 2 in. long, with a blush-coloured tube. Berries elliptical

, of a tawny orange colour, each crowned by an almost entire calyx. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 444.) Native of the middle and south of Europe, even to the river Tereck in Siberia, and on Mount Caucasus, in woods, hedges, and thickets. In England, it has been occasionally found in similar situations, in an apparently, wild state: but it is rare; and we think it may fairly be doubted whether it has any claim to be considered truly indigenous. As it very frequently seeds abundantly in gardens, and as the fruit is greedily eaten by birds, the seeds carried away by them may very probably have sprung up in various situations. Culture, uses, &c., as in the preceding species.

33. L. (C.) ETRU'SCA Santi. The Etruscan Honeysuckle. Identification. Santi Viagg., 1. p. 113. t. 1.; Savi Fl. Pis., 8. p. 236.; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 331. ; Fl. Fr.

Suppl., 500.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 444. Synonymes. L. etrusca Hort. Fl. Austr., 1. p. 298.; Caprifdlium etrúscum Rom. et Schult. Syst., 5.

p. 261. ; Periclymenum Gouan Hort., p. 101. ; Caprifolium itálicum perfoliatum præ'cox Tourn. Inst., p. 608. Engravings. Santi Viagg., 1. p. 113. t. 1. ; and our fig. 799. Spec. Char., &c. Branches twining. Leaves deci. duous, obovate, obtuse, pubescent, lower ones on short petioles, upper ones connately perfoliate, acute, glabrous. Flowers disposed in verticillate heads, with usually about three heads on the top of each branch. Flowers glabrous, sweet-scented, purplish on the outside, and yellow inside. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 444.) Native of the south of France, Sicily, Vallais, Carniola, and Dalmatia, on hills, where it forms a twining shrub, flowering in May and June. Judging from the plants in British gardens, we should consider it only a variety of L. Caprifolium.

799 ¿ 4. L. IMPLE’xa Ait. The interwoven, or Minorca, Honeysuckle. Identification. Ait. Hort. Kew., 1. p. 231. ; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 331.; Viv. Fl. Cors., p. 4. exclusive of

the synonymes; Camb. Bat., p. 81 ; Guss. Sic., 1. p. 257. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 444. Synonyme. ' Caprifdlium implexum Ræm. et Schult. Syst., 5. p. 261. Engravings. Bot. Mag., t. 640.; and our fig. 800.

800 Spec. Char., &c. Quite glabrous. Branches

twining. Leaves permanent, evergreen, glaucescent; lower ones oblong, distinct; middle ones perfoliate; uppermost ones connate, forming a hollow roundish cup. Flowers disposed in capitate whorls, ringent; purplish before they open, but becoming paler on the outside as they expand, white on the inside ; but finally changing to yellow, as in the common woodbine. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 4+5.) Native of the Balearic



Islands, and of Sicily; where it forms a twining evergreen shrub, flowering from June to September. It was introduced in 1772, and is not unfrequent in British gardens; but, in situations north of London, it requires the pro

tection of a wall. Variety. ¿ L. i. 2 baleárica Viv., Camb., et Guss., 1.c. ; Caprifòlium balearicum

Dum. Cours. Bot. Cult., ed. 2. vol iv. p. 358., Ræm. et Schult. Syst., 5. p. 261. ; L. baleárica Dec. Fl. Fr. Suppl., 499.; L. Caprifolium Desf. Fl. Atl., i. p. 183. - Lower leaves somewhat cordate; upper ones connate, obovate, glaucous beneath. Evergreen. Bark of branches violaceous, clothed with glaucous bloom. Flowers 4–6 in a head, large, cream-coloured, 15—18 in. long. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 444.)

$ 5. L. Fla'va Sims. The yellow-flowered Honeysuckle. Identification. Sims Bot. Mag., t. 1318. ; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 332. ; Torrey Fl. Un. St., 1. p. 243. ; Don's

Mill., 3. p. 145. Synonymes. Caprifolium Advum En. Sketch., 1. p. 271. ; Caprifdlium Fråseri Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept.,

1. p. 271. Engravings. Bot. Mag., t. 1318.; and our fig. 801. Spec. Char., fc. Quite glabrous. Branches

twining a little. Leaves ovate, sometimes glaucous beneath, with cartilaginous margins; upper leaves connately perfoliate. Flowers in terminal verticillate heads. Corollas rather ringent; with oblong, obtuse, lobes. Flowers bright yellow, but, as they fade, becoming orange-coloured; very fragrant. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 445.) A twining shrub; a native of the Paris Mountains, in South Carolina; and of the Catskill Mountains, New York. It was introduced in 1810, and flowers in June and July. It is a very desirable species, from the large size, rich yellow colour, and grateful fragrance of its flowers; but it is somewhat tender, and, even in the

801 neighbourhood of London, requires the protection of a wall.

$ 6. L. (F.) PUBE'scens Sweet. The pubescent Honeysuckle. Identification. Sweet Hort. Brit., p. 194. ; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 332. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 445. Synonymes. Caprifolium pubescens Goldie in Edin. Phil. Journ., 1822, April, p. 323. ; Hook. Exot.

Fl., t. 27.; L. hirsùta Eaton Man. Bot. Ed., 3. p. 341., er Torrey Fl. Un. st., 1. p. 242., Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 282.; L. Góldii Spreng. Syst., 1. p. 758. Engravings. Hook. Exot. Fl., t. 27. ; Bot. Mag. t. 3103. ; and our fig. 802. Spec. Char., &c. Branches twining. Leaves broad

ovate-elliptic, on short petioles, pubescent and ciliated, glaucous beneath; upper ones connately perfoliate. Spikes or racemes composed of verticillate heads of flowers. Corollas beset with glandular pubescence. Flowers yellow. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 445.) This appears to hold the place in the more northern parts which L. Adva does in the south; of which, indeed, Dr. Torrey suspects it to be a variety. (Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer., p. 282.) A twining shrub, a native of North America, in Massachusetts, Vermont, New York, and Canada, in many places. Introduced in 1822, by Mr. Goldie of Monkswood, near Ayr; and flowering in June and July. It appears hardier than the preceding sort. In 1831, in Ayrshire, we saw several plants

802 of it against garden walls, growing as vigorously as the common honeysuckle.


$ 7. L. PARVIFLO'Ra Lam. The small-flowered Honeysuckle. Identification. Lam. Dict., 1. p. 728. ; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 332. ; Don's Min., 3. p. 145. Synonymes. Caprifolium parvifòrum Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 161. ; Lonicera dioica Lin. Syst.

Veg., ed. 13. p. 181.; L. mèdia Murr. Nov. Comm. Gött., 1776, p. 28. t. 3. ; Caprifolium bractedsum Michr. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 105. į Caprifolium dioicum Rom. et Schult. Syst., 5. p. 260. ; Caprifo lium glaucum Mænch ; glaucous Honeysuckle ; Chèvrefeuille dioique, Fr. ; Meergrünes Geissblätt,

Ger. ; Middelboore Kamperfoelie, Dutch.
Engravings. Murr. Nov. Comm. Gótt., 1776, p. 28. t. 3.; and our fgs. 803, 804.

Spec. Char., &c. Quite glabrous. Branches

twining. Leaves elliptic, sessile; lower 803

ones somewhat connate; upper ones con-
nately perfoliate, very glaucous beneath.
Flowers disposed in verticillate heads. Co-
rollas glabrous, with
tubes gibbous at the

the base on one
side. Filaments ra-
ther hairy. Flowers
yellow, and smaller
than in any of the
foregoing species,
but varying exceed-
ingly in their co-

lour; for there is a variety mentioned by Michaux in which they are purple. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 445.)

A twining shrub, native of North America, from New England to Carolina, in rocky shady situations; frequent in Canada, as far north as the Saskatchawan ; and from Hudson's Bay to the Rocky Mountains. It was introduced in 1776, and flowers in June and July.

$ 8. L. (P.) Dougla's11 Dec. Douglas's Honeysuckle. Identification. Dec. Prod., 4. p. 332.; Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 282 ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 445. Synonyme. Caprifolium Douglasii Lindl. Hort. Trans., 7. p. 244. Spec. Char., &c. Branches twining. Leaves oval, acute at both ends, petiolate, glabrous, ciliated,

tomentose on the outside ; upper ones connate. Flowers disposed in capitate whorls. Stigma exserted. Stamens enclosed. Corollas pubescent, bilabiate, deep orange red. Leaves 4 in. to 6 in. long, deep green. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 446.) Hooker, in his Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 289., considers this nothing but a variety of L. parvifldra. It is a twining shrub, a native of the western coast of North America, on the banks of the Saskatchawan. Introduced in 1824, and flowering in July and September. We have never seen the plant.

29. L. GRATA Ait. The pleasant, or evergreen, Honeysuckle. Identification. Ait. Hort. Kew., 1. p. 231. ; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 332. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 446. Synonymes. Caprifolium gratum Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 161.; Rom. et Schult. Syst., 5. p. 262.;

L. virginiana Marsh Arb., 136. ;? Periclymenum americànum Mill. Dict., No. 7.
Engravings. Hort. Angl., p. 15. No. 10. t. 8. and our fig. 805.
Spec. Char., &c. Branches twining. Leaves permanent,

obovate, rather mucronate, glaucous beneath, and reticu-
lately veined, glabrous; upper ones connately perfoliate.
Spikes composed of approximate whorls of flowers. Co-
rollas ringent. Branches reddish brown. Flowers in-
clining to scarlet on the outside, according to Pursh.
Corolla ringent, reddish on the outside, and yellow
inside. Berries red. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 446.) A twining
shrub, a native of North America, from Carolina to New
York, on the mountains, rambling among rocks, in shady
moist situations, but rare. Introduced in 1730, and
flowering from June or July to September, and some-
times till the commencement of frost. The plant is of
vigorous growth, with woody stems, and will live longer
than most of the other species. A plant against our
veranda at Bayswater has stood since 1825, and is now in
full vigour; having outlived L. Caprifolium, L. fàvum,
L. pubéscens, L. sempervirens, some varieties of L.



Periclymenum, and L. impléxa. It is inferior in vigour only to L. japónica. Plants, in the London nurseries, are ls. each; at Bollwyller, 1 franc; and at New York, 37} cents. L. microphylla Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 283., is a provisional name, given to some dried specimens received from the north-west coast of America, by Sir W. J. Hooker, but which had neither Aowers nor fruit, and may, possibly, therefore, belong to some other genus. 'The leaves are scarcely more than 6 lines long, uniform, exactly cordate, and very villous.

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B. Limb of Corolla nearly equal. - Periclymenum Tourn. ! $ 10. L. SEMPERVI'RENS Ait. The evergreen Trumpet Honeysuckle. Identification. Ait. Hort. Kew., 1. p. 230.; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 332. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 446. Synonymes. Caprifolium sempervirens Michr. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 105. ; Periclymenum semper. virens Mill. Dict., No. 1.; Alatérnus empervirens Kæhl. ex Steud. ; Periclymenum virginlacum Rio. Mon., 116. Engravings. Hort. Angl., t. 7.; Knorr Del., 1. t. 53. ; Krauss, t. 1. ; and our fig. 806. Spec. Char., &c. Quite glabrous. Leaves persist

ent, sub-evergreen, obovate or ovate, glaucous beneath; upper ones connately perfoliate. Spikes nearly naked, composed of whorls of flowers ; tube of corolla ventricose on the upper side ; limb nearly regular, with 5 roundish lobes. Branches brown. Leaves deep green above, 2 in. long and 1 in. broad. Whorls of flowers usually 3, at the top of each branch. Flowers of a beautiful scarlet outside,

a and yellow inside, about 1 in. long, inodorous. There are several varieties of this

species, particularly one with an almost upright stem. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 446.) A twining shrub, native of North America, from New York to Carolina, in dry stony woods. Introduced in 1656, and flowering from May till August.

806 The fine scarlet flowers of this species, and the length of time during which they are produced, render it a very desirable one ; but it is somewhat tender, and rather capricious in regard to situation. It will not thrive in clayey or wet soil ; neither in the smoke of cities, nor in a confined situation. It grows well in sand, but still better in sandy peat. It succeeds but indifferently in the London nurseries; and the metropolitan trade is generally supplied from the Goldworth Nursery, where it grows luxuriantly, and is propagated by layers to a great extent. Price of plants, in London, 1s. 6d. each. ; at Bollwyller, 1 franc and

50 cents; and at New York, 37} cents.
$ L. s. 2 màjor Ait., Curt. Bot. Mag., 1781.,

Schmidt Baum., t. 104. The large Trum-
pet Honeysuckle. Leaves roundish,
and flowers very large, and of a brilliant

$L. 8. 3 minor Ait., Sims. Bot. Mag., 1753. ;

Ker Bot. Reg., t. 556.; L. connata
Meerb. Icon., t.11? The small Trumpet
Honeysuckle. Leaves oblong, acute at
both ends; upper ones obtuse, perfoliate:
with small flowers, which are scarlet both
outside and inside. This is an elegant
climbing shrub, but it can only be re-
commended for open airy situations in
the country; and the soil in which it is

planted ought to be occasionally stirred and manured.


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