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ròseum Ræm. et Schult. Syst., vi. p. 635., and Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836,
account of the form of the flowers, and not because of their colour. 4 V. 0. 3 foliis variegatis Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836, has the leaves variegated
with white and yellow. Description, 8c. The Guelder rose, in a wild state, is not remarkable for the beauty of its flowers; but its bright red berries, which ripen in September, and which, towards the middle of October, assume a beautiful pink, almost compensate for the inferiority of the species to the variety in point of flowers. The leaves of both die off of a fine red on the first approach of frost. The snow-ball tree, or the Guelder rose (V. 0.2 stérilis), is supposed to have originated in the Low Countries, in Guelderland, whence its name; though Gerard, speaking of it, says, " It groweth in gardens, and the flowers are there doubled by art, as it is thought.' Whatever may be the origin of this variety, it certainly forms one of the
most ornamental shrubs, or low trees, that can be planted in a pleasure-ground: “le plus éclatant qu'on connaisse,” as it is said in the Nouveau Du Hamel. In a shrubbery, as Cowper beautifully describes it, the Guelder rose has a striking appearance, rising
And throwing up into the darkest gloom
That the wind severs from the broken wave." On the lawns of small gardens, and trained up with a single stem, it forms one of the most splendid of small trees; coming into flower soon after the scarlet hawthorn, the Scotch laburnum, and the purple lilac. The fruit of the species is eaten in Sweden ; where, and in Russia, the young shoots are made into tubes for tobacco-pipes, and handles for whips. Pallas informs us that, in Siberia, the berries are fermented with flour, and a spirit distilled from thein; or made into a paste with honey and flour, and eaten as food, though the pulp and juice of the berry have a very fetid odour. In British gardens, the species is propagated by seed, and the variety by layers. The price of plants is the same as for V. Lantàna.
16. V. (0.) ACERIFO'lium L. The Maple-leaved Guelder Rose. Identification. Lin. Sp., 383.; Pursh Fl. Sept. Amer., 1. p. 203.; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 327. ; Hook. Fl.
Bor. Amer., 1. p. 280.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 442.
793 ovate-cordate, usually 3-lobed, acuminated, sharply and loosely serrated, downy beneath. Petioles glandless, and, when young, stipulaceous at the base, and rather tomentose. Corymbs terminal, pedunculate, not radiant. Flowers white. Berries black, oval, and compressed. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 442.) A native of North America, from New England to Carolina, in rocky mountainous situations; where it forms a shrub from 4ft. to 6 ft. high, flowering in May and June. It was introduced in 1736; and, judging from the plants in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and at Messrs. Loddiges's, it appears to be only a variety of V. O'pulus.
17. V. (0.) ORIENTA'LE Pall. The Eastern Guelder Rose. Identification. Pall. Ross., t. 58. f. H.; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 328. ; Bieb. Fl. Taur., 1. p. 245. ; Don's Mill., S. Sijnonyme. Oʻpulus orientális folio amplíssimo tridentato Tourn. Cor., p. 42. Engraving. Pall. Fl. Ross., t. 58. f. H. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves 3. lobed, acuminated,
coarsely and bluntly toothed. Petioles glandless, glabrous. Corymbs terminal, not radiant. Fruit oblong, compressed. Flowers white. Seed oval, furnished with two channels on both sides, as in V. Lantana. Very like the preceding species.
(Don's Mill., ill. p. 442.) A native of Georgia, in Asia Minor, in woods, on the mountains, &c.; where it forms ashrub growing to the height of from 6ft. to 10 ft., Aowering in July. It was introduced in 1827; but we have not seen a plant.
18. V. (0.) Oxyco'ccos Pursh. The Cranberry-fruited Guelder Rose. Identification. Pursh. Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 203, ; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 328.; Don's Mill, S. p. 142. Synonymes. V. gpulöldes Mühl. Cat., S2.; V. trilobum Marsh. Arb., p. 162. ; V. Oʻpulus ameri.
càna Ait. Hort. Kew., 1. p. 373. Spec. Char., 8c. Leaves 3-lobed, acute behind, 3-nerved. Lobes divaricate,
acuminated, coarsely and distantly serrated. Petioles glandular. Cymes radiant. Flowers white. Berries subglobose, red, of an agreeable acid, resembling that of cranberries, for which they are a very good substitute. Very like the V. O'pulus of Europe. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 442.) A native of North America, on the mountains of New York and New Jersey, and throughout Canada, to the arctic circle; from Hudson's Bay to the Rocky Mountains, in swamps and shady woods; where it grows to the height of from 6 ft. to 12 ft., and flowers in July. In British gardens this species is commonly seen as a bush; and at Syon and Kew, and other places in the neighbourhood of London, there are plants of it 12 ft. high and upwards; but, if it were planted by itself on a lawn, or in an arboretum, and trained to a single stem, it would form a very handsome small tree, conspicuous in July from the abundance of its white flowers, and in September from its
large bunches of red fruit. Variety.
V. (0.) 0.2 subintegrifolius Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer., i. p. 281., Don's
442. Leaves but little cut, very pubescent beneath. A native of the banks of the Columbia,
19. V.(0.) EDU'Le Pursh. The edible-fruited Guelder Rose. Identification. Pursh Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 203. ; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 328.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 442. Synonyme. V. O'pulus edulis Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p.
180. Spec. Char.,8c. Leaves 3-lobed, bluntish behind, and 3-nerved.
short, denticulately serrated; serratures acuminated. Petioles glandular. Outer flowers of corymb radiant. A smaller and more upright shrub than the preceding species. The berries of the same colour and size ; but, when completely ripe, more agreeable to eat, and frequently employed as a substitute for cranberries. It does not seem to differ much from V. Oxycoccos, except in the broader base of the leaf. (Don's Mill., iii
. p. 442.) A native of North America, from Canada to New York, on the banks of rivers; where it forms a shrub from 5ft. to 10 ft. in height, flowering in July. It was introduced in 1812.
Lobes very Sect. II. LONICE RE.
20. V. (0.) MO'LLE Michx. The soft-leaved Guelder Rose. Identification. Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 180.; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 328. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 442. Synonyme. V. alnifolium Marsh. Arb., p. 162. Spec. Char., fr. Leaves nearly orbicular, cordate, plicate, toothed, rather tomentose beneath from very soft down. Petioles rather glandular, corymbs radiant. Fruit oblong.ovate. Flowers white.
Bark deciduous. Very like V. Oxycóccos, and, perhaps, only a variety of it. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 142.) A native of North America, in Kentucky, near Danville, Tennessee, and Upper Carolina, in hedges ; where it forms a shrub growing to the height of from 6 ft. to 12 ft., and flower. ing in June and July. It is said to have been introduced in 1812 ; but we have never seen a plant
A. Species of Viburnum belonging to the Section Oʻpulus, not yet introduced. V. microcarpum Cham. et Schlecht, in Linnæa, 5. p. 170., is a native of South Mexico, with leaves like those of a filbert, and black fruit.
V. polycarpum Wall. (Don's Mill., 3. p. 433.) is a native of Nepal, with cordate leaves, 4–5 in. long, and 3 in. broad, growing to the height of 6 ft. to 8 n.
V. cylindricum Ham. in D. Don Prod. Fl. Nep., p. 142., is a native of Nepal, with the habit of V. nudum, and the flowers of V. dahàricum.
V. grandisdrum Wall. (Dec. Prod., 4. p. 329.) is a native of Nepal, with elliptic, acuminated leaves, in terininal bracteate corymbs
V. erubescens Wall. (Dec. Prod., 4. p. 329.) is a native of Nepal, very nearly allied to the preceding species.
V. coriàceum Blum. Bijdr., p. 656., Don's Mill., 3. p. 443., has ovate, acuminated, denticulated leaves, and terminal fastigiate corymbs. It is a native of Java, in woods on the higher mountains,
Several other species are enumerated in Don's Miler, p. 443., as being natives of Japan, but not sufAiciently known.
DIERVI'LLA Tourn. THE DIERVILLA. Lin. Syst. Pentándria
Dec Prod., 4. p. 330.
p. 176., ex R. Br. in Wall, Pl. Asiat., 1. p. 15.
1. D. CANADE'nsis Willd. The Canadian Diervilla. Identification. Willd. Enum., 1. p. 222. ; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 330. ; Don's Mill, 3. p. 444. Synonymes. Lonicera Diervilla Lin. Mat. Med., p. 62, Sims Bot. Mag., 1796.; D. Tourneforti Michs. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 107.; D. hùmilis Pers. Ench., 1. p. 214., and Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; D. lutea Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept., 1. p. 162. ; D. trifida Mænch Meth., 492. ; D. arcadiensis Du Ham.
Arb., 1. t. 87. Engravings. Bot. Mag., t. 1796. ; Du Ham. Arb., 1. t. 87.; Schmidt Baum., t. 116. ; and our figs. 794, 795. Spec. Char., &c. Leaves on short petioles, ovate, acuminated, serrated, and, as well as the petioles, glabrous. Flowers yellow. Fruit a dry brown capsule.
There are a number of varieties of this plant, differing in respect to the size of the flowers and of the leaves. Root creeping, throwing up suckers. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 444.) A native of Carolina, New England, and Newfoundland, on rocks and the highest muontains; where
it forms a shrub growing to the height of 3 ft. or 4 ft. It was introduced in 1739, and flowers in June and July. In British gardens, it is of the easiest culture in almost any soil; and it multiplies abundantly by suckers.
App. i. Species of Diervilla not yet introduced. D. japonica Dec. Prod., 4. p. 330. ; Weigela japonica Thunb.; is a native of Japan, with ovate acuminated leaves, and the corolla purple.
D. coræénsis Dec. Prod., 4. p. 330. ; Weigela coræénsis Thunb.; Weigèlia coræénsis Pers. ; is a native of Japan, closely allied to the preceding sort.
LONI'CERA Desf. The LONICERA, or HONEYSUCKLE. Lin. Syst.
Pentándria Monogynia. Identification. Desf. Fl. Atl, 1. p. 183. ; Lam. III., t. 150.; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 330. ; Don's Mill., S. Synonymes. Lonicera sp. Lin., and many authors; Caprifolium and Xylósteum, Juss. Gen., p. 219
Xylósteum, Caprifolium, Chamæcérasus, Periclýmenum, Tourn. Inst., t. 378. and 379. ; Caprifolium and Lonicera, Ræm. et Schult. Syst.; Lonicera and Xylosteum, Torrey Fl. Un. Št. ; Chèvre. feuille, Fr.; Geissblätt, Honeigblume, and Lonicere, Ger. Derivation. Named after Adam Lonicer, a German, who was born in 1528, and died in 1556. There was another Lonicer, John, who wrote comments on Dioscorides.
Description, &c. Twining or erect shrubs, natives of Europe, the north of Africa, Asia, and America. The greater number of the species and varieties are of easy culture in British gardens, in common garden soil; and they are all propagated by cuttings, or some of them more readily by layers. The flowers of some of the species are highly fragrant and
796 ornamental; and that of the common European honeysuckle is supposed to have given rise to one of the most beautiful ornaments of Grecian architecture (fig. 796.) Price of plants, in the London nurseries, from 6d. to 28. 6d. each ; at Bollwyller, from 50 cents to 2 francs; and at New York, from 25 cents to half a dollar.
The genus Lonicera of Linnæus was separated by Ræmer and Schultes into the genera Lonicera and Caprifolium; but they were reunited by De Candolle, whose arrangement has been followed by Sir W. J. Hooker and G. Don, and is adopted by us on the present occasion. The distinctive characters of the sections are as follows:
Caprifolium. Plants twining. Flowers in capitate whorls.
§ i. Caprifolium Dec. Identification. Dec. Fl. Fr., 4. p. 270.; Prod., 4. p. 331. Synonymes. Caprifdlium Juss. Gen., 212., Ræm. et Schult. Syst., 5. p. 19. Lonicera Torr. Fl. Un.
St, 1. p. 242., but not of Schult.
species; or, as appears much more probable, because goats are fond of browsing on its leaves. Sect. Char. Berries solitary, while young 3-celled, but when mature usually
l-celled, crowned by the tube of the calyx, which is permanent. Flowers disposed in capitate whorls. Twining shrubs; natives of Europe, the north of Africa, China, Nepal, and North America; all of easy culture, and tolerably hardy, but none of them of long duration.
A. Flowers ringent. — Caprifolium Tourn. Inst., $ 1. L. PericlyÝMENUM L. The Woodbine, or common Honeysuckle. Identification. Lin. Sp., p. 247. ; Dec. Prod., 4. p. 331. ; Don's Mill., 3. p. 445. Synonymes. Periclymenum Ger. Emac. p. 891. ; Periclymenum germanicum Riv. Mon. Irr., t. 122. ; P. horténse Gesn. Icon. Pict., fasc. 1. 38. t. 7. f. 49. ; Caprifolium Periclymenum Ræm. et Schult., 5. p. 262. ; Caprifolium sylvaticum Lam. Fl. Fr., 3. p. 365.; Caprifolium Raii Syn., p. 458., Engl. Gard. Cat., t. 5. ; Woodbind; Chèvrefeuille des Bois, Fr. ; wildes gemeines Geissblätt, Ger. ; ge.
woone Kamperfoelie, Dutch; Lego Bosco, Ital. ; Madre Selva, Span. Derivation. Periclymenum, from peri, round about, and kulio, to roll. Woodbine is a corruption of Woodbind, and both allude to the habit of the coinmon sort, of winding itself round every tree and shrub within its reach, and binding them together. As Mason observes, this plant
“Loves to hang on barren boughs remote
Her wreaths of flowery perfume." In the time of Chaucer, the woodbine was considered as the emblem of true love, from this property. The name of honeysuckle has reference to the fondness of children for this plant, who amuse themselves with drawing the trumpet-shaped corollas from the calyx, to suck the honey from the nectary. Chèvrefeuille and Geissblätt both signify, literally, goat's leaf; and Lego Bosco is bind. wood. The Spanish and Dutch names, Madre Selva, wood mother, and Kamperfoelie, the champion mace, seem to have little relation to the plant. Engravings. Smith
Engl. Bot., t. 800. ; Curt. Fl. Lond., fasc. 1. t. 15. ; (Ed. Fl. Dan., t. 908. Schmidt Arb., t. 107. ; Svensk. Bot., t. 140.; Engl. Gard. Cat., t. 5.; Ger. Emac., p. 891., with a fig. ; Riv. Mon. Irr., t. 122. ; Gesn. Ícon, Pict., fasc. 1. 38. t. 7. f. 49.; Spec. Char.,fc. Branches twining. Leaves all separate, deciduous, sometimes downy, glaucous beneath, ovate, obtuse, attenuated at the base ; upper ones the smallest. Heads of fowers all terminal, ovate, imbricated. Flowers ringent. There are varieties of this species with either smooth, pubescent, or variegated leaves ; and, when the plant grows by the sea side, they are occasionally more glaucous and rather succulent. Corollas externally deep red; or, in the earlier-flowering varieties, all over buff-coloured; in
3 z 3
the maritime plant, smaller and greenish. Berries nearly globular, red, deer, bitter and nauseous, accompanied by permanent bracteas. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 445.) A twining shrub, which always turns from east to west ; native of Europe, common in hedges, groves, and thickets; plentiful in Britain. Flowering in June and July; and, in moist summers, also in August, and sometimes in September. In gardens, by pruning and watering, the plants
may be kept flowering all the summer. Varieties. L. P.2 serótinum Ait.
797 Hort. Kew., i. p. 378., Hort. Angl., 14. No. 4. t. 7., Mill. Icon., t. 79., Riv. Mon. Irr., t. 122.; Periclymenum germánicum Mill, Dict., No.4., Schmidt Baum., t. 108.; and our fig. 797. - Branches glabrous. Flowers late, reddish. (Don's Mill., ii. p. 445.) This, the late red honeysuckle, produces a greater number of flowers together than either the Italian or Dutch honeysuckle, so that it makes a finer appearance than either of them during its period of flowering. It has not been so long an inhabitant of our gardens as the Dutch honeysuckle; for, about the year 1715, it was considered a great curiosity; when it was called the Flemish honeysuckle, and was, probably, brought over by the Flemish florists, who, about that time, came to England annually with flowers and plants
for sale. (Martyn's Mill.) $L. P.3 bélgicum ; Periclymenum germánicum Mill. Dict., No. 4., Hort.
Ang, 15. No. 5. t. 6. — Branches smooth, purplish. Leaves oblongoval, of a lucid green above, but pale beneath, on long petioles. Flowers in terminal verticillate heads; each flower arising out of a scaly cover, reddish on the outside, and yellowish within; of a very agreeable odour. This, which is commonly called the Dutch honeysuckle, may be trained with stems, and formed into heads; which the wild sort cannot, the branches being too weak and trailing for the
purpose. (Don's Mill., č. p. 445.) $L. P. 4 quercifolium Ait. Hort. Kew. has the leaves sinuated like those
of an oak. This variety is to be found in England, in a wood near Kimberly, Norfolk; and near Oxford. There is a subvariety of this, with the leaves slightly marked near the margin with yellow. The flowers are like those of the species. It is called the oak-leaved
honeysuckle. History, Culture, Uses, fc. The earlier writers attribute virtues to this shrub which are now entirely given up: but the beauty and exquisite fragrance of the flowers make it a favourite plant in gardens and shrubberies. "This,” Sir J. E. Smith observes, “is the true woodbine of poets, though it is likewise the twisted eglantine of Milton, in the well-known lines, –
Through the sweet briar, or the vine,
Or the twisted eglantine'
“ So doth the woodbine, the sweet honeysuckle,
Gently entwist the maple: " and, in Much ado about Nothing, uses both names indiscriminately for the bower in which Beatrice lies concealed,
" Couch'd in the woodbine coverture ;"