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Synonymes. Cornouiller, Fr.; Hartriegel, Ger. Derivation. From cornu, a horn; the wood being thought to be as hard and as durable as horn. Hartriegel signifies hard rail, or hard wood. The name of Dogwood is applied to this genus, because, as Parkinson says, in his Paradisus, the fruit of most of the species is not fit even for dogs; but it is more likely to have been given to it from the astringent properties of the bark and leaves, a decoction of which was formerly used as a wash for curing the mange, &c., in dogs. Description. Deciduous trees and shrubs, natives of Europe and North America; in general very hardy, and of easy propagation and culture in British gardens. Most of the species ripen their fruit in England; but they are usually propagated by suckers, or by layers or cuttings. The fruit is commonly called a berry, but must be botanically a pome, according to Lindley's definitions of kinds of fruit, in his Introd. to Bot., 2d ed., p. 197-204. Price, in the London nurseries, from 1s. to 1s. 6d. per plant; at Bollwyller, from 1 franc to 1 franc; and at New York, from 25 to 50 cents.
§i. Nudiflora Dec.
Derivation. From nudus, naked, and flos, a flower; the inflorescence being without an involucre.
Sect. Char. Flowers corymbose or panicled, without an involucre. (Dec. Prod., iv. p. 271.)
A. Leaves alternate.
1. C. ALTERNIFOLIA L. The alternate-leaved Dogwood.
Identification. Lin. fil. Suppl., p. 125.; L'Hérit. Corn., No. 11.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 398.; Lodd. Cat., edit. 1836.
Synonyme. C. altérna Marsh.
Engravings. Guimp. Abb. Holz., t. 43.; Schmidt Baum., 2. t. 70.; and our fig. 760.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves alternate, ovate, acute, hoary beneath. Corymbs depressed, spreading. Branches warted. Pomes
purple, globose, about the size of a grain of pepper. Leaves on long petioles. Branches green or reddish brown. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 398.) A native of North America, from Canada to Carolina, in shady woods on river banks; where it forms a tree, growing 15 ft. or 20 ft. high, and flowering from May to July. It was introduced in 1760; is very hardy, and is not unfrequent in British collections. At Syon, and in the arboretum at Kew, it is from 12 ft. to 15 ft. high. This species is easily known from every other, even at a distance, by the horizontal umbelliferous character assumed by the branches, which are also dichotomous, with clusters of leaves at the joints; and the general colour is that of a
lively green. The leaves are generally alternate, but not unfrequently opposite.
B. Leaves opposite.
2. C. SANGUINEA L. The blood-red-leaved, or common, Dogwood. Identification. Lin. Sp., p. 171.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 399.; Lodd. Cat., edit. 1836. Synonymes. C. foe'mina Raii Syn., 460., Ger. Emac., 1467., with a figure; Virga sanguínea Matth. Valgr., 1. p. 236., with a figure, Cam. Epit., 159., with a figure; Female Cornel, Dogberry Tree, Hound Tree, Hound's-berry Tree, Prickwood, Gaten or Gatten Tree, Gater or Gatter Tree, Catteridge Tree, wild Cornel; Cornouiller sauvage, sanguin, or femelle, Puine, or Bois punais, Fr.; rother Hartriegel, Ger.; Sanguinello, Ital.
Derivation. This species is called foe'mina, and Female Cornel, because it bears fruit when very young; whereas Córnus más produces male blossoms only till the tree is 15 or 20 years old. Virga sanguinea is literally the bloody twig, alluding to the colour of the shoots, though they are not nearly so red as those of Cornus álba. The names of Dogberry Tree, Hound Tree, &c., arise from the same source as Dogwood. (See above.) Prickwood alludes to the use of the wood for skewers; Gaten Tree is a corruption of Gatr treow, the Saxon name for this species; or, as suppose, it is derived from gayta, the Spanish word for a pipe, the wood of this tree being more hollow, or full of pith, than that of C. más. Catteridge, and all the other somewhat si milar names, are derived from Gaten. Chaucer calls the fruit Gaitres berries, evidently from the same origin. The French names of Puine, and Bois punais, bug wood, are from the strong and unpleasant smell of the bark and leaves; and also because a decoction of them forms a wash to destroy bugs. Rother Hartriegel signifies red hard rail, or red hard wood. Engravings. Eng. Bot., t. 249.; Fl. Dan., t. 481.; N. Du Ham. 2. t. 44. ; and our fig. 761. Spec. Char., &c. Bracteas straight. Leaves ovate, acute, smooth and green on both surfaces. Corymbs flat. Branches of a dark red when full grown. Leaves 2 to 3 in. long. Flowers greenish white, unpleasantly scented. Petals revolute at the sides. Fruit dark purple, and very bitter. (Don's
Mill., iii. p. 399.) This species is a native of Europe and the north of Africa, in hedges and thickets, especially on a chalk and limestone soil. It is plentiful in Britain, in like situations. It is also said to grow in North America, near the lakes of Canada and near New York; but has, probably, been introduced there. It grows to the height of from 4 ft. to 15 ft., according to soil and situation; flowering in June, and ripening its dark purple fruit in August and September. It is one of the commonest shrubs in old shrubberies; and is easily known from all the other kinds of Córnus by the abundance of its dark purple fruit, and the intensely dark red of its leaves before they drop off in autumn. It is from this last circumstance, we suppose, that the specific name of sanguínea has been given to it, though it is much more obviously applicable to C. álba, on account of the redness of its shoots. C. purpurea would be a much better name as contrasted with C. alba, both names applying to the fruit.
C. s. 2 Purshii Don's Mill., 3. p. 399.; C. sanguínea Pursh, Schmidt Baum., 2. t. 66.; has the flowers with yellow anthers, and the berries a dark brown. It is a native of North America, near the lakes of Canada, and near New York; and only differs from the C. sanguínea of Europe in having the leaves pubescent, and in being of larger stature. It has not yet been introduced.
C. s. 3 foliis variegatis Lodd. Cat. has the leaves variegated with white and yellow, and occasional streaks of red. A plant, lately received into Messrs. Loddiges's collection, named C. candidíssima fol. var., appears, from the leaves, to be identical with this variety. C. candidissima, in the same collection, from its leaves, appears to be nothing more than C. sanguínea.
Properties and Uses. The common British dogwood, being frequent in woods and old hedges, in almost every part of the island, and being also very common on the Continent, and especially in the northern parts of Europe, has long been applied to various useful purposes. The wood, which is hard, though not nearly so much so as that of Córnus más, was formerly used for mill-cogs, and for various purposes in rustic carpentry; and it still makes excellent skewers for butchers, toothpicks, and similar articles. In the days when bows and arrows were used as muskets are now, arrows were formed of the young wood. In France, the young wood is formed into ramrods; and in various parts of the Continent, particularly in Germany and Russia, it is bored and used as tubes to pipes. It makes excellent fuel, and the very best charcoal for gunpowder. The fruit, which, like the bark and leaves, is bitter and styptic, when treated like that of the olive, yields an oil, at the rate of 34 lb. of oil to 100 lb. of fruit; which is used, in France, in the manufacture of soap, and for lamps. Miller states that, in his time, the berries were often brought to market, and sold for those of the buckthorn. The bark tastes like apples.
3. C. ALBA L. The white-fruited Dogwood. Identification. Lin. Mant., p. 40.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 399.; Lodd. Cat., edit. 1836, Synonymes. C. stolonifera Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 109.; C. tatárica Mill. Icon., t. 104., Amm. Ruth., t. 32. Engravings. Pall. FI. Ross., i. t. 34.; Mill. Icon., t. 104.; and our fig. 762.
Spec. Char., &c. Branches recurved. Branchlets glabrous. Leaves ovate, acute, pubescent, hoary beneath. Corymbs depressed. Branches of a fine red colour. Fruit white, or bluish white. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 399.) It is a native of Siberia, at the rivers Oby and Irtysch, among bushes, &c.; of North America, from Virginia to Canada, on the banks of rivers and lakes; and also of North California. A shrub, growing from 4 ft. to 10 ft. high, and flowering from May to July. It was introduced in 1741, and is common in shrubberies, where it is interesting in summer from
its fine large leaves, and white flowers; in autumn, from its white fruit, which are about the size and colour of those of the mistletoe; and in the winter and spring, from the fine red of its young shoots. Sir W. J. Hooker says of this species of Córnus, that it is the only one of the group to which it belongs that he received from British North America; and that it appears to him that C. stricta, C. paniculàta, and C. sericea, and also some states of C. circinata, are too nearly allied to be made separate species. (Fl. Bor. Amer., i. p. 276.)
C. a. 2 circinata Don's Mill., iii. p. 399.; C. circinàta Cham. et Schlecht. in Linnæa., iii. p. 139.; has the berries of a lead colour, according to Dr. Richardson; who further says they are named by the Cree Indians musquameena, because the bears fatten upon them; and meethquan-peemeenattick and meenisan, red-stick berry; and that pigeons are fond of them: they are also considered a good stomachic. A native throughout Canada, and from Lake Huron to lat. 69° N., Newfoundland, and the north-west coast of America; but not yet introduced.
C. a. 3 sibirica Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836, has the shoots of a fine orange red, covered with a delicate bloom. It makes a splendid appearance in the winter season.
4. C. (A.) STRICTA Lam. The straight-branched Dogwood.
Identification. Lam. Dict., 3. p. 116.; Don's Mill., S. p. 399.
Synonymes. C. fastigiata Mich. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 92. and Lodd. Cat., edit. 1836; C. sanguinea
Spec. Char., &c. Branches straight, fas-
C. (a.) s. 2 asperifòlia Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836, if not identical with the species, differs from it but very slightly.
C. (a.) s. 3 sempervirens Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836, closely resembles the species, but differs from it in retaining its leaves throughout a part of the winter. There are plants of both these varieties in the arboretum of the Messrs. Loddiges.
5. C. (A.) PANICULATA L'Hérit. The panicled-flowering Dogwood. Identification. L'Hérit. Corn., No. 10. t. 5.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 398.; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1886. Synonymes. C. racemòsa Lam. Dict., 2. p. 116.; C. foe'mina Mill. Dict., No. 4.; C. citrifolia Hort. Par.
Engravings. L'Hérit. Corn., No. 10. t. 5.; Schmidt Baum., 2. t. 68.; and our fig. 765. Spec. Char., &c. Branches erect. Leaves ovate, acuminated, glabrous, hoary beneath. Corymb thyrsoid. Ovarium silky. Branches pale purplish. Pomes roundish, depressed, watery, white, 3 lines in diameter. The dots on the under side of the leaves, which are only seen through a lens, bear bicuspidate,
short, adpressed hairs. Tube of calyx pubescent. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 398.) A native of North America, from Canada to Carolina, rare; in swamps and near rivulets, among other bushes; where it forms a shrub, growing 4 ft. or 6 ft. high, flowering in July and August. In a cultivated state, it forms a low tree, 20 ft. or 25 ft. high. Introduced in 1758, and common in collections. There is a plant of this sort at Kew, which is 10 ft. high; one at Ham House is 25 ft. high, the diameter of the trunk 8 in., and of the head 21 ft. In Scotland, in Fifeshire, in Danibristle Park, it is 12 ft. high; and in Perthshire, at Taymouth, 20 ft. high, and the diameter of the head 25 ft.
6. C. (A.) SERI CEA L'Hérit. The silky Dogwood.
Identification. L'Hérit. Corn., No. 6. t. 2.; Don's Mill, 3. p. 399.; Lodd. Cat., edit. 1836.
Engravings. Schmidt Baum., 2. t. 64.; and our fig. 766.
Spec. Char., &c. Branches spreading. Branchlets woolly. Leaves ovate, acuminated, clothed with rusty pubescence beneath. Corymbs depressed, woolly. Pomes bright blue. Nut compressed. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 399.) A native of North America, from Canada to Carolina, in swampy woods and on river banks. It is a shrub, growing from 5 ft. to 8 ft. high, flowering in June and July. Introduced in 1683. The plant in the arboretum at Kew is 8 ft. high. This sort is very distinct from the two preceding ones, and comes nearer, in general appearance, to C. álba than they
do; but it is a weaker plant, and smaller in all its parts than that species. The two preceding sorts, C. (a.) stricta and C. (a.) paniculata, have much narrower leaves, and a more compact fastigiate habit of growth, than any other species or variety of the genus. C. (a.) paniculata is the handsomest of the three sorts for a small garden, as it is easily kept of a small size, and in a neat shape, and it flowers profusely.
C. (a.) s. 2 oblongifolia Dec. Prod., iv. p. 272.; C. oblongifòlia Rafin. in Litt.; has leaves oblong and glabrous above.
C. (a.) s. 3 asperifolia Dec. Prod., iv. p. 272., Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836; C. asperifolia Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., i. p. 93. - Leaves oval, acuminated, rough above from minute stiff pubescence, and rather tomentose beneath. It is a native of Lower Carolina, in shady woods. This variety is, in all probability, identical with C. (a.) stricta asperifòlia Lodd. Cat., noticed p. 1012; but, as the plants in the Hackney arboretum, with this name appended to them, are not rough above, we have thought it worth while to retain the description of Michaux's variety in this place.
7. C. (A.) CIRCINATA L'Herit. The rounded-leaved Dogwood. Identification. L'Hérit. Corn., p. 7. No. 8. t. 3.; Hook. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 276.; Don's Mill, 3. p. 399.; Lodd. Cat., edit. 1836.
Synonymes. C. tomentosa Michx. Fl. Bor. Amer., 1. p. 91. ; C. rugòsa Lam. Dict., 2. p. 115.; C. virginiana Hort. Par. Engravings. Schmidt Baum., 2. t. 69. ; and our fig. 767.
Spec. Char., &c.
Branches warted. Leaves broadly oval, acuminated, clothed with hoary tomentum beneath. Corymbs depressed, spreading. Branches slightly tinged with red. Leaves broad, waved on their edges. Flowers white, as in most of the species. Pomes globose, at first blue, but at length becoming white. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 399.) A native of North America, from Canada to Virginia, on the banks of rivers; and probably of California. A shrub, growing from 5 ft. to 10 ft. high, flowering in June and July. Introduced in 1784, and not unfrequent in collections.
There are plants in the Horticultural Society's Garden, and in the collection of Messrs. Loddiges, which are readily distinguished from those of all the other sorts, by their broader leaves, and their rough warted branches.
8. C. OBLO'NGA Wall. The oblong-leaved Dogwood.
Identification. Wall, in Roxb. Fl. Ind., 1. p. 432; Den's Mill., 3. p. 398.
Spec. Char., &c. Leaves oblong, acuminated, acute at the base, glaucous, and rather scabrous beneath, with many excavated glands along the axils of the ribs and nerves. Corymbs spreading, panicled. Young shoots clothed with short adpressed hair. Leaves 4-6 in. long, and 1 to 1 in. broad Petioles about an inch long. Flowers white or pale purplish, fragrant. Calyx clothed with adpressed silvery hairs, as well as the pedicels and petals. Ovarium 3-celled. Pome ovate-oblong. (Don's Mill., iii. p. 398.) A native of Nepal, about Narainhetty, Katmandu, and the Valley of Dhoon; where it forms a tree, growing from 10 ft. to 15 ft. in height. It is said to have been introduced in 1818; but we have never seen it.
C. macrophylla Wall. has broad, ovate, acuminated leaves, and small pomes, about the size of black pepper. It is a native of the Himalaya Mountains, but it is not yet introduced.
C. excélsa H. B. et Kunth (Don's Mill., 3. p. 399.) is a native of the environs of Mexico, and is closely allied to C. sanguínca; but only dried specimens of it have yet been seen in Britain.
ii. Involucrata Dec.
Derivation. From involucrum, an involucre, with which the heads of flowers are severally sur. rounded.
Sect. Char. Flowers disposed in heads or umbels, surrounded by coloured involucres, which are usually composed of 4 leaves. (Dec. Prod., iv. p. 273.)
A. Trees with white capitate Flowers.
C. disciflora Moc. et Sesse (Dec. Prod., 4. p. 273.; C. grandis Cham. et Schlecht.) has smooth branches, with lanceolate leaves, and ovate fruit. It is a native of Mexico, near Jalapa, but has not yet been introduced.
C. japonica Thunb., Viburnum japonicum Spreng., is a native of Japan, with ovate-acuminated leaves, and fruit crowned by a very short permanent style, red, smooth, and rather acid. Not yet in. troduced.
B. Trees with yellow, umbelled, Flowers.
9. C. MA's L. The male Dogwood, the Cornel, or Cornelian Cherry Tree. Identification. Lin. Sp., 171.; Don's Mill., 3. p. 400.; Lodd. Cat., ed. 1836. Synonymes. C. máscula L'Hérit. Corn., No. 4., Guimp. Abb., t. 2., Hayne Term. Bot., t. 35., Fl. Græc., t. 151., Schmidt Baum., 2. t. 63., Lam Ill., t. 74. f. 1., Kniph. Cent., 1. t. 18.; Long Cherry Tree; Cornelia; Cornouiller mâle, Cornes, Corneilles, Fr.; Kornel Kirsche Hartriegel, Ger. Derivation. The name of más has been applied to this species since the days of Theophrastus; in all probability, because young plants are barren for many years after they show flowers; these flowers being furnished with stamens only. For an opposite reason, the name of Cornus fo'mina was given to C. sanguínea. (See p. 1010.) The name of Cornelian Cherry relates to the beautiful colour of the fruit, which resembles that of a cornelian.
Engravings. Black., t. 121.; Plenck. Icon., t. 35.; our fig. 768.; and the plate in Vol. II. Spec. Char., &c. Branches smoothish. Leaves oval, acuminated, rather pubescent on both surfaces. Flowers protruded before the leaves. Umbels about equal in length to the 4-leaved involucre. Flowers yellow.